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An endangered species is a
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
that is very likely to become
extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ...
in the near future, either worldwide or in a particular political jurisdiction. Endangered species may be at risk due to factors such as
habitat loss Habitat destruction (also termed habitat loss and habitat reduction) is the process by which a natural habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology, the term habitat summarises the array of resources, physical and biotic factors that are pr ...
,
poaching Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest useful animal products (meat, fur/h ...
and
invasive species An invasive species is an introduced organism that becomes overpopulated and negatively alters its new environment. Although their spread can have beneficial aspects, invasive species adversely affect the invaded habitat Ibex in an ...
. The
International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institut ...
(IUCN)
Red List The International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An internationa ...
lists the global
conservation status The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A spec ...
of many species, and various other agencies assess the status of species within particular areas. Many nations have
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
s that protect
conservation-reliant species Conservation-reliant species are animal or plant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined a ...
which, for example, forbid
hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest useful animal products (meat, fur/hide (skin), hide, bone/tusks, horn (anatomy), horn/an ...

hunting
, restrict
land development Land development is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as: * Changing landforms from a natural or semi-natural state for a purpose such as agriculture or House, housing * subdivision (land), Subdividing real estate into Lot (real est ...
, or create protected areas. Some endangered species are the target of extensive conservation efforts such as
captive breeding Captive breeding, also known as "captive propagation", is the process of maintaining plants or animals in controlled environments, such as wildlife reserves, zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a fa ...
and
habitat restoration In ecology, the term habitat summarises the array of resources, physical and biotic factors that are present in an area, such as to support the survival and reproduction of a particular species. A species habitat can be seen as the physical ...
.


Conservation status

The
conservation status The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A spec ...
of a
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
indicates the likelihood that it will become
extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ...
. Multiple factors are considered when assessing the status of a species; e.g., such statistics as the number remaining, the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, or known threats. The
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species The International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An internationa ...
is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 50% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally, 195 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, such plans are usually called Species Recovery Plans.


IUCN Red List

Though labeled a list, the
IUCN Red List The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data Book), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global Conservation movement, conser ...
is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" (DD) species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their situation may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process. Those species of "
Near Threatened A near-threatened species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gr ...
" (NT) and "
Least Concern A least-concern species is a species that has been Conservation status, categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as evaluated as not being a focus of species conservation because the specific species is still plenti ...
" (LC) status have been assessed and found to have relatively robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline. Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" (EN) species lie between "
Vulnerable Vulnerable may refer to: General *Vulnerability *Vulnerability (computing) *Vulnerable adult *Vulnerable species Music Albums *Vulnerable (Marvin Gaye album), ''Vulnerable'' (Marvin Gaye album), 1997 *Vulnerable (Tricky album), ''Vulnerable'' (T ...
" (VU) and " Critically Endangered" (CR) species. In 2012, the IUCN Red List listed 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered (EN) worldwide.


Mammals

*
Giant panda The giant panda (''Ailuropoda melanoleuca''; ), also known as the panda bear (or simply the panda), is a bear Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family (biology), family Ursidae. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivoran ...

Giant panda
*
White rhinoceros The white rhinoceros or square-lipped rhinoceros (''Ceratotherium simum'') is the largest extant species of rhinoceros. It has a wide mouth used for grazing (behaviour), grazing and is the most social of all rhino species. The white rhinoceros co ...

White rhinoceros
*
Sumatran orangutan The Sumatran orangutan (''Pongo abelii'') is one of the three species of orangutan Orangutans are great apes native to the rainforests of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links= ...


Endangered species in the United States

There is data from the United States that shows a correlation between human populations and threatened and endangered species. Using species data from the Database on the Economics and Management of Endangered Species (DEMES) database and the period that the
Endangered Species Act The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA or "The Act"; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction Extinction is the term ...
(ESA) has been in existence, 1970 to 1997, a table was created that suggests a positive relationship between human activity and species endangerment.


Endangered Species Act

Under the
Endangered Species Act of 1973 The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA or "The Act"; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction Extinction is the ter ...
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, species may be listed as "endangered" or "threatened". The Salt Creek tiger beetle (''Cicindela nevadica lincolniana'') is an example of an endangered subspecies protected under the ESA. The
US Fish and Wildlife Service The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the Federal government of the United States, United States Federal Government within the United States Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish ...
, as well as the
National Marine Fisheries Service The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), informally known as NOAA Fisheries, is the United States federal agency responsible for the stewardship of national Marine life, marine resources. The agency conserves and manages fisheries to promote ...
are held responsible for classifying and protecting endangered species. They are also responsible for adding a particular species to the list, which can be a long, controversial process. Some endangered species laws are controversial. Typical areas of controversy include criteria for placing a species on the endangered species list and rules for removing a species from the list once its population has recovered. Whether restrictions on land development constitute a "taking" of land by the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
; the related question of whether private landowners should be compensated for the loss of uses of their areas; and obtaining reasonable exceptions to protection laws. Also lobbying from
hunters Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife A ground pangolin Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that ...

hunters
and various industries like the
petroleum industry The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of hydrocarbon exploration, exploration, extraction of petroleum, extraction, oil refinery, refining, Petroleum transport, transporting (often ...
,
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
industry, and
logging Logging is the process of cutting, processing, and moving trees to a location for transport. It may include skidder, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or trunk (botany), logs onto logging truck, trucks or flatcar#Skeleton car, s ...

logging
, has been an obstacle in establishing endangered species laws. The Bush administration lifted a policy that required federal officials to consult a wildlife expert before taking actions that could damage endangered species. Under the
Obama administration Barack Obama's tenure as the List of presidents of the United States, 44th president of the United States began with First inauguration of Barack Obama, his first inauguration on January 20, 2009, and ended on January 20, 2017. Obama, a Democr ...
, this policy was reinstated. Being listed as an endangered species can have negative effect since it could make a species more desirable for collectors and poachers. This effect is potentially reducible, such as in China where commercially farmed turtles may be reducing some of the pressure to poach endangered species. Another problem with the listing species is its effect of inciting the use of the "shoot, shovel, and shut-up" method of clearing endangered species from an area of land. Some landowners currently may perceive a diminution in value for their land after finding an endangered animal on it. They have allegedly opted to kill and bury the animals or destroy habitat silently. Thus removing the problem from their land, but at the same time further reducing the population of an endangered species. The effectiveness of the
Endangered Species Act The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA or "The Act"; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction Extinction is the term ...
 – which coined the term "endangered species" – has been questioned by business advocacy groups and their publications but is nevertheless widely recognized by wildlife scientists who work with the species as an effective recovery tool. Nineteen species have been delisted and recovered and 93% of listed species in the northeastern United States have a recovering or stable population. Currently, 1,556 known species in the world have been identified as near extinction or endangered and are under protection by government law. This approximation, however, does not take into consideration the number of species threatened with endangerment that are not included under the protection of such laws like the Endangered Species Act. According to NatureServe's global conservation status, approximately thirteen percent of vertebrates (excluding marine fish), seventeen percent of vascular plants, and six to eighteen percent of fungi are considered imperiled.Wilcove & Master 2005. Thus, in total, between seven and eighteen percent of the United States' known animals, fungi and plants are near extinction. This total is substantially more than the number of species protected in the United States under the Endangered Species Act. Ever since mankind began hunting to preserve itself, over-hunting and fishing have been a large and dangerous problem. Of all the species who became extinct due to interference from mankind, the
dodo The dodo (''Raphus cucullatus'') is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are compose ...

dodo
,
passenger pigeon The passenger pigeon or wild pigeon (''Ectopistes migratorius'') is an Bird extinction, extinct species of Columbidae, pigeon that was endemic to North America. Its common name is derived from the French word ''passager'', meaning "passing by", ...

passenger pigeon
,
great auk The great auk (''Pinguinus impennis'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined a ...
,
Tasmanian tiger The thylacine ( , or , also ;) (''Thylacinus cynocephalus'') is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any indi ...

Tasmanian tiger
and
Steller's sea cow Steller's sea cow (''Hydrodamalis gigas'') is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the endlin ...
are some of the more well known examples; with the
bald eagle The bald eagle (''Haliaeetus leucocephalus'') is a bird of prey Birds of prey, also known as raptors, include species of bird Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of e ...

bald eagle
,
grizzly bear The grizzly bear (''Ursus arctos horribilis''), also known as the North American brown bear or simply grizzly, is a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, countr ...
,
American bison The American bison or simply bison (''Bison bison''), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is an American species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

American bison
,
Eastern timber wolf The eastern wolf (''Canis lupus lycaon'' or ''Canis lycaon'') also known as the timber wolf, Algonquin wolf or eastern timber wolf, is a canine of debated taxonomy native to the Great Lakes region and southeastern Canada. It is either considered ...
and
sea turtle Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines Turtles are reptile Reptiles are tetrapod Tetrapods (; from Greek 'four' and 'foot') are four-limbed animals constitut ...

sea turtle
having been poached to near-extinction. Many began as food sources seen as necessary for survival but became the target of sport. However, due to major efforts to prevent extinction, the bald eagle, or '''' is now under the category of Least Concern on the red list. A present-day example of the over-hunting of a species can be seen in the oceans as populations of certain whales have been greatly reduced. Large whales like the blue whale, bowhead whale, finback whale, gray whale, sperm whale, and humpback whale are some of the eight whales which are currently still included on the Endangered Species List. Actions have been taken to attempt a reduction in whaling and increase population sizes. The actions include prohibiting all whaling in United States waters, the formation of the CITES treaty which protects all whales, along with the formation of the International Whaling Commission (IWC). But even though all of these movements have been put in place, countries such as
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
continue to hunt and harvest whales under the claim of "scientific purposes". Over-hunting, climatic change and habitat loss leads in landing species in endangered species list. It could mean that extinction rates could increase to a large extent in the future.


Invasive species

The introduction of non-indigenous species to an area can disrupt the ecosystem to such an extent that native species become endangered. Such introductions may be termed alien or invasive species. In some cases, the invasive species compete with the native species for food or prey on the natives. In other cases, a stable ecological balance may be upset by predation or other causes leading to unexpected species decline. New species may also carry diseases to which the native species have no exposure or resistance.


Conservation


Captive breeding

Captive breeding is the process of breeding rare or endangered species in human controlled environments with restricted settings, such as wildlife reserves, zoos, and other conservation facilities. Captive breeding is meant to save species from extinction and so stabilise the population of the species that it will not disappear. This technique has worked for many species for some time, with probably the oldest known such instances of captive mating being attributed to menageries of European and Asian rulers, an example being the Père David's deer. However, captive breeding techniques are usually difficult to implement for such highly mobile species as some migratory birds (e.g. cranes) and fishes (e.g.
hilsa The ilish (''Tenualosa ilisha'') ( bn, ইলিশ, translit=iliś; or, ଇଲିସି), also known as the ilishi, hilsa, hilsa herring or hilsa shad, is a species of fish related to the herring, in the family Clupeidae. It is a very popular ...
). Additionally, if the captive breeding population is too small, then inbreeding may occur due to a reduced
gene pool The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species. Description A large gene pool indicates extensive genetic diversity, which is associated with robust populations that can surviv ...
and reduce
resistance Resistance may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics * Either of two similarly named but otherwise unrelated comic book series, both published by Wildstorm: ** ''Resistance'' (comics), based on the video game of the same title ** ''Th ...
. In 1981, the
Association of Zoos and Aquariums The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), originally the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, is an American 501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organizati ...
(AZA) created a
Species Survival Plan The American Species Survival Plan or SSP program was developed in 1981 by the (American) Association of Zoos and Aquariums to help ensure the survival of selected species in zoos and aquariums, most of which are threatened or endangered in the ...
(SSP) to help preserve specific endangered and threatened species through captive breeding. With over 450 SSP Plans, some endangered species are covered by the AZA with plans to cover population management goals and recommendations for breeding for a diverse and healthy population, created by Taxon Advisory Groups. These programs are commonly created as a last resort effort. SSP Programs regularly participate in species recovery, veterinary care for wildlife disease outbreaks, and some other wildlife conservation efforts. The AZA's Species Survival Plan also has breeding and transfer programs, both within and outside of AZA - certified zoos and aquariums. Some animals that are part of SSP programs are giant pandas, lowland gorillas, and .


Private farming

Whereas poaching substantially reduces endangered animal populations, legal, for-profit, private farming does the opposite. It has substantially increased the populations of the southern
black rhinoceros The black rhinoceros or hook-lipped rhinoceros (''Diceros bicornis'') is a species of rhinoceros, native to eastern and southern Africa including Angola, Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Eswatini, Tanzania, Zambia, and ...
and southern
white rhinoceros The white rhinoceros or square-lipped rhinoceros (''Ceratotherium simum'') is the largest extant species of rhinoceros. It has a wide mouth used for grazing (behaviour), grazing and is the most social of all rhino species. The white rhinoceros co ...

white rhinoceros
. Dr Richard Emslie, a scientific officer at the IUCN, said of such programs, "Effective law enforcement has become much easier now that the animals are largely privately owned... We have been able to bring local communities into conservation programs. There are increasingly strong economic incentives attached to looking after rhinos rather than simply poaching: from Eco-tourism or selling them on for a profit. So many owners are keeping them secure. The private sector has been key to helping our work." Conservation experts view the effect of China's turtle farming on the wild turtle populations of China and South-Eastern Asia – many of which are endangered – as "poorly understood". Although they commend the gradual replacement of turtles caught wild with farm-raised turtles in the marketplace – the percentage of farm-raised individuals in the "visible" trade grew from around 30% in 2000 to around 70% in 2007Turtle farms threaten rare species, experts say
". ''Fish Farmer'', 30 March 2007. Their source is an article by James Parham, Shi Haitao and two other authors, published in February 2007 in the journal ''Conservation Biology''.
 – they worry that many wild animals are caught to provide farmers with breeding stock. The conservation expert Peter Paul van Dijk noted that turtle farmers often believe that animals caught wild are superior breeding stock. Turtle farmers may, therefore, seek and catch the last remaining wild specimens of some endangered turtle species. In 2015, researchers in Australia managed to coax
southern bluefin tuna The southern bluefin tuna (''Thunnus maccoyii'') is a tuna A tuna is a saltwater fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related gro ...
to breed in landlocked tanks, raising the possibility that
fish farming upright=1.3, Salmon farming in the sea (mariculture) at Loch Ainort, Isle of Skye">mariculture.html" ;"title="Salmon farming in the sea (mariculture">Salmon farming in the sea (mariculture) at Loch Ainort, Isle of Skye, Scotland Fish farming or ...

fish farming
may be able to save the species from
overfishing Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, an ...
.The Top 10 Everything of 2009: Top 10 Scientific Discoveries: 5. Breeding Tuna on Land
Time magazine, December 8, 2009.


Gallery

File: Sea otter cropped.jpg, Though endangered, the
sea otter The sea otter (''Enhydra lutris'') is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern Pacific Ocean, North Pacific Ocean. Adult sea otters typically weigh between , making them the heaviest members of the Mustelidae, weasel fam ...

sea otter
has a relatively large population. File: Bison skull pile edit.jpg, 1870s photo of
American bison The American bison or simply bison (''Bison bison''), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is an American species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

American bison
skulls. By 1890, overhunting had reduced the  population to 750. File:California-condor.jpg, Immature
California condor The California condor (''Gymnogyps californianus'') is a New World vulture The New World vulture or condor family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relati ...

California condor
. File:Caretta caretta01.jpg,
Loggerhead sea turtle The loggerhead sea turtle (''Caretta caretta''), is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often d ...

Loggerhead sea turtle
File:Arowana.jpg,
Asian arowana The Asian arowana (''Scleropages formosus'') comprises several phenotypic right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of petal color in pea plants. The letters B and b re ...
File:Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Critically Endangered Species).jpg ,
Hawksbill sea turtle The hawksbill sea turtle (''Eretmochelys imbricata'') is a critically endangered sea turtle Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines and of the suborder Cryptodira. The seven ...

Hawksbill sea turtle
File:Pelochelys_cantorii.jpg,
Cantor's giant softshell turtle The Asian giant softshell turtle (''Pelochelys cantorii''), also known as Cantor's giant softshell turtle and the frog-faced softshell turtle, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification ...


See also


IUCN Red List

*
List of Chromista by conservation status , the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has evaluated the conservation status of 15 species within Chromista. The IUCN has not evaluated any protist species other than those in Chromista. No Chromista subspecies or subpopulatio ...
* List of endangered amphibians * List of endangered arthropods * List of endangered birds * List of endangered fishes * List of endangered insects * List of endangered invertebrates * List of endangered mammals *
List of endangered molluscs As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 507 Endangered species, endangered Mollusca, mollusc species. 7.0% of all evaluated mollusc species are listed as endangered. The IUCN also lists nine mollusc ...
* List of endangered reptiles *
List of fungi by conservation status , the International Union for Conservation of Nature International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * ''International' ...
* Lists of IUCN Red List endangered species


References


Further reading

* Glenn, C. R. 2006
"Earth's Endangered Creatures"
. * Ishwaran, N., & Erdelen, W. (2005, May)
Biodiversity Futures
, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(4), 179. * Kotiaho, J. S., Kaitala, V., Komonen, A., Päivinen, J. P., & Ehrlich, P. R. (2005, February 8)
Predicting the Risk of Extinction from Shared Ecological Characteristics
, proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(6), 1963–1967. * Minteer, B. A., & Collins, J. P. (2005, August)
Why we need an "Ecological Ethics"
, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(6), 332–337. * Raloff, J. (2006, August 5)
Preserving Paradise
,
Science News ''Science News (SN)'' is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals. ''Science News'' has been published since 1922 b ...
, 170(6), 92. * Wilcove, D. S., & Master L. L. (2008, October)
How Many Endangered Species are there in the United States?
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(8), 414–420. * Freedman, Bill. "endangered species." Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 4th ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2008. Discovering Collection. Gale. * Chiras, Daniel D. "Invader Species." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Grolier Online, 2011. * "endangered Species." Current Issues: Macmillan Social Science Library. Detroit: Gale, 2010.


External links


List of species with the category Endangered
as identified by the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species The International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An internationa ...

Endangered Species
from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs.''
Endangered Species & Wetlands Report
Independent print and online newsletter covering the ESA, wetlands and regulatory takings.
USFWS numerical summary of listed species in US and elsewhere

Extinction: A million species at risk, so what is saved?
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
. December 28, 2019. {{Authority control Biota by conservation status Environmental conservation Habitat IUCN Red List IUCN Red List endangered species