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An economic ideology is a set of views forming the basis of an
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
on how the
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economy
should run. It differentiates itself from
economic theory Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. ...
in being
normative Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as bad or undesirable or impermissible. A Norm (p ...
rather than just explanatory in its approach, whereas the aim of economic theories is to create accurate explanatory
models
models
to describe how an economy currently functions. However, the two are closely interrelated, as underlying economic ideology influences the methodology and theory employed in analysis. The diverse ideology and methodology of the 74 Nobel laureates in economics speaks to such interrelation. A good way of discerning whether an
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
can be classified an economic ideology is to ask if it inherently takes a specific and detailed economic standpoint. Furthermore, economic ideology is distinct from an
economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environm ...
that it supports, such as
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...

capitalism
, to the extent that explaining an economic system (
positive economics Positive economics (as opposed to normative economics) is the branch of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economic ...
) is distinct from advocating it (
normative economicsNormative economics (as opposed to positive economics) is a part of economics whose objective is Equity (economics), fairness or what the outcome of the economy or goals of public policy ''ought to be''.Paul A. Samuelson and William Nordhaus, William ...
). The theory of economic ideology explains its occurrence, evolution, and relation to an
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economy
.


Examples


Capitalism

Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...

Capitalism
is a broad economic system where the
means of production The means of production is a concept that encompasses the social use and ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law Anglo-Saxon law (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest record ...
are largely or entirely privately owned and operated for
profit Profit may refer to: Business and law * Profit (accounting) Profit, in accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entity, economic en ...
, where the allocation of capital goods is determined by
capital market A capital market is a financial market A financial market is a market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Swed ...
s and
financial market A financial market is a market (economics), market in which people trade financial Security (finance), securities and derivative (finance), derivatives at low transaction costs. Some of the securities include stocks and Bond (finance), bonds, ra ...
s. There are several implementations of capitalism that are loosely based around how much government involvement or public enterprise exists. The main ones that exist today are mixed economies, where the state intervenes in market activity and provides some services;
laissez faire ''Laissez-faire'' (; ; from french: laissez faire, lit=let do) is an economic system in which transactions between private groups of people are free from or almost free from any form of economic interventionism Economic interventionism, somet ...
, where the state only supplies a court, a military, and police; and
state capitalism State capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea ...
, where the state engages in commercial business activity itself.


Laissez-faire

Laissez-faire, or
free market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pl ...
capitalism, is an ideology that prescribes minimal public enterprise and government regulation in a capitalist economy. This ideology advocates for a type of capitalism based on open
competition Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. The relationship itself may also be called "a riv ...
to determine the
price A price is the (usually not negative) quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by ...

price
,
production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) * Production as a statistic, g ...
and
consumption Consumption may refer to: *Resource consumption *Tuberculosis, an infectious disease, historically in biology: * Consumption (ecology), receipt of energy by consuming other organisms in social sciences: * Consumption (economics), the purchasing of ...
of goods through the
invisible hand The invisible hand is an economic concept that describes the unintended greater social benefits and public good brought about by individuals acting in their own self-interests. The concept was first introduced by Adam Smith Adam Smith ( ...

invisible hand
of
supply and demand In microeconomics Microeconomics is a branch of that studies the behavior of individuals and in making decisions regarding the allocation of and the interactions among these individuals and firms. Microeconomics focuses on the study ...

supply and demand
reaching efficient
market equilibrium In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies ...
. In such a system,
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
,
property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to consume, alter, share, r ...
and
enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and economics Brands and enterprises * Enterprise GP Holdings Enterprise GP Holdings was a midstream energy holding company based in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is ...

enterprise
are entirely
privately owned A privately held company or private company is a company which does not offer or trade its company stock In finance, stock (also capital stock) consists of all of the shares In financial markets A financial market is a market in whi ...
and new enterprises may freely gain
market entry Market entry strategy is a planned distribution and delivery method of goods or services to a new target market. In the import and export of services, it refers to the creation, establishment, and management of contracts in a foreign country. Fa ...
without restriction.
Employment Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' ...

Employment
and
wages A wage is the distribution from an employer Employment is the relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on a employment contract, contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profi ...
are determined by a
labour market Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finlan ...
that will result in some
unemployment Unemployment, according to the OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38&nbs ...
.
Government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

Government
and
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
intervention are employed at times to change the economic incentives for people for various reasons. The capitalist economy will likely follow
economic growth Economic growth can be defined as the increase or improvement in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economics, economy over time. Statisticians conventionally measure such growth as the percent rate of i ...

economic growth
along with a steady
business cycle The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, are the fluctuations of gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a sp ...

business cycle
.


Social market

The social market economy (also known as Rhine capitalism) is advocated by the ideology of
ordoliberalism Ordoliberalism is the German variant of economic liberalism that emphasizes the need for the state to ensure that the free market produces results close to its theoretical potential. Ordoliberal ideals became the foundation of the creation of ...

ordoliberalism
and
social liberalism Social liberalism (german: Sozialliberalismus, es, socioliberalismo) also known as New liberalism in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Brita ...
. This ideology supports a free-market economy where supply and demand determine the price of goods and services, and where markets are free from regulation. However, this economic calls for state action in the form of
social policy Social policy is policy A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a gov ...
favoring social insurance, unemployment benefits and recognition of labor rights.


Social democracy

Social Democracy Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognit ...
is an ideology that prescribes high public enterprise and government regulation in a capitalist economy. It espouses state regulation (rather than state ownership of the means of production) and extensive social welfare programs. Social democracy became associated with Keynesianism, the Nordic model, the social liberal paradigm and welfare states within political circles in the late 20th century.


Casino capitalism

Casino capitalism is the high risk-taking and financial instability associated with
financial institutions Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations that provide services as intermediaries of financial markets. Broadly speaking, there are three major types of financial institutions: # Depository institutions ...
becoming very large and mostly self-regulated, while also taking on high-risk financial
investment Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In finance Finance is the study of financial institution ...

investment
dealings. This has been a driving motive by investors in the quest for profits without
production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) * Production as a statistic, g ...
; it provides a
speculation Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distr ...
aspect that offers prospects for a quicker and more speculator returns for people,
wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), bank deposits, bond (finance), bonds, and participations in companies' sh ...

wealth
, and inside assumptions of the factors likely to affect
asset In financial accounting Financial accounting is the field of accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entity, economic entities such a ...
price A price is the (usually not negative) quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by ...

price
movements. Typically, this does not add to the collective wealth of an
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economy
, as it can instead create economic instability. Casino capitalism falls alongside the idea of a
speculation Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distr ...
-based economy where
entrepreneurial Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is normally encountered in starting a business, which may include other values than simply e ...
activities turn to more paper games of speculative
trading Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...

trading
than actually producing economic
goods In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...

goods
and
services Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workload of Faculty (academic staff), university faculty * Civil service, the body of employees of a governm ...
. It is believed by people such as economists
Frank Stilwell Frank C. Stilwell (1856 – March 20, 1882) was an outlaw In historical legal systems, an outlaw is one declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, all legal protection was withdrawn from the criminal, so that ...
that casino capitalism was one of the leading causes of the
global financial crisis Global means of or referring to a globe A globe is a spherical physical model, model of Earth, of some other astronomical object, celestial body, or of the celestial sphere. Globes serve purposes similar to some maps, but unlike maps, do not dis ...
in 2008. Investors sought out a get-rich-quick motive they found through speculative activities that offered a particular individual gain or loss depending on the assets’ future movements. Other
economists An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within t ...
like , have written books on casino capitalism with commentary outside the Anglo-Saxon
bubble Bubble or Bubbles may refer to: Physical bubbles * Bubble (physics), a globule of one substance in another, usually gas in a liquid ** Soap bubble, commonly referred to as a "bubble" People * Bubbles, a contestant on ''Real Chance of Love ( ...
.


Neo-capitalism

Neo-capitalism Neo-capitalism is an economic ideology which blends some elements of capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for Profit (economics), profit. Central characteri ...
is an economic ideology that blends elements of capitalism with other systems and emphasizes government intervention in the economy to save and reconstruct companies that are deemed a risk to the nation. The ideology's prime years are considered by some economists to be the 10 years leading up to 1964 after the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
and
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. After World War II, countries were destroyed and needed to rebuild and since capitalism thrives in countries. These countries most affected by the
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
saw a growth in capitalism. Neo-capitalism differs from regular capitalism in that while capitalism highlights private owners, Neo-capitalism emphasizes the role of the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in sustaining the
country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ...

country
as a provider and a producer and condemns private companies for lacking in their role as a provider and producer for their country. Critics of neo-capitalism claim that it tends to suppress the
reserve army of laborReserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. It refers to the unemployed and Underemployment, underemployed in Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory), capitalist society. It is synonymous with "industrial ...
which may lead to full employment, as this can undermine one of the main basics that make capitalism work. Other critics state that if neo-capitalism was put into place, it would become immediately corrupt.


Fascism

Fascism Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and the economy that rose to prominence in early 20th-century Europ ...

Fascism
as an economic system promotes the pursuit of individual
profit Profit may refer to: Business and law * Profit (accounting) Profit, in accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entity, economic en ...
while promoting corporations through government
subsidies A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the term ...

subsidies
as the primary tool of economic progress as long as their activities are in line with the goals of the state. In fascist economies, profits or gains are individualized while losses are socialized; these economies are often compared to the
third way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

third way
due to being heavily
corporatized Corporatization is the process of transforming and restructuring state assets, government agencies, public organizations, or municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative uni ...

corporatized
. Fascist economies of the mid 20th century such as
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
often used bilateral
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of r ...

trade
agreements, with heavy
tariff A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...
s on
imports An import is the receiving country in an export An export in international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories because there is a need or want of go ...
and government subsidized
export An export in international trade International trade is the exchange of capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase ...

export
s to developing nations around the world. While economically fascism is oriented towards self-sufficiency, politically fascist countries of the mid-20th century were oriented to war and expansion; two seemingly contradictory motives. The goals of fascist nations was to create a closed economic system which is self-reliant, but is also ready and prepared to engage in war and territorial expansion. Fascist economies can then be seen as state capitalist.


Socialism

Socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
is any of the various ideologies of economic organization based on some form of
social ownership Social ownership is the appropriation of the surplus product Surplus product (german: Mehrprodukt, links=no) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philoso ...
of the means of production and cooperative management of the allocation of resources. Socialist systems can be distinguished by the dominant coordination mechanism employed (
economic planning Economic planning is a resource allocation In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Co ...
or
markets Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Market (1965 film), ''Market'' (1965 ...
) and by the type of ownership employed (
Public ownership State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a clos ...
or
cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...
s). In some models of socialism (often called
market socialism Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the Public ownership, public, Cooperative ownership, cooperative, or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy. Market socialism differs from Economi ...
), the state approves of the prices and products produced in the economy, subjecting the market system to direct external regulations. Alternatively, the state may produce the goods but then sell them in competitive markets.


Democratic socialism

Democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a that supports within a economy, with a particular emphasis on , , and within a , or an alternative form of . Democratic socialists argue that is inherently incompatible with the values of , , and and that these ...
(sometimes referred to as
economic democracy Economic democracy is a socioeconomic philosophy that proposes to shift decision-making power from corporate managers and corporate shareholders to a larger group of public stakeholders that includes workers, customers, suppliers, neighbours ...
) is an economic ideology that calls for democratic institutions in the economy. These may take the form of
cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...
s,
workplace democracy A workplace is a location where someone works for their employer, a place of employment Employment is a relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on employment contract, contract where work is paid for, where one party, wh ...
or ad hoc approach to the management and ownership of the means of production. Democratic Socialism is a blending of socialistic and democratic ideas to create a political and economic Structure.


Marxism–Leninism

Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's po ...
is a political ideology that calls for centralized planning of the economy. This ideology formed the economic basis of all existing
Communist state A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Uni ...
s. Socialist doctrines essentially promote the collectivist idea that an economy's resources should be used in the interest of all participants, and not simply for private gain. This ideology historically opposed the
market economy A market economy is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The ide ...
, and tended to favor
central planning A planned economy is a type of economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. T ...
.


Communism

As
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
described it (in ''
Anti-Dühring ''Anti-Dühring'' (german: Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft, "Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science") is a book by Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,
''),
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
is the evolved result of socialism so that the central role of the state has 'withered away' and is no longer necessary for the functioning of a
planned economy A planned economy is a type of economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. T ...
. All property and capital are collectively owned and managed in a communal, classless and
egalitarian Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equality, prioritizing it for all people. Egalitarian doctrines are generally characterized by the idea that all hu ...
society.
Currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed t ...

Currency
is no longer needed, and all economic activity, enterprise, labour, production and consumption is freely exchanged "
from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" (German language, German: ''Jeder nach seinen Fähigkeiten, jedem nach seinen Bedürfnissen'') is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx in his 1875 ''Critique of the Gotha Program''.F ...
". Communism is also a political system as much an economic one—with various models in how it is implemented—the well known being the Marxist Leninist model, which argues for the use of a vanguard party to bring about a workers state to be used as a transitional tool to bring about stateless communism, the economic arrangement described above. Other models to bring about communism include
anarcho-communism Anarcho-communism, also known as anarchist communism, is a political philosophy and Anarchist schools of thought, anarchist school of thought which advocates the abolition of the State (polity), state, capitalism, wage labour, social hierarchies a ...

anarcho-communism
, which argues similarly to Marxist schools for a revolutionary transformation to the above economic arrangement, but does not use a transitional period or vanguard party.


Anarcho-primitivism

Anarcho-primitivism Anarcho-primitivism is a political ideology that advocates a return to non-" civilized" ways of life through deindustrialization, abolition of the division of labor or specialization and abandonment of large-scale organization technologies. An ...
strives to return humans to a pre-industrialized and pre-civilization state. From an economic standpoint, advocates of this model argue the non-necessity of economic systems for human existence. Proponents of this ideology believe that the entire history of human civilization took a wrong turn from hunter-gatherer systems into an
agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching tele ...
system and has led to human dependence on technology to support increasing populations, government control, and culture.
Population growth Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size ...
and the institutions created to support and control it are exploitative of not only humans but also the environment. They argue that the more people live in a society, the more resources they will need. These resources must be taken from the Earth and therefore lead to environmental exploitation. However, they claim that materialist exploitation can be seen throughout almost every society in the world today. This materialism creates inequalities and exploitation such as class structure, the exploitation of humans in the name of
labor Labour or labor may refer to: * , the delivery of a baby * , or work ** , physical work ** , a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer Literature * , an American quarterly on the history of the labor movement * ', an academic ...
and profit, and most importantly environmental destruction and deterioration. This exploitation has led to the increase in human population growth, activity, and development which they argue is destroying the Earth's
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
s. They emphasize coexisting with the natural world instead of destroying it, "a world order on our planet where human civilization is brought into harmony with nature". They differ from other
anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy and Political movement, movement that is sceptical of authority and rejects all involuntary, coercive forms of hierarchy. Anarchism calls for the abolition of the State (polity), state, which it holds to ...

anarchist
and green ideologies by opposing technological and industrial advancement as it further propagates the exploitation of humans. "Technology is not a simple tool which can be used in any way we like. It is a form of social organization, a set of social relations. It has its own laws. If we are to engage in its use, we must accept its authority. The enormous size, complex interconnections and stratification of tasks which make up modern technological systems make authoritarian command necessary and independent, individual decision-making impossible." Anarcho-primitivists seek to revert the economic and government institutions of civilization which they argue are
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
, exploitative, and abstract and return humanity to a way of living which is harmonious with the natural world in which technology used mostly individually to create tools for survival much like in primitive cultures and tribes where they argue there is little need for abstract things such as an economy or government.


See also

*
Constitutional economics A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
*
Economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environm ...
*
Development economics Development economics is a branch of economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among i ...
*
Ecological economics Ecological economics, bioeconomics, ecolonomy, eco-economics, or ecol-econ is both a transdisciplinary Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic Holism (from Greek Greek m ...
*
Political economy Political economy is the study of production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
*
Schools of economic thought A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is someti ...
*
Social model A social welfare model is a system of social welfare provision and its accompanying value system In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wr ...
*
Political ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for reasons that are not purely epistemic, in which "practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones." Formerly applied prim ...


Notes


References

* Karl Brunner, 1996. ''Economic Analysis and Political Ideology: The Selected Essays of Karl Brunner'', v. 1, Thomas Ly, ed. Chapter: previe
links
via scroll down. * * From ''
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics ''The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics'' (2018), 3rd ed., is an twenty-volume reference work on economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of soc ...
''. 2008, 2nd Edition: :"capitalism" by Robert L. Heilbroner
Abstract.
:"contemporary capitalism" by William Lazonick
Abstract.
:"Maoist economics" by Wei Li
Abstract.
:"social democracy" by Ben Jackson
Abstract.
:"welfare state" by
Assar Lindbeck Carl Assar Eugén Lindbeck (26 January 1930 – 28 August 2020) was a Swedish professor of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, ...

Abstract.
:"American exceptionalism" by Louise C. Keel
Abstract.
:"laissez-faire, economists and" by Roger E. Backhouse and Steven G. Medema
Abstract.
* Julie A. Nelson and Steven M. Sheffrin, 1991. "Economic Literacy or Economic Ideology?" ''Journal of Economic Perspectives'', 5(3), pp.
157–65
(press +). * Joseph A. Schumpeter, 1942. ''
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy ''Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy'' is a book on economics and on other sciences such as sociology and history by Joseph Schumpeter, arguably the most or one of the most famous, debated and important books by Schumpeter, and one of the most ...
''. * _____, 1949. "Science and Ideology," ''American Economic Review'', 39(2), pp. 346–59. Reprinted in Daniel M. Hausman, 1994, 2nd rev. ed., ''The Philosophy of Economics: An Anthology'', Cambridge University Press, pp
224

38.
* Robert M. Solow, 1971. "Science and Economic Ideology," ''The Public Interest'', 23(1) pp. 94–107. Reprinted in Daniel M. Hausman, 1994, 2nd rev. ed., ''The Philosophy of Economics: An Anthology'', Cambridge University Press, pp
239

51.
*
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx
, 1857–58. "Ideology and Method in Political Economy," in ''Grundrisse: Foundation of the Critique of Political Economy'', tr. 1973. Reprinted in Daniel M. Hausman, 1994, 2nd rev. ed., ''The Philosophy of Economics: An Anthology'', Cambridge University Press, pp
119

42.
* Earl A. Thompson and Charles Robert Hickson, 2000. ''Ideology and the Evolution of Vital Economic Institutions''. Springe
Descrip;tion
and chapter preview links, pp
vii–x


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Economic Ideology Ideologies Cultural economics Economic systems