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, at the
Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg () was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( ) ( pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlan ...

Battle of Gettysburg
, 1863 The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of
musical instruments A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. A person who pla ...

musical instruments
. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a
membranophoneA membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a acoustic membrane, vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument c ...
. Drums consist of at least one
membrane Image:Schematic size.jpg, up150px, Schematic of size-based membrane exclusion A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membr ...
, called a
drumhead Image:Anatomy of a Drumhead.jpg, Anatomy of a drumhead for drumming A drumhead or drum skin is a membrane stretched over one or both of the open ends of a drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of mu ...
or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with the player's hands, or with a
percussion mallet A percussion mallet or beater is an object used to strike or beat a percussion instrument in order to produce its sound. The term beater is slightly more general. A mallet is normally held in the hand while a beater may be foot or mechanically ...
, to produce sound. There is usually a resonance head on the underside of the drum, typically tuned to a slightly lower pitch than the top drumhead. Other techniques have been used to cause drums to make sound, such as the
thumb roll The tambourine is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the obje ...
. Drums are the world's oldest and most ubiquitous musical instruments, and the basic design has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years. Drums may be played individually, with the player using a single drum, and some drums such as the
djembe A djembe or jembe ( ; from Maninka language, Malinke ''jembe'' , N'Ko script, N'Ko: ) is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands, originally from West Africa. According to the Bambara people in Mali, the name of the djembe ...

djembe
are almost always played in this way. Others are normally played in a set of two or more, all played by the one player, such as
bongo drums Bongos (Spanish: ''bongó'') are an Afro-Cuban Afro-Cubans are Cubans Cubans ( es, Cubanos), are people born in Cuba or with Cuban citizenship. Cuba is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic, religious and national backgrou ...
and
timpani Timpani (; ) or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion instrument, percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a hemispherical drum, they consist of a Membranophone, membrane called a drumhead, ...

timpani
. A number of different drums together with
cymbal A cymbal is a common percussion instrument. Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various alloys. The majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound ...
s form the basic modern
drum kit A drum set – also called a drum kit, trap set (an abbreviation of the word "contraption") or simply drums – is a collection of drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hor ...
.


Uses

Drums are usually played by striking with the hand, a beater attached to a pedal, or with one or two sticks with or without padding. A wide variety of sticks are used, including wooden sticks and sticks with soft beaters of felt on the end. In jazz, some drummers use brushes for a smoother, quieter sound. In many traditional cultures, drums have a symbolic function and are used in religious ceremonies. Drums are often used in
music therapy Music therapy, an allied health profession, "is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music thera ...
, especially hand drums, because of their tactile nature and easy use by a wide variety of people. In
popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training.Popular Music. (2015). ''Funk & ...
and
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognize ...
, "drums" usually refers to a
drum kit A drum set – also called a drum kit, trap set (an abbreviation of the word "contraption") or simply drums – is a collection of drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hor ...
or a set of drums (with some
cymbals A cymbal is a common percussion instrument. Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various alloys. The majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound ...
, or in the case of harder
rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and ...
genres, many cymbals), and "
drummer thumbnail, Turkmenistan Independence Day, 2011 A drummer is a percussionist who creates music using drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classificati ...
" to the person who plays them. Drums acquired even divine status in places such as Burundi, where the ''
karyenda Image:Gitega_drums.JPG, Drums from Gitega, Burundi The ''karyenda'' is a traditional African music, African drum. It was the main symbol of Burundi and its ''King of Burundi, Mwami'' (King) and had semi-divine status. The ''Mwami'' was said to inte ...
'' was a symbol of the power of the king.


Construction

The shell almost always has a circular opening over which the drumhead is stretched, but the shape of the remainder of the shell varies widely. In the Western musical tradition, the most usual shape is a
cylinder A cylinder (from ) has traditionally been a Solid geometry, three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. Geometrically, it can be considered as a Prism (geometry), prism with a circle as its base. This traditio ...
, although
timpani Timpani (; ) or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion instrument, percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a hemispherical drum, they consist of a Membranophone, membrane called a drumhead, ...

timpani
, for example, use
bowl Self-identified bowl performing one of the most common functions of bowls: the serving of food (in this case, chili) A bowl is a round dish or container typically used to prepare and serve food Food is any substance consumed to provide nu ...
-shaped shells. Other shapes include a frame design (
tar Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation. Tar can be produced from coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-bl ...
, Bodhrán), truncated cones (
bongo drum Bongos (Spanish: ''bongó'') are an Afro-Cuban Afro-Cubans are Cubans Cubans ( es, Cubanos), are people born in Cuba or with Cuban citizenship. Cuba is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic, religious and national backgrou ...
s,
Ashiko The ashiko is a drum, shaped like a tapered cylinder (or truncated cone) with the head on the wide end, and the narrow end open. It is made of hardwood and generally has a calfskin hide. Nowadays, goatskin is sometimes used, in imitation of the ...

Ashiko
), goblet shaped (
djembe A djembe or jembe ( ; from Maninka language, Malinke ''jembe'' , N'Ko script, N'Ko: ) is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands, originally from West Africa. According to the Bambara people in Mali, the name of the djembe ...

djembe
), and joined truncated cones (
talking drum The talking drum is an hourglass-shaped drum from West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintai ...

talking drum
). Drums with cylindrical shells can be open at one end (as is the case with
timbales Timbales () or pailas are shallow single-headed drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. Drums ...
), or can have two drum heads, one head on each end. Single-headed drums typically consist of a skin stretched over an enclosed space, or over one of the ends of a hollow vessel. Drums with two heads covering both ends of a cylindrical shell often have a small hole somewhat halfway between the two heads; the shell forms a chamber for the resulting sound. Exceptions include the African
slit drum Slit may refer to: * Slit (protein), in genetics, the midline repellent signaling molecule * Slitting, a shearing operation that cuts a large roll of material into narrower rolls * Slit trench, a defensive fighting position in warfare * Slit Woods ...
, also known as a log drum as it is made from a hollowed-out tree trunk, and the Caribbean steel drum, made from a metal barrel. Drums with two heads can also have a set of wires, called snares, held across the bottom head, top head, or both heads, hence the name
snare drum The snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin. Snare drums are often use ...
. On some drums with two heads, a hole or
bass reflex schematic (cross-section). A bass reflex system (also known as a ported, vented box or reflex port) is a type of loudspeaker enclosure that uses a port (hole) or vent cut into the cabinet and a section of tubing or pipe affixed to the port. This p ...
port may be cut or installed onto one head, as with some 2010s era
bass drum The bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. Drums consis ...

bass drum
s in
rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and ...
. On modern
band Band or BAND may refer to: Places *Bánd, a village in Hungary *Band, Iran, a village in Urmia County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran *Band, Mureș, a commune in Romania *Band-e Majid Khan, a village in Bukan County, West Azerbaijan Province, Ira ...
and
orchestral An orchestra (; ) is a large Musical ensemble, instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass, Woodwind ...
drums, the drumhead is placed over the opening of the drum, which in turn is held onto the shell by a "counterhoop" (or "rim"), which is then held by means of a number of tuning screws called "tension rods" that screw into lugs placed evenly around the circumference. The head's tension can be adjusted by loosening or tightening the rods. Many such drums have six to ten tension rods. The sound of a drum depends on many variables—including shape, shell size and thickness, shell materials, counterhoop material, drumhead material, drumhead tension, drum position, location, and striking velocity and angle. Prior to the invention of tension rods, drum skins were attached and tuned by rope systems—as on the
Djembe A djembe or jembe ( ; from Maninka language, Malinke ''jembe'' , N'Ko script, N'Ko: ) is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands, originally from West Africa. According to the Bambara people in Mali, the name of the djembe ...

Djembe
—or pegs and ropes such as on Ewe drums. These methods are rarely used today, though sometimes appear on regimental marching band snare drums. The head of a talking drum, for example, can be temporarily tightened by squeezing the ropes that connect the top and bottom heads. Similarly, the tabla is tuned by hammering a disc held in place around the drum by ropes stretching from the top to bottom head. Orchestral timpani can be quickly tuned to precise pitches by using a foot pedal.


Sound

-style drums for sale at the
National Museum of the American Indian The National Museum of the American Indian is a museum in the United States devoted to the culture of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It is part of the Smithsonian Institution group of museums and research centers. The museum has three ...

National Museum of the American Indian
Several factors determine the sound a drum produces, including the type, shape and construction of the drum shell, the type of drum heads it has, and the tension of these drumheads. Different drum sounds have different uses in music. For example, the modern
Tom-tom drum A tom drum is a cylindrical drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. Drums consist of at least o ...
. A
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognize ...
drummer may want drums that are high pitched, resonant and quiet whereas a
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
drummer may prefer drums that are loud, dry and low-pitched. The drum head has the most effect on how a drum sounds. Each type of drum head serves its own musical purpose and has its own unique sound. Double-ply drumheads dampen high frequency harmonics because they are heavier and they are suited to heavy playing. Drum heads with a white, textured coating on them muffle the
overtone partials f, 2f, 3f, 4f, etc. (where f means fundamental frequency). An overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound. In other words, overtones are higher pitches resulting from the lowest note or fundamental. Wh ...

overtone
s of the drum head slightly, producing a less diverse
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves ...
. Drum heads with central silver or black dots tend to muffle the overtones even more, while drum heads with
perimeter A perimeter is either a path that encompasses/surrounds/outlines a shape (in two dimensions) or its length ( one-dimensional). The perimeter of a circle A circle is a shape consisting of all point (geometry), points in a plane (mathema ...

perimeter
sound rings mostly eliminate overtones. Some jazz drummers avoid using thick drum heads, preferring single ply drum heads or drum heads with no muffling. Rock drummers often prefer the thicker or coated drum heads. The second biggest factor that affects drum sound is head tension against the shell. When the hoop is placed around the drum head and shell and tightened down with tension rods, the tension of the head can be adjusted. When the tension is increased, the
amplitude The amplitude of a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical composition * Period, a descriptor for ...
of the sound is reduced and the
frequency Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. Frequency is measured in Hertz (unit), hertz ( ...

frequency
is increased, making the pitch higher and the volume lower. The type of shell also affects the sound of a drum. Because the vibrations resonate in the shell of the drum, the shell can be used to increase the volume and to manipulate the type of sound produced. The larger the diameter of the shell, the lower the pitch. The larger the depth of the drum, the louder the volume. Shell thickness also determines the volume of drums. Thicker shells produce louder drums.
Mahogany Image:Swietenia macrophylla wood.jpg, Honduran mahogany Mahogany is a straight-Wood grain, grained, reddish-brown timber of three Tropics, tropical hardwood species of the genus ''Swietenia'', indigenous to the AmericasBridgewater, Samuel (20 ...
raises the frequency of low pitches and keeps higher frequencies at about the same speed. When choosing a set of shells, a jazz drummer may want smaller maple shells, while a rock drummer may want larger birch shells.


History

ceramic vessel depicting a drummer.
Larco Museum The Larco Museum (officially known as Rafael Larco Herrera Archaeological Museum, in es, Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera, links=no) is a privately owned museum of pre-Columbian art, located in the Pueblo Libre District of Lima Lima ( ...
Collection. Lima-Peru Alligator drum, Drums made with alligator skins have been found in
Neolithic cultures The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...

Neolithic cultures
located in China, dating to a period of 5500–2350 BC. In literary records, drums manifested shamanistic characteristics and were often used in ritual ceremonies. The bronze Dong Son drum was fabricated by the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age syst ...
Dong Son culture The Dong Son culture or the Lạc Việt culture (named for Đông Sơn, a village in Thanh Hóa, Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , ...
of northern Vietnam. They include the ornate Ngoc Lu drum.


Animal drumming

Macaque monkey The macaques ( or ) constitute a genus (''Macaca'') of gregarious Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. The 23 species of macaques inhabit ranges throughout Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, lo ...
s drum objects in a rhythmic way to show social dominance and this has been shown to be processed in a similar way in their brains to vocalizations, suggesting an evolutionary origin to drumming as part of social communication. Other
primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by th ...

primate
s make drumming sounds by chest beating or hand clapping, and rodents such as
kangaroo rat Kangaroo rats, small mostly nocturnal rodents of genus ''Dipodomys'', are native to arid areas of western North America. The common name derives from their bipedal form. They hop in a manner similar to the much larger kangaroo, but developed this ...
s also make similar sounds using their paws on the ground.


Talking drums

Drums are used not only for their musical qualities, but also as a means of
communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner thought and outer world." As this definition indica ...
over great distances. The talking drums of Africa are used to imitate the tone patterns of spoken language. Throughout
Sri Lankan history The history of Sri Lanka is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of South Asia, Southeast Asia and Indian Ocean. The earliest human remains found on the geography of Sr ...
drums have been used for communication between the state and the community, and Sri Lankan drums have a history stretching back over 2500 years.


Drums in art

Drumming may be a purposeful expression of emotion for entertainment, spiritualism and communication. Many cultures practice drumming as a spiritual or religious passage and interpret drummed rhythm similarly to spoken language or prayer. Drumming has developed over millennia to be a powerful art form. Drumming is commonly viewed as the root of music and is sometimes performed as a kinesthetic dance. As a discipline, drumming concentrates on training the body to punctuate, convey and interpret musical rhythmic intention to an audience and to the performer.


Military uses

Chinese troops used tàigǔ drums to motivate troops, to help set a marching pace, and to call out orders or announcements. For example, during a war between Qi and Lu in 684 BC, the effect of drum on soldiers' morale is employed to change the result of a major battle. Fife-and-drum corps of Swiss mercenary foot soldiers also used drums. They used an early version of the snare drum carried over the player's right shoulder, suspended by a strap (typically played with one hand using
traditional grip In percussion A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it ...

traditional grip
). It is to this instrument that the English word "drum" was first used. Similarly, during the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country A country is a distinct territory, ...
rope-tension drums would be carried by junior officers as a means to relay commands from senior officers over the noise of battle. These were also hung over the shoulder of the drummer and typically played with two drum sticks. Different
regiment A regiment is a military unit. Its role and size varies markedly, depending on the country, military service, service and/or a administrative corps, specialisation. In Middle Ages, Medieval Europe, the term "regiment" denoted any large bod ...
s and companies would have distinctive and unique drum beats only they recognized. In the mid-19th century, the Scottish military started incorporating pipe bands into their Highland regiments. During pre-Columbian warfare, Aztec nations were known to have used drums to send signals to the battling warriors. The Nahuatl word for drum is roughly translated as ''huehuetl''.Aguilar-Moreno, Manuel. (2006). andbook to Life In the Aztec World/ref> The
Rig Veda ) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. After a scribal benediction ('), the first line has the first pada, RV 1.1.1a ('). The pitch-accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red. The ''Rigveda'' or ''Rig Veda'' (Sa ...
, one of the oldest religious scriptures in the world, contains several references to the use of the ''Dundhubi'' (war drum). Arya tribes charged into battle to the beating of the war drum and chanting of a hymn that appears in Book VI of the Rig Veda and also the Atharva Veda where it is referred to as the "Hymn to the battle drum".


Types

Handscroll detail of a Chinese percussionist playing a drum for a dancing woman, from a 12th-century remake of Gu_Hongzhong's_10th-century_originals,_Song_dynasty..html" ;"title="Song_dynasty.html" ;"title="Gu Hongzhong's 10th-century originals, Song dynasty">Gu Hongzhong's 10th-century originals, Song dynasty.">Song_dynasty.html" ;"title="Gu Hongzhong's 10th-century originals, Song dynasty">Gu Hongzhong's 10th-century originals, Song dynasty. * Aburukuwa *
Ashiko The ashiko is a drum, shaped like a tapered cylinder (or truncated cone) with the head on the wide end, and the narrow end open. It is made of hardwood and generally has a calfskin hide. Nowadays, goatskin is sometimes used, in imitation of the ...

Ashiko
* Atumpan * Bara *
Bass drum The bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. Drums consis ...

Bass drum
* Batá * Bedug * Bodhrán *
Bongo drum Bongos (Spanish: ''bongó'') are an Afro-Cuban Afro-Cubans are Cubans Cubans ( es, Cubanos), are people born in Cuba or with Cuban citizenship. Cuba is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic, religious and national backgrou ...
s *
Bougarabou A bougarabou (alternative spelling “Boucarabou”) is a set of drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membran ...
*
Cajón A cajón (; "box", "crate" or "drawer") is a box-shaped percussion instrument originally from Peru, played by slapping the front or rear faces (generally thin plywood) with the hands, fingers, or sometimes implements such as brushes, mallets, or ...
* Candombe drums * Chalice drum *
Chenda Chenda (ചെണ്ട) The Chanda ( ml, ചെണ്ട, ) is a cylindrical percussion instrument originating in the state of Kerala and widely used in Tulu Nadu of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India. In Tulu Nadu (Coastal Karnataka), it i ...
*
Cocktail drum Cocktail drums are a type of portable drum kit A drum set – also called a drum kit, trap set (an abbreviation of the word "contraption") or simply drums – is a collection of drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, p ...

Cocktail drum
*
Conga The conga, also known as tumbadora, is a tall, narrow, single-headed drum from Cuba. Congas are stave (wood), staved like barrels and classified into three types: quinto (drum), quinto (lead drum, highest), tres dos or tres golpes (middle), and t ...

Conga
* Crowdy-crawn * Darbuka * Damphu *
Davul The davul, tapan, atabal or tabl is a large double-headed drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. ...
*
Dayereh A ''dayereh'' (or doyra, dojra, dajre, doira, dajreja, daire) is a medium-sized frame drum with jingles, used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islami ...
* Dhak * Dhimay *
Dhol Dhol can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophone ...
*
Dholak The dholak is a two-headed hand-drum from the Indian subcontinent. It may have traditional cotton rope lacing, screw-turnbuckle tensioning or both combined: in the first case steel rings are used for tuning or pegs are twisted inside the laces. The ...

Dholak
*
Djembe A djembe or jembe ( ; from Maninka language, Malinke ''jembe'' , N'Ko script, N'Ko: ) is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands, originally from West Africa. According to the Bambara people in Mali, the name of the djembe ...

Djembe
* Dong Son drum *
Doumbek The goblet drum (also chalice drum, tarabuka, tarabaki, darbuka, derbake, debuka, doumbek, dumbec, dumbeg, dumbelek, tabla, tablah, tableh, toumperleki, tumbak, or zerbaghali, ( arz, دربوكة / ALA-LC romanization, "''Romanized''": Darbuka) ...
*
Dunun Dunun (; plural dunun) (also spelled dun dun or doundoun) is the generic name for a family of West African drums that have developed alongside the ''djembe'' in the Mandé peoples, Mande drum ensemble. A dunun is a rope-tuned cylindrical drum ...
* Ewe drums *
Fontomfrom Fontomfrom is a Bono people, Bono type of Hourglass drum, hourglass-shaped drum mostly used by an ensemble of Bono people to communicate Bono monarchy royal messages in a Bono people ethnic group setting. The Fontomfrom ensemble provides music for ...
*
Frame drum A frame drum is a drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. Drums consist of at least one Acoustic ...
*
Goblet drum The goblet drum (also chalice drum, tarabuka, tarabaki, darbuka, derbake, debuka, doumbek, dumbec, dumbeg, dumbelek, tabla, tablah, tableh, toumperleki, tumbak, or zerbaghali, ( arz, دربوكة / "''Romanized''": Darbuka) is a single head mem ...
*
Hand drumA hand drum is any type of drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. Drums consist of at least one Ac ...
*
Idakka The ''idakka'' (, literally'', in the middle''), also spelt edaykka/edakka, is an Hourglass drum, hourglass-shaped drum from Kerala in south India. This handy percussion instrument is very similar to the pan-Indian damaru. While the damaru is playe ...
* Ilimba drum *
Karyenda Image:Gitega_drums.JPG, Drums from Gitega, Burundi The ''karyenda'' is a traditional African music, African drum. It was the main symbol of Burundi and its ''King of Burundi, Mwami'' (King) and had semi-divine status. The ''Mwami'' was said to inte ...
* Kendang *
Kpanlogo ''Kpanlogo'' is a recreational dance and music form originating from the 1960s among urban youth in Accra, Ghana Accra (; tw, Nkran; dag, Ankara; gaa, Ga or ''Gaga'') is the Capital city, capital of Ghana covering an area of 225.67 km2 ...
* Lambeg drum * Log drum *
Madal The madal is a folk musical instrument of Nepal . The madal is used mainly for rhythm-keeping in Nepalese folk music Folk music includes #Traditional folk music, traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-centur ...

Madal
*
Mridangam The mridangam is a percussion instrument of ancient origin. It is the primary rhythmic accompaniment in a Carnatic music ensemble. A related instrument is the Kendang, played in Maritime Southeast Asia. During a percussion ensemble, the mri ...

Mridangam
*
Pahu The pahu or pau is a traditional musical instrument found in Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from gr, πολύς ''polys'' "many" and gr, νῆσος ''nēsos'' "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; ...
*
Pakhavaj The pakhavaj is a barrel-shaped, two-headed drum, originating from the Indian subcontinent, a variant and descendant of the older mridangam. The kendang of Maritime Southeast Asia is a distant relative of the pakhawaj and other South Asian double-h ...
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Repinique A repinique is a two-headed Germany, German drum used in samba ''baterias'' (percussion ensembles). It is used in the Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Carnival baterias and in the baterias of Bahia, where it is known as ''repique''. It is equivalen ...
* Side drum (marching snare drum) *
Slit drum Slit may refer to: * Slit (protein), in genetics, the midline repellent signaling molecule * Slitting, a shearing operation that cuts a large roll of material into narrower rolls * Slit trench, a defensive fighting position in warfare * Slit Woods ...
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Snare drum The snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin. Snare drums are often use ...
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Surdo Image:Olodum-drummers.jpg, thumbnail, Surdo drums in use in Michael Jackson's They Don't Care About Us video. The surdo is a large bass drum used in many kinds of Brazilian music, such as Axé/Samba-reggae and samba, where it plays the lower parts f ...
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Tabor The Taxpayer Bill of Rights (abbreviated TABOR) is a concept advocated by conservatism, conservative and free market libertarianism, libertarian groups, primarily in the United States, as a way of limiting the growth of government. It is not a bill ...
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Tamborim A ''tamborim'' ( or ) is a small, round Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2& ...
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Tambourine The tambourine is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the obje ...
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Taiko are a broad range of Traditional Japanese musical instruments, Japanese percussion instruments. In Japanese language, Japanese, the term refers to any kind of drum, but outside Japan, it is used specifically to refer to any of the various Jap ...

Taiko
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Tabla A tabla, prs, طبلا, gu, તબલા, hi, तबला, kn, ತಬಲಾ, ml, തബല, mr, तबला, ne, तबला, or, ତବଲା, ps, طبله, pa, ਤਬਲਾ, ta, தபலா, te, తబలా, ur, , group="nb ...

Tabla
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Talking drum The talking drum is an hourglass-shaped drum from West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintai ...

Talking drum
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Tassa In Trinidad and Tobago and other parts of the Caribbean, the term "tassa" refers to a drumming ensemble drawn from an amalgamation of various North Indian folk drumming traditions, most importantly dhol-tasha, a style that remains popular today in ...
(Tasha drum) * Tapan *
Tar Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation. Tar can be produced from coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-bl ...
* Tavil *
Tenor drumA tenor drum is a membranophone without a snare. There are several types of tenor drums. Early music Early music tenor drums, or long drums, are cylindrical membranophone without snare (percussion), snare used in Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque ...
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Timbales Timbales () or pailas are shallow single-headed drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. Drums ...
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Timpani Timpani (; ) or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion instrument, percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a hemispherical drum, they consist of a Membranophone, membrane called a drumhead, ...

Timpani
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Tombak The ''tombak'' (Persian language, Persian: تمبک), ''tonbak'' (تنبک), or ''zarb'' (ضَرب) is an Iranian goblet drum. It is considered the principal Rhythm in Persian music, percussion instrument of Persian music. The tombak is normally ...
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Tom-tom drum A tom drum is a cylindrical drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophones, membranophone. Drums consist of at least o ...
* Tongue drum *
Zabumba A zabumba () is a type of bass drum The bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membran ...


See also

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Blast beat A blast beat is a drum beat that originated in hardcore punk and grindcore, and is often associated with certain styles of extreme metal, namely black metal and death metal,Adam MacGregor, ''PCP Torpedo'' by Agoraphobic Nosebleed review, ''Dust ...
* Double drumming *
Drum beat ''Drum Beat'' is a 1954 CinemaScope western film in ''WarnerColor'' written and directed by Delmer Daves Delmer Lawrence Daves (July 24, 1904 – August 17, 1977) was an American screenwriter, director, producer, and actor. He was known for dr ...
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Drum circle A drum circle is any group of people playing (usually) hand-drums and percussion A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any obje ...

Drum circle
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Drumline upright=1 Marching percussion instruments are instruments specially designed to be played while moving. This is achieved by attaching the drum(s) to a special harness (also called a carrier or rack) worn by the drummer, although not all marchin ...
* Drum machine * Drum replacement * Drumsticks *
Electronic drum An electronic drum is a modern electronic musical instrument An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics, electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic o ...
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Gallop The canter and gallop are variations on the fastest gait Gait is the pattern of movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), commonly referred to as movemen ...
* Hearing the shape of a drum *
List of drummers This is a list of notable drummer thumbnail, Turkmenistan Independence Day, 2011 A drummer is a percussionist who creates music using drum The drum is a member of the percussion instrument, percussion group of musical instruments. In ...
* Practice pad * Vibrations of a circular drum


References


External links

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Drums (''Polish folk musical instruments'')
* {{Authority control Membranophones