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An economist is a professional and practitioner in the
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
discipline of
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about
economic policy The economic policy of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly ...
. Within this field there are many sub-fields, ranging from the broad
philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real o ...

philosophical
theories A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or researc ...

theories
to the focused study of minutiae within specific
market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Market (1965 film), ''Market'' (1965 ...
s,
macroeconomic Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix ''makro-'' meaning "large" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), producti ...
analysis,
microeconomic Microeconomics is a branch of mainstream economics Mainstream economics is the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught by universities worldwide, that are generally accepted by economists as a basis for discussion. Also ...
analysis or
financial statement analysis Financial statement analysis (or financial analysis) is the process of reviewing and analyzing a company's financial statement Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business ...
, involving analytical methods and tools such as
econometrics Econometrics is the application of Statistics, statistical methods to economic data in order to give Empirical evidence, empirical content to economic relationships.M. Hashem Pesaran (1987). "Econometrics," ''The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Econ ...

econometrics
,
statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ...

statistics
, economics computational models,
financial economics Financial economics is the branch of economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among i ...
,
mathematical finance Mathematical finance, also known as quantitative finance and financial mathematics, is a field of applied mathematics Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as physics Physics is the natu ...
and
mathematical economics Mathematical economics is the application of mathematical Mathematics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locate ...
.


Professions

Economists work in many fields including academia, government and in the private sector, where they may also "...study data and statistics in order to spot trends in economic activity, economic confidence levels, and consumer attitudes. They assess this information using advanced methods in statistical analysis, mathematics, computer programming
nd
nd
they make recommendations about ways to improve the efficiency of a system or take advantage of trends as they begin." In contrast to regulated
profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognised body of learning derived from r ...

profession
s such as engineering, law or medicine, there is not a legally required educational requirement or license for economists. In academia, most economists have a Ph.D. degree in Economics. In the U.S. Government, on the other hand, a person can be hired as an economist provided that they have a degree that included or was supplemented by 21 semester hours in economics and three hours in statistics, accounting, or calculus. A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having an academic degree in this subject is often considered to be an economist. In addition to government and academia, economists are also employed in
bank A bank is a financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), stat ...

bank
ing,
finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corn ...

finance
,
accountancy Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other obj ...
,
commerce Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. Etymology The English-language word ''commerce'' has been derived from the Latin word ''commercium'', from ''com'' ("together") and ''merx'' ("merchandise"). History ...

commerce
,
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
,
business administration Business administration (also known as business management) is the administration Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organizat ...

business administration
,
lobbying In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of socia ...

lobbying
and non- or not-for profit organizations.
Politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

Politician
s often consult economists before enacting economic
policy Policy is a deliberate system of guideline A guideline is a statement by which to determine a course of action. A guideline aims to streamline particular processes according to a set routine or sound practice. Guidelines may be issued by a ...

policy
. Many statesmen have academic degrees in economics.


By country

Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario and
labour market Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finlan ...
conditions at the time for a given country. Apart from the specific understanding of the subject, employers value the skills of numeracy and analysis, the ability to
communicate Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

communicate
and the capacity to grasp broad issues which the graduates acquire at the
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
or
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

college
. Whilst only a few economics graduates may be expected to become professional economists, many find it a base for entry into a career in
finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corn ...

finance
– including accounting, insurance, tax and banking, or
management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spok ...

management
; see
financial analyst A financial analyst is a professional, undertaking financial analysis Financial analysis (also referred to as financial statement analysis or accounting analysis or Analysis of finance) refers to an assessment of the viability, stability, and prof ...
. A number of economics graduates from around the world have been successful in obtaining employment in a variety of major national and international firms in the financial and commercial sectors, and in manufacturing, retailing and IT, as well as in the public sector – for example, in the health and education sectors, or in
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
and
politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

politics
. Small numbers go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, research, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas.


Brazil

In
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, unlike most countries in the world where the profession is not regulated, the profession of Economist is regulated by Law. 1411 of August 13, 1951. The professional designation of economist, according to the said law, is exclusive to the bachelors in economics graduates in Brazil.


United States

According to the
United States Department of Labor The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government, responsible for occupational safety and health Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health ...
, there were about 15,000 non-academic economists in the United States in 2008, with a median salary of roughly $83,000 the top ten percent earning more than $147,040 annually. Nearly 135 colleges and universities grant around 900 new
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; or ''doctor philosophiae'') is the most common at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Be ...
s every year. Incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes. As of January 2013, PayScale.com showed Ph.D. economists' salary ranges as follows: all Ph.D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000; Ph.D. corporate economists, $71,000 to $207,000; economics full professors, $89,000 to $137,000; economics associate professors, $59,000 to $156,000, and economics assistant professors, $72,000 to $100,000.


United Kingdom

The largest single professional grouping of economists in the
UK
UK
are the more than 1000 members of the
Government Economic Service The Government Economic Service (GES) is a professional grouping of public sector economists who work across some 40 departments and agencies of Her Majesty's Government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her ...
, who work in 30 government departments and agencies. Analysis of destination surveys for economics graduates from a number of selected top schools of economics in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
(ranging from
Newcastle University Newcastle University (legally the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) is a UK public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
to the
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
), shows nearly 80 percent in employment six months after graduation – with a wide range of roles and employers, including regional, national and international organisations, across many sectors. This figure compares very favourably with the national picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment.


Notable economists

Some current well-known economists include: *
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
, Scottish economist and philosopher. Known as father of economics. *
John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a ...

John Maynard Keynes
, English economist well known for forming the basis of
Keynesian economics Keynesian economics ( ; sometimes Keynesianism, named after British economist John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist, whose ideas fundamentally changed the t ...
*
Joan Robinson Joan Violet Robinson (''née'' Maurice; 31 October 1903 – 5 August 1983) was a British economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and ...
, English keynesian economist. *
Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (; pl, Róża Luksemburg; also ''Rozalia Luksenburg''; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxism, Marxist, Philosophy, philosopher, economist, Anti-war movement, anti-war activist and Revolutionary socialism, revolut ...

Rosa Luxemburg
was the first economist woman to bring a theoretic contribution to the field of economics economics. She is the author of '' The Accumulation of Capital''. *
Amartya Sen Amartya Kumar Sen (; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom ( ...

Amartya Sen
(b. 1933),
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
laureate and professor at Harvard University. *
Kenneth Arrow Kenneth Joseph Arrow (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist {{unreferenced, date=June 2015 A political theorist is someone who engages in constructing or evaluating politica ...
,
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
laureate and professor at Stanford University. *
Robert Aumann Robert John Aumann (Hebrew name The term Hebrew name can be used in two ways, either meaning a name of Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic languag ...

Robert Aumann
(b. 1930), Israeli-American mathematician,
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
in 2005 *
B. R. Ambedkar Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (; 14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), also known as Babasaheb Ambedkar (), was an Indian jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usua ...

B. R. Ambedkar
, who was an Indian scholar, jurist, economist, politician and social reformer. The
Reserve Bank of India The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central bank and regulatory body and is responsible for the Money creation, issue and money supply, supply of the Indian rupee and the Bank regulation, regulation of the Banking in India, Indian banki ...

Reserve Bank of India
was conceptualized in accordance with the guidelines presented by Ambedkar to the Hilton Young Commission (also known as Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance) based on his book, ''The Problem of the Rupee – Its Origin and Its Solution''. *
Ben Bernanke Ben Shalom Bernanke ( ; born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, ...

Ben Bernanke
,
Chairman of the Federal Reserve The chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of Ame ...
from 2006 to 2014. *
Esther Duflo Esther Duflo, FBA (; born 25 October 1972) is a French– American economist who is a professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is ...
,
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
laureate and professor at MIT *
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( ...

Milton Friedman
,
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
laureate. *
Claudia Goldin Claudia Goldin (born May 14, 1946) is the Henry Lee Professor of Economics at Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named f ...
, professor at
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
*
Alan Greenspan Alan Greenspan (; born March 6, 1926) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economi ...

Alan Greenspan
, Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 1987 to 2006. *
James Heckman James Joseph Heckman (born 1944) is a Nobel Prize winning American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concep ...

James Heckman
, 2000
Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
winner and Professor at University of Chicago; most cited economist as of 2018. * Glenn Hubbard, Dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Business; Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers from 2001 to 2003. *
Thomas M. Humphrey
Thomas M. Humphrey
, American economist and historian of economic thought. *
Paul Krugman Paul Robin Krugman ( ; born February 28, 1953) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts f ...
, a 2008
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
laureate, a public intellectual, and an advocate of modern liberal policies. *
Greg Mankiw Nicholas Gregory Mankiw (; born February 3, 1958) is an American macroeconomist who is currently the Robert M. Beren Professor of Economics at Harvard University. Mankiw is best known in academia for his work on New Keynesian economics. Mankiw h ...
, American macroeconomist, academic economist, public intellectual, Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers from 2003 to 2005. *
Joseph Stiglitz Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (; born February 9, 1943) is an American economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of societ ...

Joseph Stiglitz
, 2001
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
winner, critic of
inequality Inequality may refer to: Economics * Attention inequality Attention inequality is a term used to target the inequality of distribution of attention across users on social networks, people in general, and for scientific papers. Yun Family Foundat ...
and the
governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity ...

governance
of
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
, and former
World Bank Chief Economist The Chief Economist of the World Bank (full title: ''Senior Vice President, Development Economics, and Chief Economist'') is the senior economist at the World Bank Group, tasking with providing intellectual leadership and direction to the Bank’s o ...
. *
Dambisa Moyo
Dambisa Moyo
, a Zambian-born international economist and author who analyzes the macroeconomy and global affairs. *
Thomas Sowell Thomas Sowell (; born June 30, 1930) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economi ...
, American economist and social theorist, Senior
Fellow A fellow is a broad concept whose exact meaning depends on context. In learned Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The abil ...
at the
Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well a ...
. *
Robert Lucas Jr Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (born September 15, 1937) is an American economist at the University of Chicago, where he is currently the John Dewey Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus in Economics and the College. Widely regarded as the central ...
., 1995
Nobel Prize in Economics The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
winner. *
Carmen Reinhart Carmen M. Reinhart (née Castellanos, born October 7, 1955) is a Cuban-born American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply th ...

Carmen Reinhart
, member of
American Economic Association The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipline (academia), academic discip ...
, 2018, King Juan Carlos Prize in Economics winner * William Forsyth Sharpe, 1990
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
winner * Christopher Antoniou Pissarides, 2010 the
Nobel Prize in Economics The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
. *
Arthur Laffer Arthur Betz Laffer (; born August 14, 1940) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts fro ...
, 2019
Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs th ...

Presidential Medal of Freedom
winner *
Jeffrey Sachs Jeffrey David Sachs (; born November 5, 1954) is an American economist, academic, public policy analyst and former director of The Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor (Columbia), University Profe ...
, Professor of Sustainable Development at Columbia's
School of International and Public Affairs The School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (SIPA) is the international affairs and public policy school, public policy school of Columbia University, a private Ivy League university located in Morningside Heights, Manhatt ...
, 2015
Blue Planet Prize The recognises outstanding efforts in scientific research or applications of science that contribute to solving global environmental problems. The prize was created by the Asahi Glass Co., Asahi Glass Foundation in 1992, the year of the Rio Eart ...
awarded * Vusal Gasimli, Azerbaijani economist and public intellectual, author of Geo-Economics *
Ludwig von Mises Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (; 29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian School economist, historian, logician, and Sociology, sociologist. Mises wrote and lectured extensively on the societal contributions of classical liberal ...

Ludwig von Mises
, Austrian economist and philosopher, author of ''
Human Action ''Human Action: A Treatise on Economics'' is a work by the Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associ ...
''. *
Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek ( , ; 8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist, and philosopher who is best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nob ...
, Austrian economist,
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered ...
laureate and author of ''
The Road to Serfdom ''The Road to Serfdom'' ( German: ''Der Weg zur Knechtschaft'') is a book written between 1940 and 1943 by Austrian-British economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individu ...
''.


See also

* Chief economist *
List of economists This is an incomplete alphabetical list by surname of notable economists An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in par ...


References


Citations
/h2>


Sources

*
Mark Blaug Mark Blaug FBA (; 3 April 1927 – 18 November 2011) was a Dutch-born British economist (naturalised in 1982), who covered a broad range of topics during his long career. He was married to Ruth Towse. Life and work Blaug was born on 3 April ...
and Howard R. Vane (1983, 2003 4th ed.). . Table of Content
links.
Cheltenham & Edward Elgar Pub. * Pressman, Steven, 2006. ''Fifty Major Economists.'' Routledge, * Robert Sobel, 1980. ''The Worldly Economists'' .


External links

{{Authority control Economics occupations Social science occupations Economists,