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An endonym (from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal
name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. The entity identified by a name is called its referent A referent ...

name
for a
geographical place
geographical place
, group of people,
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
or
dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of Linguistics, linguistic phenomena: * One usage refers to a variety (linguis ...
, meaning that it is used inside that particular place, group, or linguistic community in question; it is their self-designated name for themselves, their homeland, or their language. An exonym (from Greek: , 'outer'; also known as xenonym) is a common, ''external'' name for a geographical place, group of people, individual person, or a language/dialect, that is used only outside that particular place, group, or linguistic community.Nordquist, Richard. 5 January 2018.
Exonym and Endonym
" ''
ThoughtCo Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American digital media Digital media means any media (communication), media that are encoded in Machine-readable data, machine-readable formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, distributed, modified, a ...
''. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
Exonyms exist not only for historico-geographical reasons, but also in consideration of difficulties when pronouncing foreign words. For instance, is the endonym for the country that is also known by the exonym ''
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
'' in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
and in .


Etymology

The terms ''autonym'', ''endonym'', ''exonym'' and ''xenonym'' are formed by adding specific
prefix A prefix is an affix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) ...
es to the Greek root word (, 'name'), from
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
'. The
prefix A prefix is an affix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) ...
es added to these terms are also derived from Greek: *autonym: (, 'self'); *endonym: (, 'within'); *exonym: (, 'outside'); and *xenonym: (, 'foreign'). The terms ''autonym'' and ''xenonym'' also had different applications, thus leaving ''endonym'' and ''exonym'' as the preferred forms.
Marcel Aurousseau Marcel Aurousseau BSc ( Syd.) MC ''C. de G.'' (19 April 1891 in Woollahra, Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the List of cities in ...
, an Australian
geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, feat ...
, first
TOC
used the term ''exonym'' in his work ''The Rendering of Geographical Names'' (1957). The term ''endonym'' was subsequently devised as a
retronym A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form/version from a more recent one. It is thus a word or phrase created to avoid confusion between two types, whereas previously (before there were more than one typ ...
ic
antonym In lexical semantics Lexical semantics (also known as lexicosemantics), as a subfield of linguistic Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods fo ...
for the term ''exonym''.


Typology

Endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
s and
exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
s can be divided in three main categories: *endonyms and exonyms of place names (
toponym Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''wikt: ...
s), *endonyms and exonyms of human names (
anthroponym Anthroponymy (also anthroponymics or anthroponomastics, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Age ...
s), including names of
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
s (
ethnonym An ethnonym (from the el, ἔθνος 'nation' and 'name') is a name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given ...
s), localised populations (
demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ...
s), and individuals (
personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of proper names. An ''wikt:orthonym, orthonym'' is the proper name of the object in question, the object of onomastic study. ...
s), *endonyms and exonyms of language names (
glossonym Linguonym (from la, lingua / language, and gr, ὄνομα / name) also known as glossonym (from grc, γλῶσσα / language) or glottonym (from Attic Greek: γλῶττα / language), is a linguistic term that designates a proper name of an i ...
s).


Endonyms and exonyms of toponyms

As it pertains to
geographical featureA feature, in the context of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The fir ...
s, the
United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and deals with the national and international standardization of geographical names. Ev ...
defines: *Endonym: "Name of a geographical feature in an official or well-established language occurring in that area where the feature is located." *Exonym: "Name used in a specific language for a geographical feature situated outside the area where that language is spoken, and differing in its form from the name used in an official or well-established language of that area where the geographical feature is located." For example, ''
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
'', ''
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
'', ''
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
'', and ''
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
'' are the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
-language exonyms corresponding to the endonyms ( hi, भारत, label=none), (), ( ar, مَصر, label=none), and ', respectively.


Endonyms and exonyms of glossonyms

In the case of endonyms and exonyms of language names (glossonyms), ''
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
,'' ''
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
'', and ''
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
'', for example, are English-language exonyms for the languages that are endonymously known as (), , and ''Nederlands'', respectively.


Exonyms in relation to endonyms

By their relation to endonyms, all exonyms can be divided in three main categories: *those derived from different roots, as in the case of Germany for ; *those that are
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
words, diverged only in
pronunciation Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful d ...
or
orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions b ...
; *those that are fully or partially translated (a
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

calque
) from the native language. Sometimes, a place name may be unable to use many of the letters when transliterated into an exonym because of the corresponding language’s lack of common sounds. Māori, having only one
liquid consonant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of s, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical properties of speech. Th ...
, is an example of this here.


Cognate exonyms

London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
(originally la, Londinium), for example, is known by the cognate exonyms: * in
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
,
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
, ,
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...
,
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
, and
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
; * () in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
; * in
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
; * in
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
,
Maltese Maltese may refer to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to Malta * Maltese alphabet * Maltese cuisine * Maltese culture * Maltese language, the Semitic language spoken by Maltese people * Maltese people, people from Malta or of Maltese ...
,
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
,
SardinianSardinian refers to anything related to the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean island of Sardinia. More specifically it can refer to: *Sardinian people *History of Sardinia *Sardinian language *Sardinian literature *Music of Sardinia *Cuisine of Sardin ...
and
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
; * in
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
; * in
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
and
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
; * in
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
; *''Rānana'' in Māori; * in
Icelandic Icelandic refers to anything of, from, or related to Iceland and may refer to: *Icelandic people *Icelandic language *Icelandic alphabet *Icelandic cuisine See also

* Icelander (disambiguation) * Icelandic Airlines, a predecessor of Icelandai ...
; * in
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
; * in
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
; * in
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
; * in
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
; * () in
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
; * () in
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
.


Translated exonyms

An example of a translated exonym is the name for the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
( in Dutch) used, respectively, in French (),
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
(),
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
() and Portuguese (), all of which mean "
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
".


Native and borrowed exonyms

Exonyms can also be divided into native and borrowed, i.e. from a third language. For example,
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
uses: *native exonyms: (
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
) and (
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
); and *borrowed exonyms: (...) A substantial proportion of English-language exonyms for places in
continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', lite ...

continental Europe
are borrowed (or adapted) from French; for example: *
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Belgrade
( sr, Београд, translit=Beograd); *
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
(german: Köln); *
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
( it, Firenze); *
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
(german: München); *
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
( it, Napoli); *
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
( es, Navarra / eu, Nafarroa); *
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
( cs, Praha); and *
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
( it, Roma).


Typical development of exonyms

According to James A. Matisoff, who introduced the term ''autonym'' into
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
: "Human nature being what it is, exonyms are liable to be pejorative rather than complimentary, especially where there is a real or fancied difference in cultural level between the ingroup and the outgroup." For example, Matisoff notes, "an opprobrious term indicating mixed race or parentage" is the Palaung name for
Jingpo people The Jinghpaw people are an ethnic group who are the largest subset of the Kachin peoples, which largely inhabit the Kachin Hills in northern Myanmar's Kachin State and neighbouring Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture of China and Northea ...
and the Jingpo name for
Chin people The human chin (also known as the mental protuberance, mental eminence and, rarely, mental osseum, tuber symphyseos) is the forward pointed part of the anterior mandible (List_of_human_anatomical_regions#Regions, mental region) below the lower li ...
; both the Jingpo and Burmese use the Chinese word ('' zh, c=野人, s=, t=, p=, l=wild men, savage, rustic people, labels=no'') as the name for
Lisu people The Lisu people ( Lisu: ; my, လီဆူလူမျိုး, ; ; th, ลีสู่Lisu may refer to: *Lisu people The Lisu people (Lisu language, Lisu: ; my, လီဆူလူမျိုး, ; ; th, wikt:ลีสู่, ลี ...

Lisu people
. Matisoff, James A. 1986. "The languages and dialects of Tibeto-Burman: an alphabetic/genetic listing, with some prefatory remarks on ethnonymic and glossonymic complications." I
''Contributions to Columbian-Tibetan Studies, presented to Nicholas C. Bodman''
edited by J. McCoy and T. Light. Leiden:
Brill Brill may refer to: Places * Brielle , Dutch Topographic map of Brielle, June 2015 Brielle (), also called Den Briel (Brill in English) is a town, municipality and historic seaport in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, o ...
. p. 6.
Exonyms develop for places of significance for speakers of the language of the exonym. Consequently, many European capitals have English exonyms, for example: *
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
( el, Αθήνα, translit=Athína); *
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Belgrade
( sr, Београд, translit=Beograd); *
Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), cente ...

Bucharest
( ro, București); *
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
(french: Bruxelles, nl, Brussel); *
Copenhagen Copenhagen ( da, København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of 1 January 2021, the city had a population of 799,033 (638,117 in Copenhagen Municipality, 103,677 in Frederiksberg Municipality, 42,670 in Tårnby Municipal ...

Copenhagen
( da, København); *
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
( pt, Lisboa); *
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
(russian: Москва, translit=Moskva); *
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
( cs, Praha); *
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
( it, Roma); *
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
(german: Wien); and *
Warsaw Warsaw, * la, Varsovia (Polish language, Polish: ''Warszawa'' ), officially the Capital City of Warsaw, is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland, largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula, River Vistula in e ...

Warsaw
( pl, Warszawa). In contrast, historically, less-prominent capitals such as, for instance,
Ljubljana Ljubljana (also known by other historical names) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more for ...

Ljubljana
and
Zagreb Zagreb ( , , , ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Zagreb
, do not have English exonyms, but do have exonyms in languages spoken nearby, e.g.
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
: and (the latter being obsolete);
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
: ''Lubiana'' and ''Zagabria''.
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
,
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
,
Oslo Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and small ...

Oslo
, and
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
, with identical names in most major European languages, are exceptions. Some European cities might be considered partial exceptions, in that whilst the spelling is the same across languages, the pronunciation can differ. For example, the city of
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
is spelled the same way in French and English, but the French pronunciation [] is different from the English pronunciation []. For places considered to be of lesser significance, attempts to reproduce local names have been made in English since the time of the Crusades. [ ivorno, for instance, was ''Leghorn'' because it was an Italian port essential to English merchants and, by the 18th century, to the British Navy; not far away,
Rapallo Rapallo ( , , ) is a municipality in the Metropolitan City of Genoa The Metropolitan City of Genoa ( it, Città Metropolitana di Genova) is one of the fourteen Metropolitan cities of Italy The metropolitan cities of Italy (Italian: ''città me ...

Rapallo
, a minor port on the same sea, never received an exonym. In earlier times, the name of the first tribe or village encountered became the exonym for the whole people beyond. Thus the Romans used the tribal names (Greek) and (Germanic), the Russians used the village name of ''
ChechenChechen may refer to: *Chechens, an ethnic group of the Caucasus *Chechen language *Metopium brownei, also known as the chechen, chechem, or black poisonwood tree *Related to Chechnya (Chechen Republic) *Related to the former Chechen Republic of Ich ...
'', medieval Europeans took the tribal name ''
Tatar The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar." Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...

Tatar
'' as emblematic for the whole
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongol
ic confederation (and then confused it with ''Tartarus'', a word for
Hell In religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may o ...

Hell
, to produce '' Tartar''), and the Magyar invaders were equated with the 500-years-earlier
Hun The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Hun
nish invaders in the same territory, and were called ''Hungarians''. The
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
invaders of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
applied the word "
Walha ''Walhaz'' is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germanic word meaning "Roman", "Romance-speaker" or "(romanized) Celt". The term was used by the ancient Germanic peoples to describe inhabitants of the former Roman Empire, who wer ...
" to foreigners they encountered and this evolved in West Germanic languages as a generic name for all non-Germanic speakers; thence, the names
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found ...
,
Vlachs "Vlach" ( or ), also "Wallachian" (and many other variants), is a historical term and exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
,
Wallonia Wallonia (; french: link=no, Wallonie ; wa, link=no, Waloneye; german: link=no, Wallonien or ; nl, link=no, Wallonië ) is one of the three regions In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description" ...

Wallonia
,
Walloons Walloons (; french: Wallons ; wa, Walons) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, ...
,
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a historic county and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ar ...

Cornwall
,
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
,
Wallasey Wallasey () is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in Merseyside, England, on the mouth of the River Mersey, at the northeastern corner of the Wirral Peninsula, part of the Historic counties of England, historic county of Cheshir ...
,
Welche Welche is a Gallo-Romance The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or ...
in Alsace-Lorraine, and even the Polish name for Italy, .


Usage


In avoiding exonyms

During the late 20th century the use of exonyms often became controversial. Groups often prefer that outsiders avoid exonyms where they have come to be used in a
pejorative A pejorative or slur is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning ...
way. For example,
Romani people The Romani (also spelled Romany , ), colloquially known as Roma, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these ...

Romani people
often prefer that term to exonyms such as ''
Gypsy The Romani (also spelled Romany , ), colloquially known as Roma, are an Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic Itinerant groups in Europe, itinerants living mostly in Europe, and diaspora populations in the Amer ...
'' (from the name of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
), and the French term (from the name of
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
). People may also avoid exonyms for reasons of historical sensitivity, as in the case of German names for Polish and Czech places that, at one time, had been ethnically or politically German (e.g. Danzig/
Gdańsk Gdańsk ( , also ; ; german: Danzig ; csb, Gduńsk; , ) is a city on the Baltic Sea, Baltic coast of northern Poland. With a population of 470,805, Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and the most prominent c ...

Gdańsk
, Auschwitz/ and Karlsbad/Karlovy Vary); and Russian names for non-Russian locations that were subsequently renamed or had their spelling changed (e.g. Kiev/Kyiv). In recent years,
geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, feat ...
s have sought to reduce the use of exonyms to avoid this kind of problem. For example, it is now common for Spanish speakers to refer to the Turkey, Turkish capital as Ankara rather than use the Spanish exonym . According to the United Nations Statistics Division:
Time has, however, shown that initial ambitious attempts to rapidly decrease the number of exonyms were over-optimistic and not possible to realise in the intended way. The reason would appear to be that many exonyms have become common words in a language and can be seen as part of the language's cultural heritage.


In preference of exonyms

In some situations, the use of exonyms can be preferred. For instance, in multilingualism, multilingual cities such as
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
, which is known for its linguistic tensions between Dutch- and French-speakers, a neutral name may be preferred so as to not offend anyone. Thus an exonym such as Brussels in English could be used instead of favoring either one of the local names (
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
/Flemish: ; : ). Other difficulties with endonyms have to do with pronunciation, spelling, and part of speech, word category. The endonym may include sounds and spellings that are highly unfamiliar to speakers of other languages, making appropriate usage difficult if not impossible for an outsider. Over the years, the endonym may have undergone phonetics, phonetic changes, either in the original language or the borrowing language, thus changing an endonym into an exonym, as in the case of ''Paris'', where the ''s'' was formerly pronounced in French. Another example is the endonym for the German city of
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
, where the Latin original of has evolved into in German, while the Italian and Spanish exonym or the Portuguese closely reflects the Latin original. In some cases no standard language, standardised spelling is available either because the language itself is unwritten (even unanalysed) or because there are competing non-standard spellings. Use of a misspelled endonym is perhaps more problematic than the respectful use of an existing exonym. Finally, an endonym may be a plural noun and may not naturally extend itself to adjective phrase, adjectival usage in another language like English, which has a propensity to use the adjectives for describing culture and language. The attempt to use the endonym thus has a bizarre-sounding result.


Official preferences

Sometimes the government of a country tries to endorse the use of an endonym instead of traditional exonyms outside the country: *In 1782, Rama I, King Yotfa Chulalok of Rattanakosin Kingdom, Siam moved the government seat from Bangkok Yai District, Thonburi Province to Phra Nakhon District, Phra Nakhon Province. In 1972 the Thai government merged Thonburi and Phra Nakhon, forming the new capital, Krungthep Mahanakhon. However, outside of Thailand, the capital retained the old name and is still called Bangkok. *In 1935, Reza Shah requested that foreign nations use the name Iran rather than Persia in official correspondence. The name of the country had internally been Name of Iran, Iran since the time of the Sassanid Empire (224–651), whereas the name Persia is descended from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
('), referring to a single province which is officially known as Fars Province. *In 1949, the government of Siam changed the name to Thailand, although the former name's adjective in English (''Siamese'') was retained as the name for the Siamese fighting fish, fish, Siamese (cat), cat and conjoined twins. *In 1972, the government of Ceylon (the word is the anglicized form of Portuguese ) changed the name to Sri Lanka, although the name Ceylon was retained as the name for Ceylon tea, that type of tea. *In 1985, the government of Côte d'Ivoire requested that the country's French name be used in all languages instead of exonyms such as ''Ivory Coast'', so that Côte d'Ivoire is now the official English name of that country in the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee (see Côte d'Ivoire#Names, name of Côte d'Ivoire). In most non-Francophone countries, however, the French version has not entered common parlance. For example, in German the country is known as , in Spanish as and in Italian as . *In 1989, the government of Burma requested that the English name of the country be Myanmar, with ''Myanma'' as the adjective of the country and ''Bamar'' as the name of the inhabitants (see names of Burma). *The Government of India officially changed the English name of Bombay to Mumbai in November 1995, following a trend of Renaming of cities in India, renaming of cities and states in India that has occurred since independence. *The Ukraine, Ukrainian government maintains that the capital of Ukraine should be spelled ''Kyiv'' in English because the traditional English exonym ''Kiev'' was derived from the Russian name (') (see Name of Kyiv). *The Belarusian government argues that the endonym ''Belarus'' should be used in all languages. The result has been rather successful in English, where the former exonym ''Byelorussia''/''Belorussia'', still used with reference to the Byelorussian SSR, Soviet Republic, has virtually died out; in other languages exonyms like Danish , Dutch , Estonian , Faroese , Finnish , German , Greek (), Hungarian , Icelandic , Swedish , Turkish , Chinese ('), Arabic () (all literally 'White Russia'), or French , Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , and Serbian () are still much more common than ''Belarus''. *The government of Georgia (country), Georgia have been working to have the country renamed from the Russian-derived exonym of in foreign languages to ''Georgia''. Most countries have adopted this change, except for Lithuania, which adopted (a Lithuanianised version of the country's endonym). As a response, Georgia changed the name of Lithuania in Georgian from the Russian-derived (') to the endonym ('). Ukrainian politicians have also suggested that Ukraine change the Ukrainian name of Georgia from (') to ('). *In 2006, the South Korean national government officially changed the Chinese name of its capital, Seoul, from the exonym (') to ('). This use has now been made official within the People's Republic of China.


= Hanyu Pinyin

= Following the 1979 declaration of Hanyu Pinyin spelling as the standard romanisation of Chinese, many Chinese endonyms have successfully replaced English exonyms, especially city and most provincial names in mainland China, for example: Beijing ( zh, c=北京, s=, t=, p=Běijīng, labels=no), Qingdao ('' zh, c=青岛, s=, t=, p=Qīngdǎo, labels=no''), and the Province of Guangdong ('' zh, c=广东, s=, t=, p=Guǎngdōng, labels=no''). However, older English exonyms are sometimes used in certain contexts, for example: Peking (Beijing; Peking duck, duck, Peking opera, opera, etc.), Tsingtao (Qingdao), and Canton (Guangdong). In some cases the traditional English exonym is based on a local Chinese dialect instead of Mandarin, in the case of Xiamen, where the name Amoy is closer to the Hokkien pronunciation. In the case of ''Beijing'', the adoption of the exonym by media outlets quickly gave rise to a hyperforeignism, hyperforeignised pronunciation, with the result that many English speakers actualize the ''j'' in ''Beijing'' as . One exception of Pinyin standardization in mainland China is the spelling of the province Shaanxi, which is the Gwoyeu Romatzyh spelling of the province. That is because if Pinyin were used to spell the province, it would be indistinguishable from its neighboring province Shanxi, where the pronunciations of the two provinces only differ by tones, which are usually not written down when used in English. In Taiwan, however, the standardization of Hanyu Pinyin has only seen mixed results. In Taipei, most (but not all) street and district names shifted to Hanyu Pinyin. For example, the Sinyi District is now spelled Xinyi District, Taipei, Xinyi. However, districts like Tamsui District, Tamsui and even Taipei itself are not spelled according to Hanyu Pinyin spelling rules. As a matter of fact, most names of Taiwanese cities are still spelled using Chinese postal romanization, including Taipei, Taichung, Taitung City, Taitung, Keelung, and Kaohsiung.


Exonyms as pejoratives

Matisoff wrote, "A group's autonym is often egocentric, equating the name of the people with 'mankind in general,' or the name of the language with 'human speech'." In Basque language, Basque, the term ' is used for speakers of any language different from Basque (usually Spanish or French). Many millennia earlier, the Greeks thought that all non-Greeks were uncultured and so called them "barbarians", which eventually Berber (name), gave rise to the exonym "Berber people, Berber".


Slavic people

Exonyms often describe others as "foreign-speaking", "non-speaking", or "nonsense-speaking". The classic example is the Slavic languages, Slavic term for the Germans, , possibly deriving from a plural of ("mute"); standard etymology has it that the Slavic peoples referred to their Germanic neighbors as "mutes" because their language was unintelligible . The term survives to this day in: *Russian language, Russian (), *Bulgarian language, Bulgarian (), *Ukrainian language, Ukrainian (), *
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
, *
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
, *
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
,
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
and Serbo-Croatian (), *Montenegrin language, Montenegrin (), *Hungarian language, Hungarian (adopted from Slavic), *
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
(adopted from Slavic), *
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
(adapted from Slavic, referring specifically to Austria in this case) One of the more prominent theories regarding the origin of the term "Slav" suggests that it comes from the Slavic root (hence "Slovakia" and "Slovenia" for example), meaning 'word' or 'speech'. In this context, the Slavs are describing Germanic people as "mutes"—in contrast to themselves, "the speaking ones".


Native Americans

The most common names of several indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American tribes derive from pejorative exonyms. The name "Apache" most likely derives from a Zuni language, Zuni word meaning "enemy". The name "Sioux", an abbreviated form of , most likely derived from a Proto-Algonquian language, Proto-Algonquian term, ('foreign-speaking'). The name "Comanche" comes from the Ute language, Ute word meaning "enemy, stranger". The Ancestral Puebloans are also known as the "Anasazi", a Navajo language, Navajo word meaning "ancient enemies", and contemporary Puebloans discourage use of the exonym.Hewit, "Puebloan Culture"
, University of Northern Colorado
Various Native-American autonyms are sometimes explained to English readers as having literal translations of "original people" or "normal people", with implicit contrast to other first nations as not original or not normal.


Confusion with renaming


In Eurasia

Exonyms and endonyms must not be confused with the results of geographical renaming as in the case of Saint Petersburg, which became Petrograd (') in 1914, Leningrad (') in 1924, and again Saint Petersburg (', ) in 1991. In this case, although ''Saint Petersburg'' has a German etymology, it was never a German exonym for the city between 1914 and 1991, just as New Amsterdam, Nieuw Amsterdam, the Dutch name of New York City until 1664, is not its Dutch exonym. Old place names that have become outdated after renaming may afterwards still be used as historicisms. For example, even today one would talk about the Siege of Leningrad, not the Siege of St. Petersburg, because at that time (1941–1944) the city was called Leningrad. Likewise, one would say that Immanuel Kant was born in Königsberg in 1724, not in Kaliningrad ('), as it has been called since 1946. Likewise, Istanbul (Turkish: ) is still called (') in Greek, although the name was changed in Turkish to disassociate the city from its Greek past between 1923 and 1930 (the name Istanbul itself names of Istanbul#İstanbul, derives from a Medieval Greek phrase)."The Names of Kōnstantinoúpolis". Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi. 5. Ciltli. 1994. Prior to , the city was known in Greek as ( el, Βυζάντιον, la, Byzantiun), named after its mythical founder, Byzas.


In East Asia

Although the pronunciation for several names of Chinese cities such as Beijing and Nanjing has not changed for quite some while in Mandarin Chinese (although the prestige dialect shifted from Nanjing dialect to Beijing dialect during the 19th century), they were called Beijing, Peking and Nanjing, Nanking in English due to the older Chinese postal romanization convention, based largely on the Nanjing dialect, which was used for transcribing Chinese place names before Pinyin, based largely on the Beijing dialect became the official romanization method for Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin in the 1970s. Since the Mandarin pronunciation does not perfectly map to an English phoneme, English speakers using either romanization will not pronounce the names correctly if standard English pronunciation is used. Nonetheless, many older English speakers still refer to the cities by their older English names and even today they are often used in naming things associated with the cities like Peking opera, Peking duck, and Peking University to give them a more antiquated or more elegant feel. Like for Saint Petersburg, the historical event called the Nanking Massacre (1937) uses the city's older name because that was the name of the city at the time of occurrence. Likewise, many Korean cities like Busan and Incheon (formerly Busan, Pusan and Incheon, Inchǒn respectively) also underwent changes in spelling due to changes in romanization, even though the Korean pronunciations have largely stayed the same.


In India

The name Madras, now Chennai, may be Chennai#Etymology, a special case. When the city was first settled by English people, in the early 17th century, both names were in use. They possibly referred to different villages which were fused into the new settlement. In any case, Madras became the exonym, while more recently, Chennai became the endonym. Madrasi, a term for a native of the city, has often been used derogatorily to refer to the people of Dravidian origin from the southern states of India.


Lists of exonyms

*Latin exonyms * List of English exonyms **List of English exonyms for German toponyms, English exonyms for German toponyms **List of English translated personal names, English-translated personal names *List of French exonyms **List of French exonyms for Dutch toponyms, French exonyms for Dutch toponyms **List of French exonyms for German toponyms, French exonyms for German toponyms **List of French exonyms for Italian toponyms, French exonyms for Italian toponyms *List of German exonyms **German names for Central European towns **List of German exonyms for places in Belgium, German exonyms for places in Belgium **List of German exonyms for places in Croatia, German exonyms for places in Croatia **List of German exonyms for places in Denmark, German exonyms for places in Denmark **List of German exonyms for places in Estonia, German exonyms for places in Estonia **List of German exonyms for places in Hungary, German exonyms for places in Hungary **List of German exonyms for places in Latvia, German exonyms for places in Latvia **List of German exonyms for places in Slovakia, German exonyms for places in Slovakia **List of German place names for places in Switzerland, German exonyms for places in Switzerland *List of European exonyms **Names of European cities in different languages **Finnish exonyms **Greek exonyms **Italian exonyms **Portuguese exonyms **Icelandic exonyms **Romanian exonyms **Russian exonyms **Slavic toponyms for Greek places **Swedish exonyms **Welsh placenames#Welsh names for other places in Britain and Ireland, Welsh names for other places in Britain and Ireland *African / Asian / Middle-Eastern / Eurasian exonyms **Afrikaans exonyms **Arabic exonyms **List of Azerbaijani exonyms, Azerbaijani exonyms **List of Armenian exonyms, Armenian exonyms **Chinese exonyms **List of Japanese exonyms, Japanese exonyms **Turkish exonyms **Vietnamese exonyms


See also

*Emic and etic *-onym *Shibboleth


Other lists

*List of countries and dependencies and their capitals in native languages *List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names *List of language names *List of alternative country names *List of country names in various languages *List of Latin place names in Europe *List of European regions with alternative names *List of European rivers with alternative names *List of traditional Greek place names *List of Coptic placenames *Place names in Irish *Names of places in Finland in Finnish and in Swedish *List of renamed Indian cities and states


References


Citations


Sources

*Jordan, Peter, Hubert Bergmann, Caroline Burgess, and Catherine Cheetham, eds. 2010 & 2011. "Trends in Exonym Use." ''Proceedings of the 10th UNGEGN Working Group on Exonyms Meeting''. Tainach (28–30 April 2010). Hamburg (2011). ''Name & Place'' 1. *Jordan, Peter, Milan Orožen Adamič, and Paul Woodman, eds. 2007. "Exonyms and the International Standardisation of Geographical Names." ''Approaches towards the Resolution of an Apparent Contradiction''. Wien and Berlin. ''Wiener Osteuropastudien'' 24. *


External links


2006 UN document discussing exonyms (PDF)
*[http://translationdirectory.com/article103.htm "Does Juliet's Rose, by Any Other Name, Smell as Sweet?"] by Verónica Albin.
Looking up
in exonym database
European geographical names infrastructure and services (EuroGeoNames)UN document describing EuroGeoNames (PDF)World map of country endonyms
{{DEFAULTSORT:Exonym and endonym Exonyms, Onomastics Semantics Etymology Toponymy Place names Human names Ethnonyms Demonyms Language naming Geopolitical terminology Ethnicity