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Endemism is the state of a
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
being native to a single defined geographic location, such as an island, state, nation, country or other defined zone; organisms that are
indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. For example, the
Cape sugarbird The Cape sugarbird (''Promerops cafer'') is one of the eight bird species endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physic ...
is found exclusively in southwestern
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
and is therefore said to be ''endemic'' to that particular part of the world. The subject of the phenomenon of endemism, that is the ''endemic species'', is usually termed by extension as an ''endemism'' as well; however, it can be also referred with a proper noun in scientific literature as an ''endemite''. For example ''
Cytisus aeolicus ''Cytisus'' is a genus of flowering plants in the family (biology), family Fabaceae, native plant, native to open sites (typically shrubland, scrub and heathland) in Europe, western Asia and North Africa. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae, and ...
'' is an endemite of the Italian flora.Genetic diversity in Cytisus aeolicus Guss. (Leguminosae), a rare endemite of the Italian flora
/ref> '' Adzharia renschi'' was once believed to be an endemite of the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
, but it was later discovered to be a non-indigenous species from South America belonging to a different
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
. The extreme opposite of an endemic species is one with a
cosmopolitan distribution In biogeography Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geography, geographic space and through evolutionary history of life, geological time. Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular f ...
, having a global or widespread range. A rare alternative term for a species that is endemic is "precinctive", which applies to species (and other taxonomic levels) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. Other terms that sometimes are used interchangeably, but less often, include autochthonal, autochthonic, and indigenous, however these terms do not reflect the status of a species that specifically belongs only to a determined place.


Etymology


History of the concept

The word ''endemic'' is from
New Latin New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or modern Latin) is the revival of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
''endēmicus'', from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
ἔνδημος, ''éndēmos'', "native". ''Endēmos'' is formed of ''en'' meaning "in", and ''dēmos'' meaning "the people". The word entered the English language as a
loan word A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguis ...
from ''endémique'', and originally seems to have been used in the sense of diseases which occur at a constant amount in a country, as opposed to epidemic diseases, which are exploding in cases. The word was used in biology in 1872 to mean a species restricted to a specific location by
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin (; ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that fu ...

Charles Darwin
. The more uncommon term 'precinctive' has been used by some
entomologist Entomology () is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a ...

entomologist
s as the equivalent of 'endemic'. ''Precinctive'' was coined in 1900 by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian insects, as he was uncomfortable with the fact that the word '
endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gro ...
' is often associated with diseases. 'Precinctive' was first used in botany by
Vaughan MacCaughey Vaughan (2016 population 306,233) () is a city in Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location ...
in Hawaii in 1917.


Overview

Endemism in general excludes examples kept by humans in
botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...

botanical garden
s or
zoological park A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () i ...
s, as well as populations introduced outside of their native ranges. Juan J. Morrone states that a species may be endemic to any particular geographic region, regardless of size, thus the
cougar The cougar (''Puma concolor'') is a large cat The cat (''Felis catus'') is a domestic species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well a ...

cougar
is endemic to the Americas, however, endemism is normally used only where there is a considerable restriction in the area of distribution. All species are not endemics, some species may be cosmopolitan. All endemics are not necessarily rare -some might be common where they occur. All rare species are not necessarily endemics, some may have a large range but be rare throughout this range. Endemism is caused by historical and ecological factors.
Vicariant Allopatric speciation (from Ancient Greek ἄλλος, ''allos'', meaning "other", and πατρίς, ''patris'', "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of ...
events caused by drifting continents, dispersal and extinction are some possible historical factors. Ecological factors can explain the present limits on a distribution. Endemic species are especially likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, including
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, the
Galápagos Islands The Galápagos Islands (official name: , other Spanish language, Spanish name: , , ), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of High island, volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding ...
and
Socotra Socotra or Soqotra (; ar, سُقُطْرَىٰ ), located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of the four islands in the Socotra Archipelago. The territory is located near major shipping routes and is officially ...

Socotra
, because of the potential for isolation and therefore evolution through
allopatric speciation Allopatric speciation (from Ancient Greek ἄλλος, ''allos'', meaning "other", and πατρίς, ''patris'', "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of ...
.
Darwin's finches Darwin's finches (also known as the Galápagos finches) are a group of about 18 species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiver ...

Darwin's finches
in the Galápagos archipelago are examples of species endemic to islands. Similarly, isolated mountainous regions like the
Ethiopian Highlands The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit are ...
, or large bodies of water far from other lakes, like
Lake Baikal Lake Baikal (; russian: Oзеро Байкал, Ozero Baykal ; bua, Байгал далай, Baigal dalai; mn, Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur) is a rift lake A rift lake is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized i ...

Lake Baikal
, can also have high rates of endemism. The stability of a region's climate and habitat through time may also contribute to high rates of endemism (especially
paleoendemism Paleoendemism along with neoendemism Neoendemism is one of two sub-categories of endemism, the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location. Specifically, neoendemic species are those that have recently arisen, thr ...
), acting as refuges for species during times of climate change like
Ice Age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents an ...

Ice Age
s. These changes may have caused species to repeatedly restrict their ranges into these refuges, leading to regions with many small-ranged species. In many cases biological factors, such as low rates of dispersal or returning to the spawning area (
philopatryPhilopatry is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area. The causes of philopatry are numerous, but natal philopatry Natal homing, or natal philopatry, is the Homing (biology), homing process by which some adult ...
), can cause a particular group of organisms to have high speciation rates and thus many endemic species. for example,
cichlid Cichlids are fish from the family (biology), family Cichlidae in the order Cichliformes. Cichlids were traditionally classed in a suborder, the Labroidei, along with the wrasses (Labridae), in the order Perciformes, but molecular studies have co ...
s in the East African Rift Lakes have diversified into many more endemic species than the other fish families in the same lakes, possibly due to such factors. Plants which become endemic on isolated islands are often those which have a ''high'' rate of dispersal, and are able to reach such islands by being dispersed by birds. While birds are less likely to be endemic to a region based on their ability to disperse via flight, there are over 2,500 species which are considered endemic, meaning that the species is restricted to an area less than 5 million hectares.
Microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
s were traditionally not believed to form endemics. The hypothesis 'everything is everywhere', first stated in
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
by Lourens G.M. Baas Becking in 1934, describes the theory that the distribution of organisms smaller than 2mm is cosmopolitan where habitats occur that support their growth.


Subtypes

The first subcategories were first introduced by Claude P. E. Favager and Juliette Contandriopoulis in 1961: schizoendemics, apoendemics and patroendemics. Using this work,
Ledyard Stebbins George Ledyard Stebbins Jr. (January 6, 1906 – January 19, 2000) was an American botany, botanist and geneticist who is widely regarded as one of the leading evolutionary biology, evolutionary biologists of the 20th century. Stebbins receive ...
and
Jack Major John Charles "Jack" Major, (born February 20, 1931) is a Canadians, Canadian jurist and was a puisne justice on the Supreme Court of Canada from 1992 to 2005. Early life and education Born in Mattawa, Ontario, Major received a Bachelor of Commerc ...
then introduced the concepts of neoendemics and paleoendemics in 1965 to describe the endemics of
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
. Endemic taxa can also be classified into autochthonous, allochtonous, taxonomic relicts and biogeographic relicts. Paleoendemism refers to species that were formerly widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area.
Neoendemism Neoendemism is one of two sub-categories of endemism Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biod ...
refers to species that have recently arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and
polyploidy Polyploidy is a condition in which the cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse ...
in plants, and have not dispersed beyond a limited range. Paleoendemism is more or less synonymous with the concept of a ' relict species': a
population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size of the resident population within their jurisdiction by a process called a ...

population
or
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
of organisms that was more widespread or more diverse in the past. A 'relictual population' is a population that currently occurs in a restricted area, but whose original
range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic)A range, in geography, is a chain of hill A hill is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together ...
was far wider during a previous
geologic epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period. Rock layers deposited du ...

geologic epoch
. Similarly, a 'relictual taxon' is a taxon (e.g. species or other lineage) that is the sole surviving representative of a formerly diverse group. Schizoendemics, apoendemics and patroendemics can all be classified as types of neoendemics. Schizoendemics arise from a wider distributed taxon which has become reproductively isolated without becoming (potentially) genetically isolated – a schizoendemic has the same as the parent taxon it evolved from. An apoendemic is a
polyploid Polyploidy is a condition in which the biological cell, cells of an organism have more than two paired (Homologous chromosome, homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most species whose cells have Cell nucleus, nuclei (eukaryotes) are diploid, meaning t ...
of the parent taxon (or taxa in the case of
allopolyploid Polyploidy is a condition in which the cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse ...
s), whereas a patroendemic has a lower, diploid chromosome count than the related, more widely distributed polyploid taxon.
Mikio Ono Mikio (written: , , , , , , , , , in hiragana or in katakana) is a masculine Japanese given name. Notable people with the name include: *, Japanese politician *, Japanese comedian *, Japanese composer, music arranger and producer *, Japanese poli ...
coined the term 'aneuendemics' in 1991 for species which have more or less chromosomes than their relatives due to
aneuploidy Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell (biology), cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. It does not include a difference of one or more ploidy#Haploid and monoploid, c ...
. Pseudoendemics are taxa which have possibly recently evolved from a mutation. Holoendemics is a concept introduced by Richardson 1978 to describe taxa which have remained endemic to a restricted distribution for a very long time. In a 2000 paper, Myers and de Grave further attempted to redefine the concept. In their view, everything is endemic, even cosmopolitan species are endemic to Earth, and earlier definitions restricting endemics to specific locations are wrong. Thus the subdivisions neoendemics and paleoendemics are without merit regarding the study of distributions, because these concepts consider that an endemic has a distribution limited to one place. Instead, they propose four different categories: holoendemics, euryendemics, stenoendemics and rhoendemics. In their scheme cryptoendemics and euendemics are further subdivisions of rhoendemics. In their view, a holoendemic is a cosmopolitan species. Stenoendemics, also known as local endemics, have a reduced distribution and are synonymous with the word 'endemics' in the traditional sense, whereas euryendemics have a larger distribution -both these have distributions which are more or less continuous. A rhoendemic has a
disjunct distribution In biology, a taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, phy ...
. Where this disjunct distribution is caused by vicariance, in a euendemic the vicariance was geologic in nature, such as the movement of tectonic plates, but in a cryptoendemic the disjunct distribution was due to extinction of the intervening populations. There is yet another possible situation which can cause a disjunct distribution, where a species is able to colonize new territories by crossing over areas of unsuitable habitat, such as plants colonizing an island – this situation they dismiss as extremely rare and do not devise a name for. Traditionally, none of Myers and de Grave's categories would be considered endemics except stenoendemics.


Soil

Serpentine soil Serpentine soil is an uncommon soil type produced by weathered ultramafic rock such as peridotite and its metamorphic rock, metamorphic derivatives such as serpentinite. More precisely, serpentine soil contains minerals of the serpentine subgroup, ...
s act as '
edaphic Edaphology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximat ...
islands' of low fertility and these soils lead to high rates of endemism. These soils are found in the Balkan Peninsula, Turkey, Alps, Cuba, New Caledonia, the North American Appalachians, and a scattered distribution in California, Oregon, and Washington and elsewhere For example, Mayer and Soltis considered the widespread subspecies ''Steptanthus glandulosus'' subsp. ''glandulosus'' which grows on normal soils, to be a paleoendemic, whereas closely related endemic forms of ''S. glandulosus'' occurring on serpentine soil patches are neoendemics which recently evolved from subsp. ''glandulosus''.


Islands

Isolated islands commonly develop a number of endemics. Many species and other higher taxonomic groups exist in very small terrestrial or aquatic islands, which restrict their distribution. The Devil's Hole pupfish, ''
Cyprinodon diabolis The Devils Hole pupfish (''Cyprinodon diabolis'') is a critically endangered species of the family Cyprinodontidae (pupfishes) found only in Devils Hole, a water-filled cavern in the US state of Nevada. It was first described as a species in 193 ...
,'' has its whole native population restricted to a spring that is 20 x 3 meters, in Nevada's Mojave Desert. This 'aquatic island' is connected to an underground basin; however, the population present in the pool remains isolated. Other areas very similar to the Galapagos Islands of the Pacific Ocean exist and foster high rates of endemism. The Socotra Archipelago of Yemen, located in the Indian Ocean, has seen a new endemic species of parasitic leech, '' Myxobdella socotrensis sp. nov.,'' appear. This species is restricted to freshwater springs, where it may attach to and feed upon native crabs.


Mountains

Mountains can be seen as '
sky islands Sky islands are isolated mountains surrounded by radically different lowland environments. The term originally referred to those found near the southern borders of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50 ...
': refugia of endemics because species that live in the cool climates of mountain peaks are geographically isolated. For example, in the
Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France In the administrative divisions of France, the department (french: département, ) is one of the three levels of government under the na ...
department of France, '' Saxifraga florulenta'' is an endemic plant that may have evolved in the
Late Miocene The Late Miocene (also known as Upper Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene epoch (geology), Epoch made up of two faunal stage, stages. The Tortonian and Messinian stages comprise the Late Miocene sub-epoch, which lasted from 11.63 Ma (million ye ...
and could have once been widespread across the
Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by ...
. Volcanoes also tend to harbor a number of endemic species. Plant life on volcanoes tend to fill a specialized
ecological niche In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms ...

ecological niche
with a very restrictive range due to the unique environmental characteristics present. The Kula Volcano, which is one of the fourteen volcanoes present in Turkey, is home to 13 endemic species of plants.


Conservation

Endemics might more easily become
endangered An endangered species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...

endangered
or
extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ...
because they are already restricted in distribution. Some scientists claim that the presence of endemic species in an area is a good method to find geographical regions which can be considered priorities for conservation. Endemism can thus be studied as a proxy for measuring
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Genetics, genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near ...

biodiversity
of a region. The concept of finding endemic species which occur in the same region to designate 'endemism hotspots' was first proposed by Paul Müller in a 1973 book. According to him, this is only possible where 1.) the
taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
of the species in question is not in dispute; 2.) the species distribution is accurately known; and 3.) the species have relatively small distributional ranges. In a 2000 article, Myers ''et al''. used the standard of having more than 0.5% of the world's plant species being endemics of the region to designate 25 geographical areas of the world as '
biodiversity hotspot A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Geneti ...
s'. In response to the above, the World Wildlife fund has split the world into a few hundred geographical '
ecoregions An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...

ecoregions
'. These have been designed to include as many species as possible which only occur in a single ecoregion, and these species are thus 'endemics' to these ecoregions. Since plenty of these ecoregions have a high prevalence of endemics existing within them, many National Parks have been formed around or within them to further promote conservation. The was formed in the Atlantic forest, a biodiversity hotspot located in Brazil, in order to help protect valuable and vulnerable species. Other scientists have argued that endemism is not an appropriate measure of
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Genetics, genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near ...

biodiversity
, because the levels of threat or biodiversity are not actually correlated to areas of high endemism. When using bird species as an example, it was found that only 2.5% of biodiversity hotspots correlate with endemism and the threatened nature of a geographic region. A similar pattern had been found before regarding mammals, ''
Lasioglossum The Halictidae, sweat bee genus ''Lasioglossum'' is the largest of all bee genera, containing over 1700 species in numerous subgenera worldwide. They are highly variable in size, coloration, and sculpture; among the more unusual variants, some ar ...

Lasioglossum
'' bees,
Plusiinae Plusiinae is a smallish (for noctuid standards) subfamily of the moth Family (biology), family Noctuidae. As the Noctuidae appear to be a paraphyletic assemblage, the Plusiinae may eventually be raised to family status (Weller ''et al.'' 1994). C ...
moths, and swallowtail butterflies in North America: these different groups of taxa did not correlate geographically with each other regarding endemism and species richness. Especially using mammals as
flagship species In conservation biology, a flagship species is a species chosen to raise support for biodiversity conservation in a given place or social context. Definitions have varied, but they have tended to focus on the strategic goals and the socio-economic ...
proved to be a poor system of identifying and protecting areas of high invertebrate biodiversity. In response to this, other scientists again defended the concept by using WWF ecoregions and reptiles, finding that most reptile endemics occur in WWF ecoregions with high biodiversity. Other conservation efforts for endemics include keeping captive and semi-captive populations in zoological parks and botanical gardens. These methods are
ex situ ''Ex situ'' conservation literally means, "off-site conservation movement, conservation". It is the process of protecting an endangered species, variety or breed, of plant or animal outside its natural habitat; for example, by removing part of the p ...
("off site") conservation methods. The use of such methods may not only offer refuge and protection for individuals of declining or vulnerable populations, but it may also allow biologists valuable opportunities to research them as well.


References


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Endemism Biodiversity Habitat Biology terminology