HOME

TheInfoList




Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existen ...
,
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes abo ...
, and
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a or one. This may be to carry out, resist or undo a . It is a type of and may involve , or both. Definitions of the term are s ...
regarding concerns for
environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and non-living things occurring , meaning in this case not . The term is most often applied to the or s ...
and improvement of the health of the
environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...
, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter. While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics, ecologism combines the ideology of
social ecologySocial ecology may refer to: * Social ecology (academic field), the study of relationships between people and their environment, often the interdependence of people, collectives and institutions * Social ecology (Bookchin), a theory about the relati ...
and environmentalism. ''Ecologism'' is more commonly used in continental European languages, while ''environmentalism'' is more commonly used in English but the words have slightly different connotations. Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloud cover, cloudy. On Earth, most weather phenomena ...

climate
, and may be referred to as a movement to control
pollution Pollution is the introduction of s into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or energy (such as radioactivity, heat, sound, or light). s, the components of po ...

pollution
or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a
land ethic A land ethic is a philosophy or theoretical framework about how, ethically, humans should regard the land. The term was coined by Aldo Leopold (1887–1948) in his '' A Sand County Almanac'' (1949), a classic text of the environmental movement. Th ...
,
environmental ethics In environmental philosophy, environmental ethics is an established field of practical philosophy "which reconstructs the essential types of argumentation that can be made for protecting natural entities and the sustainable use of natural resour ...
,
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and of . Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the , , and level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the , which is the result of the warm and high . Biodiversity is not distributed ev ...

biodiversity
,
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers at the individual, , , , an ...
, and the
biophilia hypothesis The biophilia hypothesis (also called BET) suggests that humans possess an innate tendency to seek connections with nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus ...
figure predominantly. At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is d ...

sustainability
. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the colour
green Green is the between and on the . It is evoked by light which has a of roughly 495570 . In systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by a combination of yellow and ; in the , used on television and computer screens, ...
, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as
greenwashing Greenwashing (a compound word modelled on " whitewash"), also called "green sheen", is a form of marketing spin in which green PR (green values) and green marketing are deceptively used to persuade the public that an organization's products, a ...

greenwashing
. Environmentalism is opposed by
anti-environmentalism Anti-environmentalism is a movement that favors loose environmental regulation in favor of economic benefits and opposes strict environmental regulation aimed at preserving nature and the planet. Anti-environmentalists seek to persuade the public ...
, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
or opposing human advancement.


Definitions

''Environmentalism'' denotes a
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wh ...
that seeks to influence the political process by lobbying, activism, and education in order to protect natural resources and
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
s. An ''
environmentalist An environmentalist is a person who is concerned with and/or advocates for the protection of the environment. An environmentalist can be considered a supporter of the goals of the environmental movement The environmental movement (sometimes ...
'' is a person who may speak out about our natural environment and the sustainable management of its resources through changes in public policy or individual behaviour. This may include supporting practices such as informed consumption, conservation initiatives, investment in
renewable resources File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion resource depletion, depleted by usage and consumption, either through natural rep ...
, improved efficiencies in the materials economy, transitioning to new accounting paradigms such as
ecological economics Ecological economics, bioeconomics, ecolonomy, eco-economics, or ecol-econ is both a transdisciplinary Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic Holism (from Greek Greek m ...
, renewing and revitalizing our connections with non-human life or even opting to have one less child to reduce consumption and pressure on resources. In various ways (for example, grassroots activism and protests), environmentalists and
environmental organisation An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the Conservation movement, conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or environmental degradation, degradation Huma ...
s seek to give the natural world a stronger voice in human affairs. In general terms, environmentalists advocate the
sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered nam ...

sustainable
management of resources, and the protection (and restoration, when necessary) of the
natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all life, living and non-living things occurring nature, naturally, meaning in this case not Artificiality, artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth. Th ...

natural environment
through changes in public policy and individual behaviour. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered around
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers at the individual, , , , an ...
,
health Health, according to the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each ...

health
, and
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
.


History

A concern for environmental protection has recurred in diverse forms, in different parts of the world, throughout history. The earliest ideas of environment protectionism can be traced in
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion. It is one of the oldest Indian religions. The three main pillars of Jainism are ''Ahimsa in Jainism, ahiṃsā'' (non-violence), ''anekāntavāda'' (non-absolut ...

Jainism
, which was revived by
Mahavira Mahavira ( sa, महावीर:), also known as Vardhamana, was the 24th ''Tirthankara In Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion and the method of acquiring perfect knowledge ...

Mahavira
in 6th century BC in ancient India. Jainism offers a view that may seem readily compatible with core values associated with environmental activism, i.e., protection of life by
nonviolence Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an outcome and it may refer to a g ...
; which could form strong ecological ethos adding its voice to global calls for protection of the environment. His teachings on the symbiosis between all living beings and the five elements—earth, water, air, fire, and space—form the basis of environmental sciences today. In Europe,
King Edward I Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England ...

King Edward I
of England banned the burning of
sea-coal
sea-coal
by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke had become a problem. The fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Earlier in the Middle East, the
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman ( ar, أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ; 573 CE23 August 634 CE) was a Sahabah, companion and, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Prophets and messengers in I ...
in the 630s commanded his army to "Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire," and "Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food." Arabic medical treatises during the 9th to 13th centuries dealing with environmentalism and
environmental science Environmental science is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several oth ...
, including pollution, were written by
Al-Kindi Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (; ar, أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; la, Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَب ...
,
Qusta ibn Luqa Qusta ibn Luqa (820–912) (Costa ben Luca, Constabulus) was a Syrian Melkite The term Melkite (), also written Melchite, refers to various Eastern Christianity, Eastern Christian churches of the Byzantine Rite and their members originating in t ...

Qusta ibn Luqa
, Al-Razi,
Ibn Al-Jazzar Ahmed Bin Jaafar Bin Brahim Ibn Al Jazzar Al-Qayrawani (895 – 979) ( ar, أبو جعفر أحمد بن أبي خالد بن الجزار القيرواني), was an influential 10th-century Muslim Arab physician who became famous for his writing ...

Ibn Al-Jazzar
, al-Tamimi,
al-Masihi Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani ( fa, ابو سهل عيسى‌ بن‌ يحيى مسيحی گرگانی) was a Persians, Persian physician,Firoozeh Papan-Matin, ''Beyond death: the mystical teachings of ʻAyn al-Quḍāt al-Hamadhānī ...
,
Avicenna Ibn Sina ( fa, ابن سینا), also known as Abu Ali Sina (), Pur Sina (), and often known in the West as Avicenna (;  – June 1037), was a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia' ...

Avicenna
,
Ali ibn Ridwan Abu'l Hassan Ali ibn Ridwan Al-Misri () (c. 988 - c. 1061) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic g ...
, Ibn Jumay,
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon Isaac Israeli ben Solomon (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judean ...
, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, and
Ibn al-Nafis Ala-al-Din abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm (/ Abi-Haram) al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East ...

Ibn al-Nafis
. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution,
water pollution Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of water bodies ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...

water pollution
,
soil contamination Soil contamination, soil pollution, or land pollution as a part of land degradation Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. ...
,
municipal solid waste Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, ...
mishandling, and
environmental impact assessment Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. In this context, the term "environmental impact asse ...
s of certain localities.


Early environmental legislation

The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of
smoke Smoke is a collection of airborne and es emitted when a material undergoes or , together with the quantity of air that is or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted of fires (including s, s, s, s, and s), but may als ...

smoke
pollution Pollution is the introduction of s into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or energy (such as radioactivity, heat, sound, or light). s, the components of po ...

pollution
in the
atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in ...

atmosphere
during the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. The emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of
air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, ...

air pollution
in industrial centers; after 1900 the large volume of industrial
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...

chemical
discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. The first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution (
gaseous Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...
hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid +(aq) Cl−(aq) or H3O+ Cl− also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution An aqueous solution is a solution Solution may refer to: * Solution (chemistry) Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, upMaking a salin ...

hydrochloric acid
) given off by the
Leblanc process The Leblanc process was an early industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that c ...
, used to produce
soda ash Sodium carbonate, , (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals) is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2CO3 and its various hydrates. All forms are white, water-soluble salts that yield moderately alkaline solutions in water. H ...
. An Alkali inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb this pollution. The inspectorate's responsibilities were gradually expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order 1958 which placed all major heavy industries that emitted
smoke Smoke is a collection of airborne and es emitted when a material undergoes or , together with the quantity of air that is or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted of fires (including s, s, s, s, and s), but may als ...

smoke
, grit, dust and fumes under supervision. In industrial cities, local experts and reformers, especially after 1890, took the lead in identifying
environmental degradation Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological facto ...
and pollution, and initiating grass-roots movements to demand and achieve reforms. Typically the highest priority went to water and air pollution. The Coal Smoke Abatement Society was formed in 1898 making it one of the oldest environmental NGOs. It was founded by artist Sir
William Blake Richmond Sir William Blake Richmond KCB, , PPRBSA (29 November 184211 February 1921) was a British painter, sculptor and a designer of stained glass and mosaic. He is best known for his portrait work and decorative mosaics in St Paul's Cathedral in Lond ...
, frustrated with the pall cast by coal smoke. Although there were earlier pieces of legislation, the
Public Health Act 1875 The Public Health Act 1875c 55 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the of the , the and the . It alone possesses and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK ...
required all furnaces and fireplaces to consume their own smoke. It also provided for sanctions against factories that emitted large amounts of black smoke. This law's provisions were extended in 1926 with the Smoke Abatement Act to include other emissions, such as soot, ash, and gritty particles, and to empower local authorities to impose their own regulations. During the Spanish Revolution, anarchist-controlled territories undertook several environmental reforms, which were possibly the largest in the world at the time. Daniel Guerin notes that anarchist territories would diversify crops, extend
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...

irrigation
, initiate
reforestation Reforestation (occasionally, reafforestation) is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation, but also after clearcutting. Reforestation can be ...
, start tree nurseries and help to establish naturist communities. Once there was a link discovered between air pollution and tuberculosis, the CNT shut down several metal factories. It was only under the impetus of the
Great Smog The Great Smog of London, or Great Smog of 1952, was a severe air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ...
of 1952 in London, which almost brought the city to a standstill and may have caused upward of 6,000 deaths, that the
Clean Air Act 1956 The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliber ...
was passed and airborne pollution in the city was first tackled. Financial incentives were offered to householders to replace open coal fires with alternatives (such as installing gas fires) or those who preferred, to burn coke instead (a byproduct of town gas production) which produces minimal smoke. 'Smoke control areas' were introduced in some towns and cities where only smokeless fuels could be burnt and power stations were relocated away from cities. The act formed an important impetus to modern environmentalism and caused a rethinking of the dangers of environmental degradation to people's quality of life. The late 19th century also saw the passage of the first wildlife conservation laws. The zoologist
Alfred Newton Alfred Newton FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resource ...

Alfred Newton
published a series of investigations into the ''Desirability of establishing a 'Close-time' for the preservation of indigenous animals'' between 1872 and 1903. His advocacy for legislation to protect animals from hunting during the mating season led to the formation of the
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the pu ...
and influenced the passage of the Sea Birds Preservation Act in 1869 as the first nature protection law in the world.


First environmental movements

Early interest in the environment was a feature of the
Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mas ...
in the early 19th century. One of the earliest modern pronouncements on thinking about human industrial advancement and its influence on the environment was written by Japanese geographer, educator, philosopher and author
Tsunesaburo Makiguchi
Tsunesaburo Makiguchi
in his 1903 publication ''Jinsei Chirigaku'' (''A Geography of Human Life''). In Britain the poet
William Wordsworth William Wordsworth (7 April 177023 April 1850) was an English Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of ...

William Wordsworth
travelled extensively in the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...

Lake District
and wrote that it is a "sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy". Systematic efforts on behalf of the environment only began in the late 19th century; it grew out of the amenity movement in Britain in the 1870s, which was a reaction to
industrialisation Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is b ...
, the growth of cities, and worsening air and
water pollution Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of water bodies ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...

water pollution
. Starting with the formation of the Commons Preservation Society in 1865, the movement championed rural preservation against the encroachments of industrialisation.
Robert HunterRobert Hunter may refer to: Arts *Robert Hunter (painter) (died 1780), Irish portrait painter *Robert Hunter (encyclopædist) (1823–1897), British editor of the ''Encyclopædic Dictionary'' *Robert Hunter (author) (1874–1942), American sociolog ...
, solicitor for the society, worked with
Hardwicke Rawnsley Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley (29 September 1851 – 28 May 1920) was an Anglican priest, poet, local politician and conservationist. He became nationally and internationally known as one of the three founders of the National Trust for Places of His ...
,
Octavia Hill Octavia Hill (3 December 1838 – 13 August 1912) was an English social reformer A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered s ...

Octavia Hill
, and
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphys ...

John Ruskin
to lead a successful campaign to prevent the construction of railways to carry slate from the quarries, which would have ruined the unspoiled valleys of Newlands and
Ennerdale
Ennerdale
. This success led to the formation of the Lake District Defence Society (later to become The Friends of the Lake District)."Canon Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley"
, Visitcumbria.com, accessed 17 May 2009
Peter Kropotkin Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (; russian: link=no, Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин ; 9 December 1842 – 8 February 1921) was a Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ...

Peter Kropotkin
wrote about ecology in
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
,
agricultural science Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ...
,
conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation may also refer to: Environment and natural resources * Nature conservation, the protection and manageme ...
,
ethology Ethology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is ...
, criminology, urban planning, geography, geology and biology. He observed in Swiss and Siberian glaciers that they had been slowly melting since the dawn of the industrial revolution, possibly making him one of the first predictors for climate change. He also observed the damage done from deforestation and hunting. Kropotkin's writings would become influential in the 1970s and became a major inspiration for the
intentional community An intentional community is a voluntary residential community A residential community is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a ...
movement as well as his ideas becoming the basis for the theory of
social ecologySocial ecology may refer to: * Social ecology (academic field), the study of relationships between people and their environment, often the interdependence of people, collectives and institutions * Social ecology (Bookchin), a theory about the relati ...
. In 1893 Hill, Hunter and Rawnsley agreed to set up a national body to coordinate environmental conservation efforts across the country; the "National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty" was formally inaugurated in 1894."A Proposed National Trust", ''The Times'', 17 July 1894, p. 12 The organisation obtained secure footing through the 1907 National Trust Bill, which gave the trust the status of a statutory corporation. and the bill was passed in August 1907."An Act to incorporate and confer powers upon the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty"
, The National Trust, accessed 4 June 2012
An early "Back-to-Nature" movement, which anticipated the romantic ideal of modern environmentalism, was advocated by intellectuals such as
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphys ...

John Ruskin
,
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, artist, novelist, architectural conservationist, printer, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement ...

William Morris
,
George Bernard Shaw George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range ...

George Bernard Shaw
and
Edward Carpenter Edward Carpenter (29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was an English utopian socialist Utopian socialism is the term often used to describe the first current of modern socialism Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social p ...
, who were all against
consumerism Consumerism is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
,
pollution Pollution is the introduction of s into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or energy (such as radioactivity, heat, sound, or light). s, the components of po ...

pollution
and other activities that were harmful to the natural world. The movement was a reaction to the urban conditions of the industrial towns, where sanitation was awful, pollution levels intolerable and housing terribly cramped. Idealists championed the rural life as a mythical
utopia A utopia ( ) typically describes an imaginary community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identi ...

utopia
and advocated a return to it. John Ruskin argued that people should return to a "small piece of English ground, beautiful, peaceful, and fruitful. We will have no steam engines upon it ... we will have plenty of flowers and vegetables ... we will have some music and poetry; the children will learn to dance to it and sing it." Practical ventures in the establishment of small cooperative farms were even attempted and old rural traditions, without the "taint of manufacture or the canker of artificiality", were enthusiastically revived, including the
Morris dance Morris dancing is a form of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventua ...
and the
maypole A maypole is a tall wooden pole erected as a part of various European folk festivals, around which a maypole dance often takes place. The festivals may occur on 1 May or Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50t ...

maypole
. These ideas also inspired various environmental groups in the UK, such as the
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the pu ...
, established in 1889 by
Emily Williamson Emily Williamson, ''née'' Bateson (17 April 1855 – 12 January 1936), was an English philanthropist. She was co-founder of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) with Eliza Phillips in 1891. The society started as the Plumage Le ...
as a protest group to campaign for greater protection for the indigenous birds of the
island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, i ...

island
. The Society attracted growing support from the suburban middle-classes as well as support from many other influential figures, such as the
ornithologist Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the "methodological study and consequent knowledge of birds with all that relates to them." Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and th ...
Professor
Alfred Newton Alfred Newton FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resource ...

Alfred Newton
. By 1900, public support for the organisation had grown, and it had over 25,000 members. The
garden city movement The garden city movement is a method of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design ...
incorporated many environmental concerns into its
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
manifesto; the Socialist League and
The Clarion ''The Clarion'' was a weekly newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can ...

The Clarion
movement also began to advocate measures of
nature conservation Nature conservation is the moral philosophy and conservation movement The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resource , ...
. The movement in the United States began in the late 19th century, out of concerns for protecting the natural resources of the West, with individuals such as
John Muir John Muir ( ; April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914), also known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, crea ...

John Muir
and
Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817May 6, 1862) was an American naturalist, essayist, poet, and philosopher. A leading Transcendentalism, transcendentalist, he is best known for his book ''Walden'', a reflection upon simple living in natural s ...

Henry David Thoreau
making key philosophical contributions. Thoreau was interested in peoples' relationship with nature and studied this by living close to nature in a simple life. He published his experiences in the book ''
Walden ''Walden'' (; first published in 1854 as ''Walden; or, Life in the Woods'') is a book by American transcendentalist writer Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817May 6, 1862) was an American naturalist, essay An essa ...

Walden
'', which argues that people should become intimately close with nature. Muir came to believe in nature's inherent right, especially after spending time hiking in
Yosemite Valley Yosemite Valley ( ; ''Yosemite'', Miwok for "killer") is a U-shaped valley, glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California. The valley is about long and deep, surroun ...

Yosemite Valley
and studying both the ecology and geology. He successfully lobbied congress to form
Yosemite National Park Yosemite National Park ( ) is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natur ...

Yosemite National Park
and went on to set up the
Sierra Club The Sierra Club is an environmental organization An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the Conservation movement, conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against m ...
in 1892. The conservationist principles as well as the belief in an inherent right of nature were to become the bedrock of modern environmentalism. In the 20th century, environmental ideas continued to grow in popularity and recognition. Efforts were starting to be made to save some wildlife, particularly the
American bison The American bison or simply bison (''Bison bison''), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is an American species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

American bison
. The death of the last
passenger pigeon The passenger pigeon or wild pigeon (''Ectopistes migratorius'') is an Bird extinction, extinct species of Columbidae, pigeon that was endemic to North America. Its common name is derived from the French word ''passager'', meaning "passing by", ...

passenger pigeon
as well as the endangerment of the American bison helped to focus the minds of conservationists and to popularise their concerns. In 1916, the
National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mecha ...
was founded by US President
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
. The
Forestry Commission The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department Non-ministerial government departments (NMGDs) are a type of Departments of the Government of the United Kingdom, department of the Government of the United Kingdom that deal ...
was set up in 1919 in Britain to increase the amount of woodland in Britain by buying land for
afforestation Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation Forestation is either growing existing forests (proforestation) or establishing forest growth on areas that either had forest or lacked it naturally. In the first ...
and
reforestation Reforestation (occasionally, reafforestation) is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation, but also after clearcutting. Reforestation can be ...
. The commission was also tasked with promoting forestry and the production of timber for trade. During the 1920s the Commission focused on acquiring land to begin planting out new forests; much of the land was previously used for agricultural purposes. By 1939 the Forestry Commission was the largest landowner in Britain. During the 1930s the Nazis had elements that were supportive of animal rights, zoos and wildlife, and took several measures to ensure their protection. In 1933 the government created a stringent animal-protection law and in 1934, ''Das Reichsjagdgesetz'' (The Reich Hunting Law) was enacted which limited hunting. Several Nazis were environmentalists (notably
Rudolf Hess Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987) was a German politician and a leading member of the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany. Appointed Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler in 1933, Hess served in that position ...
), and species protection and
animal welfare Animal welfare is the well-being of non-human animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as ...
were significant issues in the regime. In 1935, the regime enacted the "Reich Nature Protection Act" (''Reichsnaturschutzgesetz''). The concept of the ''Dauerwald'' (best translated as the "perpetual forest") which included concepts such as
forest management Forest management is a Topic outline of forestry#Branches of forestry, branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, legal, economic, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, forest protectio ...
and protection was promoted and efforts were also made to curb
air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, ...

air pollution
. In 1949, ''
A Sand County Almanac ''A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There'' is a 1949 non-fiction book by American ecologist Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living org ...
'' by
Aldo Leopold Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American author, philosopher, naturalist, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin A university () is an ed ...
was published. It explained Leopold's belief that humankind should have moral respect for the environment and that it is unethical to harm it. The book is sometimes called the most influential book on conservation. Throughout the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and beyond, photography was used to enhance public awareness of the need for protecting land and recruiting members to environmental organisations.
David Brower David Ross Brower (; July 1, 1912 – November 5, 2000) was a prominent environmentalist Image:Voynet Montreuil 2008-01-06.jpg, Dominique Voynet, 2008 An environmentalist is a person who is concerned with and/or advocates for the protection ...
,
Ansel Adams Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American landscape photographer and environmentalist known for his black-and-white images of the American West The Western United States (also called the American West, the Fa ...

Ansel Adams
and
Nancy Newhall Nancy Wynne Newhall (May 9, 1908 – July 7, 1974) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA ...
created the Sierra Club Exhibit Format Series, which helped raise public environmental awareness and brought a rapidly increasing flood of new members to the Sierra Club and to the environmental movement in general. ''This Is Dinosaur'', edited by
Wallace Stegner Wallace Earle Stegner (February 18, 1909 – April 13, 1993) was an American novelist A novelist is an author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information ...
with photographs by Martin Litton and Philip Hyde, prevented the building of dams within
Dinosaur National Monument Dinosaur National Monument is an National monument (United States), American national monument located on the southeast flank of the Uinta Mountains on the border between Colorado and Utah at the confluence of the Green River (Colorado River trib ...
by becoming part of a new kind of activism called environmentalism that combined the conservationist ideals of Thoreau, Leopold and Muir with hard-hitting advertising, lobbying, book distribution, letter writing campaigns, and more. The powerful use of photography in addition to the written word for conservation dated back to the creation of
Yosemite National Park Yosemite National Park ( ) is an American national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natur ...

Yosemite National Park
, when photographs persuaded Abraham Lincoln to preserve the beautiful glacier carved landscape for all time. The Sierra Club Exhibit Format Series galvanised public opposition to building dams in the
Grand Canyon The Grand Canyon (, yuf-x-yav, Wi:kaʼi:la, , ) is a steep-sided canyon A canyon (; archaic British English spelling: ''cañon'') or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosion, erosive ...

Grand Canyon
and protected many other national treasures. The Sierra Club often led a coalition of many environmental groups including the Wilderness Society and many others. After a focus on preserving wilderness in the 1950s and 1960s, the Sierra Club and other groups broadened their focus to include such issues as air and water pollution, population concern, and curbing the
exploitation of natural resources The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be c ...
.


Post-war expansion

In 1962, ''
Silent Spring ''Silent Spring'' is an environmental science Environmental science is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a resea ...

Silent Spring
'' by American biologist
Rachel Carson Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservation movement, conservationist whose influential book ''Silent Spring'' (1962) and other writings are credited with advancing the ...
was published. The book cataloged the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of
DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others bein ...

DDT
in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on human health and ecology. The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause
cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biolo ...

cancer
and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. The resulting public concern led to the creation of the
United States Environmental Protection Agency The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters. President Richard Nixon pro ...
in 1970 which subsequently banned the agricultural use of DDT in the US in 1972. The limited use of DDT in
disease vector A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often known to be medical ...
control continues to this day in certain parts of the world and remains controversial. The book's legacy was to produce a far greater awareness of environmental issues and interest into how people affect the environment. With this new interest in environment came interest in problems such as air pollution and petroleum spills, and environmental interest grew. New pressure groups formed, notably
Greenpeace Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning network. The network comprises 26 independent national/regional organisations in over 55 countries across Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, as well as a co-ordinating body, Green ...

Greenpeace
and Friends of the Earth (US), as well as notable local organisations such as the Wyoming Outdoor Council, which was founded in 1967. In the 1970s, the environmental movement gained rapid speed around the world as a productive outgrowth of the
counterculture A counterculture is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilitie ...
movement. The world's first political parties to campaign on a predominantly environmental platform were the
United Tasmania Group The United Tasmania Group (UTG) is generally acknowledged as the world's first Green party to contest elections. The party was formed on 23 March 1972, during a meeting of the Lake Pedder Action Committee (LPAC) at the Hobart Town Hall in orde ...
of
Tasmania, Australia Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland, separated from it by Bass Strait. T ...
, and the
Values Party The Values Party was a New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language firs ...
of New Zealand.Bevan, RA (2001), Petra Kelly: The Other Green, New Political Science, vol. 23, no. 2, November, pp. 181–202 The first green party in Europe was the Popular Movement for the Environment, founded in 1972 in the Swiss canton of
Neuchâtel , neighboring_municipalities= Auvernier Auvernier is a village in the district of Boudry (district), Boudry in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Neuchâtel (canton), Neuchâtel in Switzerland. The municipalities of Auvernier, Bôle and Co ...

Neuchâtel
. The first national green party in Europe was PEOPLE, founded in Britain in February 1973, which eventually turned into the
Ecology Party The Ecology Party was a political party in the United Kingdom. It succeeded the PEOPLE Party after a name change in 1975. The Ecology Party was the second step for Green politics in Britain and the basis of the successor Green Party (UK), Green P ...
, and then the
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
. Protection of the environment also became important in the
developing world A developing country is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, ...
; the
Chipko movement The Chipko movement or chipko andolan, was a forest conservation movement The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resource ...
was formed in India under the influence of and they set up peaceful resistance to
deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

deforestation
by literally hugging trees (leading to the term "tree huggers"). Their peaceful methods of protest and slogan "ecology is permanent economy" were very influential. Another milestone in the movement was the creation of
Earth Day Earth Day is an annual event on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and n ...

Earth Day
. Earth Day was first observed in San Francisco and other cities on 21 March 1970, the first day of spring. It was created to give awareness to environmental issues. On 21 March 1971, United Nations Secretary-General U Thant spoke of a
spaceship Earth Spaceship Earth (or Spacecraft Earth or Spaceship Planet Earth) is a worldview encouraging everyone on Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface i ...

spaceship Earth
on Earth Day, hereby referring to the
ecosystem services Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits to humans provided by the natural environment and from healthy ecosystems An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which the ...
the earth supplies to us, and hence our obligation to protect it (and with it, ourselves). Earth Day is now coordinated globally by the
Earth Day Network Earth Day is an annual event on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First held on April 22, 1970, it now includes a wide range of events coordinated globally by EARTHDAY.ORG (formerly Earth Day Network) including 1 bil ...
, and is celebrated in more than 192 countries every year. The UN's first major conference on international environmental issues, the
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that ...
(also known as the Stockholm Conference), was held on 5–16 June 1972. It marked a turning point in the development of international environmental politics.John Baylis, Steve Smith. 2005. The Globalization of World Politics (3rd ed). Oxford. Oxford University Press. pp. 454–55 By the mid-1970s, many felt that people were on the edge of environmental catastrophe. The
back-to-the-land movement A back-to-the-land movement is any of various agrarianism, agrarian movements across different historical periods. The common thread is a call for people to take up smallholding and to grow food from the land with an emphasis on a greater degree of ...
started to form and ideas of environmental ethics joined with
anti-Vietnam War Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War{{native name, vi, Chiến tranh Việt Nam , partof = the Indochina Wars and the Cold War , image ...
sentiments and other political issues. These individuals lived outside normal society and started to take on some of the more radical environmental theories such as
deep ecology Deep ecology is an environmental philosophy that promotes the inherent worth of all living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, and the restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas. Deep ecolo ...

deep ecology
. Around this time more mainstream environmentalism was starting to show force with the signing of the
Endangered Species Act The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA or "The Act"; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction Extinction is the te ...
in 1973 and the formation of
CITES CITES (shorter name for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty A multilateral treaty is a treaty A treaty is a formal, leg ...

CITES
in 1975. Significant amendments were also enacted to the United States Clean Air Act and
Clean Water Act The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country. A federal government is formed when a group of political units, such as state (subnational), states or province ...
. In 1979,
James Lovelock James Ephraim Lovelock (born 26 July 1919) is a British independent scientist An independent scientist (historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientifi ...
, a British scientist, published ''Gaia: A new look at life on Earth'', which put forth the
Gaia hypothesis The Gaia Paradigm , also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embo ...
; it proposes that life on earth can be understood as a single organism. This became an important part of the Deep Green ideology. Throughout the rest of the history of environmentalism there has been debate and argument between more radical followers of this Deep Green ideology and more mainstream environmentalists.


21st century and beyond

Environmentalism continues to evolve to face up to new issues such as global warming, Human overpopulation, overpopulation, genetic engineering, and plastic pollution. Research demonstrates a precipitous decline in the US public's interest in 19 different areas of environmental concern. Americans are less likely be actively participating in an environmental movement or organisation and more likely to identify as "unsympathetic" to an environmental movement than in 2000. This is likely a lingering factor of the Great Recession in 2008. Since 2005, the percentage of Americans agreeing that the environment should be given priority over economic growth has dropped 10 points; in contrast, those feeling that growth should be given priority "even if the environment suffers to some extent" has risen 12 percent. Nevertheless, a recent ''National Geographic'' survey indicated strong desire for commitment across a dozen countries, indicating a majority were in favour of more than half of the Earth's land surface being protected.


New forms of ecoactivism

Tree sitting is a form of activism in which the protester sits in a tree in an attempt to stop the removal of a tree or to impede the demolition of an area with the longest and most famous tree-sitter being Julia Butterfly Hill, who spent 738 days in a California Redwood, saving a three-acre tract of forest. Also notable is the Yellow Finch tree sit, which was a 932-day blockade of the Mountain Valley Pipeline from 2018-2021. Sit-in can be used to encourage social change, such as the Greensboro sit-ins, a series of protests in 1960 to stop racial segregation, but can also be used in ecoactivism, as in the Dakota Access Pipeline Protest. Before the Syrian Civil War, Rojava had been ecologically damaged by monoculture, oil extraction, damming of rivers,
deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

deforestation
, drought, Erosion, topsoil loss and general pollution. The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, DFNS launched a campaign titled 'Make Rojava Green Again' (a parody of Make America Great Again) which is attempting to provide renewable energy to communities (especially Solar Energy Generating Systems, solar energy),
reforestation Reforestation (occasionally, reafforestation) is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation, but also after clearcutting. Reforestation can be ...
, protecting water sources, planting gardens, promoting urban agriculture, creating Nature reserve, wildlife reserves, Reclaimed water, water recycling, beekeeping, expanding Public Transportation, public transportation and promoting environmental awareness within their communities. The Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities are firmly environmentalist and have stopped the extraction of oil, uranium, timber and metal from the Lacandon Jungle and stopped the use of pesticides and Fertilizer, chemical fertilisers in farming. The CIPO-RFM has engaged in sabotage and direct action against wind farms, shrimp farms, Eucalyptus, eucalyptus plantations and the timber industry. They have also set up corn and coffee worker cooperatives and built schools and hospitals to help the local populations. They have also created a network of autonomous community radio stations to educate people about dangers to the environment and inform the surrounding communities about new industrial projects that would destroy more land. In 2001, the CIPO-RFM defeated the construction of a highway that was part of Plan Puebla Panama.


Environmental movement

The ''environmental movement'' (a term that sometimes includes the conservation movement, conservation and Green politics, green movements) is a diverse scientific, Social movement, social, and political movement. Though the movement is represented by a range of organisations, because of the inclusion of environmentalism in the classroom curriculum, the environmental movement has a younger demographic than is common in other social movements (see green seniors). Environmentalism as a movement covers broad areas of institutional oppression, including for example: consumption of ecosystems and natural resources into waste, dumping waste into disadvantaged communities, air pollution, water pollution, weak infrastructure, exposure of organic life to toxins, mono-culture, anti-polythene drive (jhola movement) and various other focuses. Because of these divisions, the environmental movement can be categorized into these primary focuses:
environmental science Environmental science is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several oth ...
, environmental activism, environmental advocacy, and environmental justice.


Free market environmentalism

Free market environmentalism is a theory that argues that the free market, property rights, and tort law provide the best tools to preserve the health and
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is d ...

sustainability
of the environment. It considers environmental stewardship to be natural, as well as the expulsion of polluters and other aggressors through individual and class action.


Evangelical environmentalism

Evangelical environmentalism is an environmental movement in the United States in which some Evangelicalism, Evangelicals have emphasized Bible, biblical mandates concerning humanity's role as steward and subsequent responsibility for the care taking of Creation. While the movement has focused on different environmental issues, it is best known for its focus of addressing climate action from a biblically grounded theology, theological perspective. This movement is controversial among some non-Christian environmentalists due to its rooting in a specific religion.


Preservation and conservation

Environmental preservation in the United States and other parts of the world, including Australia, is viewed as the setting aside of natural resources to prevent damage caused by contact with humans or by certain human activities, such as logging, mining, hunting, and fishing, often to replace them with new human activities such as tourism and recreation. Regulations and laws may be enacted for the preservation of natural resources.


Organisations and conferences

Environmental organisations can be global, regional, national or local; they can be government-run or private (NGO). Environmentalist activity exists in almost every country. Moreover, groups dedicated to community development and social justice also focus on environmental concerns. Some US environmental organisations, among them the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Environmental Defense Fund, specialise in bringing lawsuits (a tactic seen as particularly useful in that country). Other groups, such as the US-based National Wildlife Federation,
Earth Day Earth Day is an annual event on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and n ...

Earth Day
, National Cleanup Day, the Nature Conservancy, and The Wilderness Society (United States), The Wilderness Society, and global groups like the World Wide Fund for Nature and Friends of the Earth, disseminate information, participate in Hearing (law), public hearings, Lobbying, lobby, Demonstration (people), stage demonstrations, and may purchase land for Nature reserve, preservation. Statewide nonprofit organisations such as the Wyoming Outdoor Council often collaborate with these national organisations and employ similar strategies. Smaller groups, including Wildlife Conservation International, conduct research on endangered species and ecosystems. More radical organisations, such as
Greenpeace Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning network. The network comprises 26 independent national/regional organisations in over 55 countries across Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, as well as a co-ordinating body, Green ...

Greenpeace
, Earth First!, and the Earth Liberation Front, have more directly opposed actions they regard as environmentally harmful. While Greenpeace is devoted to nonviolent confrontation as a means of bearing witness to environmental wrongs and bringing issues into the public realm for debate, the underground ''Earth Liberation Front'' engages in the clandestine destruction of property, the release of caged or penned animals, and other criminal acts. Such tactics are regarded as unusual within the movement, however. On an international level, concern for the environment was the subject of a
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that ...
in Stockholm in 1972, attended by 114 nations. Out of this meeting developed the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the follow-up Earth Summit, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Other international organisations in support of environmental policies development include the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (as part of NAFTA), the European Environment Agency (EEA), and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).


Environmental protests

Notable environmental protests and campaigns include: * 2010 Xinfa aluminum plant protest * Anti-WAAhnsinns Festival * Car-Free Days * Camp for Climate Action * Campaign against Climate Change * Climate Rush * Cofán people#Oil drilling, Cofán people oil drilling protest (Ecuador) *
Earth Day Earth Day is an annual event on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and n ...

Earth Day
* Earth First! * Earthlife Africa * Global Climate Strike (disambiguation), Global Climate Strikes * Global Day of Action * Gurindji Strike * Hands off our Forest * Homes before Roads * Kupa Piti Kungka Tjuta * Love Canal protests * March Against Monsanto * Nevada Desert Experience * Plane Mad * Plane Stupid * Qidong protest * Save Manapouri Campaign * Say Yes demonstrations * Shifang protest * Stop Climate Chaos


Environmentalists

Notable advocates for
environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and non-living things occurring , meaning in this case not . The term is most often applied to the or s ...
and
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is d ...

sustainability
include: * Edward Abbey (author) * David Attenborough (broadcaster, naturalist) * John James Audubon (naturalist) * Judi Bari (environmentalist) * Frances Beinecke (environmentalist and former president of the Natural Resources Defense Council) * David Bellamy (botanist) * Wendell Berry (farmer, philosopher) * Murray Bookchin (anarchist, philosopher, social ecologist) * Erin Brockovich (environmental lawyer and activist) *
David Brower David Ross Brower (; July 1, 1912 – November 5, 2000) was a prominent environmentalist Image:Voynet Montreuil 2008-01-06.jpg, Dominique Voynet, 2008 An environmentalist is a person who is concerned with and/or advocates for the protection ...
(writer, activist) * Lester Brown (environmental analyst, author) * Carol Browner (lawyer and activist) * Kevin Buzzacott (Aboriginal activist) * Berta Caceres (environmental and indigenous rights activist) * Helen Caldicott (medical doctor) *
Rachel Carson Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservation movement, conservationist whose influential book ''Silent Spring'' (1962) and other writings are credited with advancing the ...
(biologist, writer) * Majora Carter (urban revitalization strategist) * Charles, Prince of Wales, Prince Charles (British Royal Family member) * Barry Commoner (biologist, politician) * Jacques-Yves Cousteau (explorer, ecologist) * Herman Daly (Ecological economics, ecological economist and Steady-state economy#Herman Daly's concept of a steady-state economy, steady-state theorist) * Peter Dauvergne (political scientist) * Laurie David (activist and producer) * Marina DeBris (environmental artist) * Leonardo DiCaprio (actor and environmentalist) * Sylvia Earle (marine biologist) * Elizabeth Economy (China environment expert) * Paul R. Ehrlich (population biologist) * Hans-Josef Fell (German Alliance '90/The Greens, Green Party member) * Jane Fonda (actor) * Josh Fox (filmmaker, environmental activist) * Mizuho Fukushima (politician, activist) * Peter Garrett (musician, politician) * Jane Goodall (primatologist, anthropologist, and United Nations Messengers of Peace, UN Messenger of Peace) * Lois Gibbs (Founder of the Center for Health, Environment and Justice) * Al Gore (former Vice President of the United States) * Daryl Hannah (activist) * James Hansen (scientist) * Garrett Hardin (ecologist, ecophilosopher) * Denis Hayes (environmentalist and solar power advocate) * Julia Butterfly Hill (activist) * Robert Hunter (journalist), Robert Hunter (journalist, co-founder and first president of
Greenpeace Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning network. The network comprises 26 independent national/regional organisations in over 55 countries across Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, as well as a co-ordinating body, Green ...

Greenpeace
) * Tetsunari Iida (sustainable energy advocate) * Lisa P. Jackson (chemical engineer and former administrator of the
United States Environmental Protection Agency The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters. President Richard Nixon pro ...
) * Naomi Klein (writer, activist) * Winona LaDuke (environmentalist) *
Aldo Leopold Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American author, philosopher, naturalist, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin A university () is an ed ...
(ecologist) * A. Carl Leopold (plant physiologist) *
James Lovelock James Ephraim Lovelock (born 26 July 1919) is a British independent scientist An independent scientist (historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientifi ...
(scientist) * Amory Lovins (energy policy analyst) * Hunter Lovins (environmentalist) * Caroline Lucas (politician) * Wangari Maathai (activist and Nobel laureate) * Jarid Manos (CEO of the Great Plains Restoration Council) * Xiuhtezcatl Martinez (environmental activist, hip-hop artist) * Bill McKibben (writer, activist) * David McTaggart (activist) * Chico Mendes (activist) * Joni Mitchell (musician, environmental activist) * George Monbiot (journalist) *
John Muir John Muir ( ; April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914), also known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, crea ...

John Muir
(naturalist, activist) * Ralph Nader (activist) * Gaylord Nelson (politician) * Alan Pears (environmental consultant and Efficient energy use, energy efficiency pioneer) * Gifford Pinchot (first chief of the United States Forest Service, USFS) * Jonathon Porritt (politician) * John Wesley Powell (second director of the United States Geological Survey, USGS) * Barbara Pyle (documentarian and executive producer of ''Captain Planet and the Planeteers'') * Phil Radford (environmental, clean energy and democracy advocate,
Greenpeace Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning network. The network comprises 26 independent national/regional organisations in over 55 countries across Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, as well as a co-ordinating body, Green ...

Greenpeace
Executive Director) * Bonnie Raitt (musician) * Theodore Roosevelt (former President of the United States) * Habiba Sarobi (politician and activist) * E. F. Schumacher (author of ''Small Is Beautiful'') * Simran Sethi (environmental journalist) * Vandana Shiva (ecofeminist and activist) * Marina Silva (politician and activist) * Alicia Silverstone (activist and author of ''The Kind Diet'') * Lauren Singer (activist and entrepreneur) * Swami Sundaranand (Yogi, photographer, and mountaineer) * Cass Sunstein (environmental lawyer) * David Suzuki (scientist, broadcaster) *
Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817May 6, 1862) was an American naturalist, essayist, poet, and philosopher. A leading Transcendentalism, transcendentalist, he is best known for his book ''Walden'', a reflection upon simple living in natural s ...

Henry David Thoreau
(writer, philosopher) * Greta Thunberg (environmentalist) * Stewart Udall (former United States Secretary of the Interior) * Jo Valentine, Baroness Valentine, Jo Valentine (politician and activist) * Dominique Voynet (politician and environmentalist) * Christopher O. Ward (water infrastructure expert) * Alice Waters (activist and restaurateur) * Gabriel Willow (environmental educator, naturalist) * Howard Zahniser (author of the 1964 Wilderness Act)


Assassinations

Every year, more than 100 environmental activists are murdered throughout the world. Most recent deaths are in Brazil, where activists combat logging in the Amazon rainforest. 116 environmental activists were assassinated in 2014, and 185 in 2015. This represents more than two environmentalists assassinated every week in 2014 and three every week in 2015. More than 200 environmental activists were assassinated worldwide between 2016 and early 2018. A 2020 incident saw several rangers murdered in the Congo Rainforest by poaching squads. Occurrences like this are relatively common, and account for a large number of deaths.


In popular culture

* The U.S. Forest Service created Smokey the Bear in 1944; he appeared in countless posters, radio and television programs, movies, press releases, and other guises to warn about forest fires. * The comic strip ''Mark Trail'', by environmentalist Ed Dodd, began in 1946; it still appears weekly in 175 newspapers. * The children's animated show ''Captain Planet and the Planeteers'', created by Ted Turner and Barbara Pyle in 1989 to inform children about environmental issues. The show aired for six seasons and 113 episodes, in 100 countries worldwide from 1990 to 1996. * In 1974, Spokane, Washington, Spokane, State of Washington, Washington, became the smallest city ever to host a World's Fair. From Saturday, 4 May, to Sunday, 3 November 1974, Spokane hosted Expo 74, the first world's fair to focus on the environment. The theme of Expo 74 was "Celebrating Tomorrow's Fresh New Environment". * ''FernGully: The Last Rainforest'' is an animated motion picture released in 1992, which focuses exclusively on the environment. The movie is based on a book under the same title by Diana Young. In 1998, a sequel, ''FernGully 2: The Magical Rescue'', was introduced. * Miss Earth is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants. (The other three are Miss Universe, Miss International, and Miss World.) Out of these four beauty pageants, Miss Earth is the only international beauty pageant that promotes "environmental awareness". The reigning titleholders dedicate their year to promote specific projects and often address issues concerning the environment and other global issues through school tours, tree planting activities, street campaigns, coastal clean ups, speaking engagements, shopping mall tours, media guesting, environmental fair, storytelling programs, eco-fashion shows, and other environmental activities. The Miss Earth winner is the spokesperson for the Miss Earth Foundation, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and other environmental organizations. The Miss Earth Foundation also works with the environmental departments and ministries of participating countries, various private sectors and corporations, as well as
Greenpeace Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning network. The network comprises 26 independent national/regional organisations in over 55 countries across Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, as well as a co-ordinating body, Green ...

Greenpeace
and the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF). * Another area of environmentalism is to use art to raise awareness about misuse of the environment. One example is trashion, using trash to create clothes, jewelry, and other objects for the home. Marina DeBris is one trashion artist, who focuses on ocean and beach trash to design clothes and for fund raising, education.


Criticism and alternative views

Many environmentalists believe that human interference with 'nature' should be restricted or minimised as a matter of urgency (for the sake of life, or the planet, or just for the benefit of the human species), whereas environmental skeptics and anti-environmentalists do not believe that there is such a need. One can also regard oneself as an environmentalist and believe that human 'interference' with 'nature' should be ''increased''. Nevertheless, there is a risk that the shift from emotional environmentalism into the technical management of natural resources and hazards could decrease the touch of humans with nature, leading to less concern with environment preservation. Increasingly, typical conservation rhetoric is being replaced with restoration approaches and larger landscape initiatives that seek to create more holistic impacts. American medical graduate, author and social commentator Michael Crichton criticized environmentalism as being religiously motivated rather than empirical evidence, arguing that
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
was a natural part of Earth's history and had been occurring long before humans dominated the planet. Also claiming to argue from his minor education in anthropology, he stated that religion was a part of human social make-up and that if it was suppressed, it would simply re-emerge in another form. With the decline of Christianity and Church attendance in the Western world, environmentalism has become more popular according to him, which he termed as "the religion of urban atheists". Others seek a balance that involves both caring deeply for the environment while letting science guide human actions affecting it. Such an approach would avoid the emotionalism which, for example, anti-genetically modified organism, GMO activism has been criticized for, and protect the integrity of science. Planting trees, for another example, can be emotionally satisfying but should also involve being conscious of scientific concerns such as the effect on water cycles and the use of nonnative, potentially invasive species.


See also

* Conservation ethic * Conservation movement * Counterculture of the 1960s * Bioconservatism * Car-free movement * Deep ecology * Ecomodernism * Eco-terrorism * Environmental art * Environmental law * Environmental movement * Environmental organizations * Environmental protection * Environmental racism * Environmental racism in Europe * Environmental sociology * Environmentalism in music * Filmography of environmentalism * Free-market environmentalism * Green economy * Greening * Green politics * Greenwashing * Ecotax, Green tax shift * Greenway (landscape) * Hairshirt environmentalism * Human impact on the environment * List of countries by ecological footprint * National Cleanup Day * Natural resource management * Permaculture * Population growth * Radical environmentalism * Religion and environmentalism * Slow movement (culture), Slow movement * Sustainability * World Cleanup Day * List of vegan media


References


Further reading

* Borowy, Iris. "Before UNEP: who was in charge of the global environment? The struggle for institutional responsibility 1968–72." ''Journal of Global History'' 14.1 (2019): 87-106. * Daynes, Byron W., and Glen Sussman, eds. ''White House Politics and the Environment: Franklin D. Roosevelt to George W. Bush'' (Texas A&M University Press; 2010) 300 pages; evaluates how 12 presidents helped or hindered the cause of environmental protection. * Johnson, Erik W., and Scott Frickel, (2011). "Ecological Threat and the Founding of U.S. National Environmental Movement Organizations, 1962–1998," ''Social Problems'' 58 (Aug. 2011), 305–29. * * * de Steiguer, J. Edward. 2006. ''The Origins of Modern Environmental Thought.'' University of Arizona Press. Tucson. 246 pp. * John McCormick (political scientist), John McCormick. 1995. The Global Environmental Movement. John Wiley. London. 312 pp. * Adam Tooze, Tooze, Adam, "Democracy and Its Discontents", ''The New York Review of Books'', vol. LXVI, no. 10 (6 June 2019), pp. 52–53, 56–57. "Democracy has no clear answer for the mindless operation of bureaucracy, bureaucratic and technology, technological power. We may indeed be witnessing its extension in the form of artificial intelligence and robotics. Likewise, after decades of dire warning, the environmental problem remains fundamentally unaddressed.... Bureaucratic overreach and environmental catastrophe are precisely the kinds of slow-moving existential challenges that democracies deal with very badly.... Finally, there is the threat du jour: corporations and the technologies they promote." (pp. 56–57.) * Marco Verweij and Michael Thompson (eds), 2006, ''Clumsy Solutions for a Complex World: Governance, Politics and Plural Perceptions'', Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, * Vogel, David. ''California Greenin': How the Golden State Became an Environmental Leader'' (2018) 280 pp
online review
* World Bank Group, World Bank, 2003
"Sustainable Development in a Dynamic World: Transforming Institutions, Growth, and Quality of Life"
World Development Report 2003, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Oxford University Press. * Woodhouse, Keith M. "The Politics of Ecology: Environmentalism and Liberalism in the 1960s," ''Journal for the Study of Radicalism,'' Volume 2, Number 2, 2009, pp. 53–84


External links

*
''Westland''
– A Canadian television series (1984–2007) on a broad range of environmental issues, from the UBC Library Digital Collections {{Authority control Environmentalism, Green politics Habitat Environmental social science concepts 1920s neologisms