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Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and
sub-surface water
sub-surface water
from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most
agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching tele ...

agricultural
soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms tha ...

soil
s is good enough to prevent severe waterlogging (anaerobic conditions that harm root growth), but many soils need artificial drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies.


History


Early history

The
Indus Valley Civilization , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...

Indus Valley Civilization
had
sewerage Sewerage (or sewage system) is the that conveys or (, , water) using sewers. It encompasses components such as receiving s, s, s, storm overflows, and screening chambers of the or . Sewerage ends at the entry to a or at the point of dischar ...
and drainage systems. All houses in the major cities of
Harappa Harappa (; Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The regi ...

Harappa
and
Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro (; sd, موئن جو دڙو'', ''meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men';
had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered
gravity sewer A gravity sewer is a conduit utilizing the energy resulting from a difference in elevation to remove unwanted water. The term ''sewer'' implies removal of sewage or surface runoff rather than water intended for use;''Design and Construction of Sani ...
s, which lined the major streets.


18th and 19th century

The invention of hollow-pipe drainage is credited to Sir Hugh Dalrymple, who died in 1753.


Current practices


Geotextiles

New drainage systems incorporate
geotextile Geotextiles are permeable s which, when used in association with , have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from or , geotextile fabrics come in three basic forms: (resembling mail bag sacking), (resem ...
filters that retain and prevent fine
grains A grain is a small, hard, dry – with or without an attached or layer – harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. The two main types of commercial grain crops are s and . After being harvested, dry ...
of
soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms tha ...

soil
from passing into and clogging the drain. Geotextiles are synthetic textile fabrics specially manufactured for
civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
and
environmental engineering Environmental engineering is a professional engineering discipline Discipline is action ACTION is a bus operator in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation o ...
applications. Geotextiles are designed to retain fine soil particles while allowing water to pass through. In a typical drainage system, they would be laid along a trench which would then be filled with coarse
granular material A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic scale, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when granulation, grains collide). Th ...
:
gravel Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel occurs naturally throughout the world as a result of sedimentary and erosive geologic processes; it is also produced in large quantities commercially as crushed stone. Gravel is classifie ...

gravel
,
sea shell A seashell or sea shell, also known simply as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer usually created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are often found washed up on beaches ...
s, stone or
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
. The geotextile is then folded over the top of the stone and the trench is then covered by soil.
Groundwater Groundwater is the water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living ...

Groundwater
seeps through the geotextile and flows through the stone to an outfell. In high
groundwater Groundwater is the water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living ...

groundwater
conditions a perforated plastic (
PVC Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom normally employed in conversatio ...
or
PE
PE
) pipe is laid along the base of the drain to increase the volume of water transported in the drain. Alternatively, a prefabricated plastic drainage system made of
HDPE High-density polyethylene Polyethylene or (incorrectly) polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents c ...
, often incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or
rag
rag
filter Filter, filtering or filters may refer to: Science and technology Device * Filter (chemistry), a device which separates solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass ** Filter (aquarium), critical ...
s can be considered. The use of these materials has become increasingly more common due to their ease of use which eliminates the need for transporting and laying stone drainage aggregate which is invariably more expensive than a synthetic drain and concrete liners. Over the past 30 years geotextile, PVC filters and HDPE filters have become the most commonly used soil filter media. They are cheap to produce and easy to lay, with factory controlled properties that ensure long term filtration performance even in fine silty soil conditions.


21st century alternatives

Seattle's Public Utilities created a pilot program called Street Edge Alternatives (SEA Streets) Project. The project focuses on designing a system "to provide drainage that more closely mimics the natural landscape prior to development than traditional piped systems".Seattle: Natural Drainage Systems
The streets are characterized by ditches along the side of the roadway, with plantings designed throughout the area. An emphasis on non curbed sidewalks allows water to flow more freely into the areas of permeable surface on the side of the streets. Because of the plantings, the run off water from the urban area does not all directly go into the ground, but can also be absorbed into the surrounding environment. Monitoring conducted by Seattle Public Utilities reports a 99 percent reduction of storm water leaving the drainage project Drainage has undergone a large-scale environmental review in the recent past in the United Kingdom.
Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Sustainable drainage systems (also known as SuDS,South_Karelia.html" ;"title="Lappeenranta, South Karelia">Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finla .... One such example is that of the London sewerage system The London sewerage system is part of the ...
(SUDS) are designed to encourage contractors to install drainage system that more closely mimic the natural flow of water in nature. Since 2010 local and neighbourhood planning in the UK is required by law to factor SUDS into any development projects that they are responsible for.
Slot drain A slot drain is a linear drain used to evacuate ground water. The difference between a slot drain and the traditional trench drain is that the slot drain does not have any kind of grating. In recent years, this drainage concept is more often used i ...
age has proved the most breakthrough product of the last twenty years as a drainage option. As a channel drainage system it is designed to eliminate the need for further pipework systems to be installed in parallel to the drainage, reducing the environmental impact of production as well as improving water collection.
Stainless steel Stainless steel is a group of that contain a minimum of approximately 11% , a composition that prevents the from ing and also provides heat-resistant properties.“Corrosion: Chemical process". ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', Chicago, IL: Encyc ...
,
concrete Concrete is a composed of fine and coarse bonded together with a fluid (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after water, and is the most widely used building material. Its ...

concrete
channel,
PVC Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom normally employed in conversatio ...

PVC
and
HDPE High-density polyethylene Polyethylene or (incorrectly) polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents c ...
are all materials available for slot drainage which have become industry standards on construction projects.


Drainage in the construction industry

The
civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and natu ...
is responsible for drainage in construction projects. They set out from the plans all the
road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadway A carriageway (British English British English (BrE) is the ...

road
s,
street gutter upStreet gutter in Gamla stan (Old Town), Stockholm A street gutter is a depression that runs parallel to a road and is designed to collect rainwater that flows along the street diverting it into a storm drain. A gutter alleviates water buildup on ...
s, drainage,
culvert A culvert is a structure that channels water past an obstacle or to channel a subterranean waterway. Typically embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may be made from a pipe (fluid conveyance), pipe, reinforced concrete or other m ...

culvert
s and sewers involved in
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
operations. During the construction process he/she will set out all the necessary levels for each of the previously mentioned factors. Civil engineers and construction managers work alongside
architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that h ...

architect
s and supervisors, planners,
quantity surveyor A Quantity Surveyor (QS) is a construction industry professional with expert knowledge on construction costs and contracts. Qualified professional quantity surveyors are known as Chartered Surveyors (Members and Fellows of The Royal Institution o ...
s, the general workforce, as well as subcontractors. Typically, most jurisdictions have some body of
drainage law Drainage law is a specific area of water law related to drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils ...
to govern to what degree a landowner can alter the drainage from his parcel. Drainage options for the construction industry include: * Point drainage, which intercepts water at gullies (points). Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. Support for deep trenches is required in the shape of planking, strutting or shoring. * Channel drainage, which intercepts water along the entire run of the channel. Channel drainage is typically manufactured from concrete, steel, polymer or composites. The interception rate of channel drainage is greater than point drainage and the excavation required is usually much less deep. The surface opening of channel drainage usually comes in the form of gratings (polymer, plastic, steel or iron) or a single slot (slot drain) that runs along the ground surface (typically manufactured from steel or iron). Review process


Drainage in retaining walls

Earth retaining structures such as
retaining wall Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting soil laterally so that it can be retained at different levels on the two sides. Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil to a slope that it would not naturally keep to ( ...

retaining wall
s also need to consider
groundwater Groundwater is the water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living ...

groundwater
drainage. Typical retaining walls are constructed of impermeable material which can block the path of groundwater. When groundwater flow is obstructed, hydrostatic
water pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies ma ...
buildups against the wall and may cause significant damage. If the water pressure is not drained appropriately, retaining walls can bow, move, fracture and seams separate. The water pressure can also erode soil particles leading to voids behind the wall and
sinkhole A sinkhole is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. The term is sometimes used to refer to doline, enclosed depressions that are locally also known as vrtače and shakeholes, and to openings ...

sinkhole
s in the above soil. Traditional retaining wall drainage systems can include, s, drain pipes or weep holes. To prevent soil erosion, Geotextile filter fabrics are installed with the drainage system.


Reasons for artificial drainage

Wetland soils may need drainage to be used for
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
. In the northern United States and Europe,
glaciation A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the o ...
created numerous small
lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable ove ...

lake
s which gradually filled with
humus In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...

humus
to make
marsh A marsh is a wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently (for years or decades) or seasonally (for weeks or months). Flooding results in oxygen-free (Anoxic waters, anoxic) processes prevail ...

marsh
es. Some of these were drained using open
ditch 150px, Waterplants growing in a ditch in the Netherlands, showing ''Sagittaria sagittifolia'' to the right. A ditch is a small to moderate divot created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alo ...

ditch
es and trenches to make mucklands, which are primarily used for high value crops such as
vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the edible flower, flowers, ...

vegetable
s. The largest project of this type in the world has been in process for centuries in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
. The area between
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
,
Haarlem Haarlem (; predecessor of ''Harlem'' in ) is a and in the . It is the of the of . Haarlem is situated at the northern edge of the , one of the s in Europe; it is also part of the . Haarlem had a population of in . Haarlem was granted cit ...

Haarlem
and
Leiden Leiden ( , ; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become ...

Leiden
was, in
prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study ...

prehistoric
times swampland and small lakes. Turf cutting (
Peat Peat (), also known as turf (), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, ...
mining Mining is the extraction of valuable mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occu ...

mining
),
subsidence Subsidence is a general term for downward vertical movement of the Earth's surface, which can be caused by both natural processes and human activities. Subsidence involves little or no horizontal movement, which distinguishes it from slope move ...
and shoreline
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
gradually caused the formation of one large lake, the
Haarlemmermeer Haarlemmermeer () is a List of municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality in the west of the Netherlands, in the Provinces of the Netherlands, province of North Holland. Haarlemmermeer is a polder, consisting of land reclaimed from water. The n ...

Haarlemmermeer
, or lake of Haarlem. The invention of wind-powered in the 15th century permitted drainage of some of the marginal land, but the final drainage of the lake had to await the design of large,
steam power from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...
ed pumps and agreements between regional authorities. The elimination of the lake occurred between 1849 and 1852, creating thousands of km² of new land. Coastal plains and river deltas may have seasonally or permanently high
water table The water table is the upper surface of the Phreatic zone, zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water. It can also be simply explained as the depth below which the ground is ...

water table
s and must have drainage improvements if they are to be used for agriculture. An example is the flatwoods
citrus ''Citrus'' is a of trees and s in the family, . Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as , , s, s, and . The genus ''Citrus'' is native to , , , , and . Various citrus species have been used and domesticat ...

citrus
-growing region of
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
. After periods of high rainfall, drainage pumps are employed to prevent damage to the citrus groves from overly wet soils.
Rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

Rice
production requires complete control of water, as fields need to be flooded or drained at different stages of the crop cycle. The Netherlands has also led the way in this type of drainage, not only to drain lowland along the shore, but actually pushing back the sea until the original nation has been greatly enlarged. In moist climates, soils may be adequate for cropping with the exception that they become waterlogged for brief periods each year, from
snow Snow comprises individual ice Ice is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). ...

snow
melt or from heavy
rain Rain is liquid water in the form of droplet Raindrops in a plant. A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechani ...

rain
s. Soils that are predominantly
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

clay
will pass water very slowly downward, meanwhile plant roots suffocate because the excessive water around the roots eliminates air movement through the soil.
Other soils may have an
impervious Permeability in fluid mechanics and the Earth sciences (commonly symbolized as ''k'') is a measure of the ability of a porous media, porous material (often, a Rock (geology), rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it. ...
layer of mineralized soil, called a
hardpan :''For the geography term, a dry terminus of an internally drained basin in a dry climate (i.e. salt flat/playa), see Dry lake.'' In soil science, agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock ...

hardpan
or relatively impervious rock layers may underlie shallow soils. Drainage is especially important in
tree fruit In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree fruit
production. Soils that are otherwise excellent may be waterlogged for a week of the year, which is sufficient to kill fruit trees and cost the productivity of the land until replacements can be established. In each of these cases appropriate drainage carries off temporary flushes of water to prevent damage to
annual Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Morocco, a settlement in northeastern Morocco *Annuals (band), a ...
or
perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and incl ...
crops. Drier areas are often farmed by
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated Domesti ...

irrigation
, and one would not consider drainage necessary. However, irrigation water always contains minerals and
salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure fo ...
s, which can be concentrated to toxic levels by
evapotranspiration Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of water evaporation and transpiration from a surface area to the Atmosphere of Earth, atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and ...

evapotranspiration
. Irrigated land may need periodic flushes with excessive irrigation water and drainage to control
soil salinity 249x249px, Saline incrustation in a PVC irrigation pipe from Brazil Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Salts occur naturally within soils and water. Salination can ...
.


See also

*
Bar ditch A bar or borrow ditch is a roadside channel dug for drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural Agric ...
*
Building construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form ...

Building construction
* Deep drainage * Drain commissioner *
Drain (plumbing) Image:Nortown firestop.jpg, 200px, Pipes coming from drains A drain is the primary vessel or conduit for unwanted water or waste liquids to be flumed away, either to a more useful area, funnelled into a receptacle, or run into sewers or stormw ...
*
Drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from surface runoff, rain runoff, snowm ...

Drainage basin
or watershed *
Drainage by wellsWell drainage means drainage of agricultural lands by wells. Agricultural land is drained by pumped wells (vertical drainage) to improve the soils by controlling water table levels and soil salinity. Introduction Subsurface (groundwater) drainage fo ...
*
Drainage divide In topography, a drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, water parting or ''height of land'' is elevated terrain that separates neighboring drainage basins. On rugged land, the divide lies along topographical ridges, and may ...
or watershed *
Drainage equationA drainage equation is an equation describing the relation between depth and spacing of parallel subsurface Drainage system (agriculture), drains, depth of the watertable, depth and hydraulic conductivity of the soils. It is used in drainage design. ...
*
Drainage researchDrainage research is the study of agricultural drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good eno ...
*
Drainage system (agriculture)An agricultural drainage system is a system by which water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the mai ...
*
Drainage system (geomorphology) In geomorphology Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speak ...
*
Geomorphology Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

Geomorphology
* Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) *
Hydrology Hydrology (from Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, ''hýdōr'' meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, ''lógos'' meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and ...
* John Johnston, who introduced land drainage to the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. *
Plumbing Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delive ...

Plumbing
** Potable cold and hot water supply **
Septic system Onsite sewage facilities (OSSF), also called septic systems, are wastewater Wastewater is generated after the use of fresh water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chem ...
s ** Sewage traps, drains, and vents *
Rain gutter A rain gutter, eavestrough, eaves-shoot or surface water collection channel is a component of a water discharge system for a building. It is necessary to prevent water dripping or flowing off roofs in an uncontrolled manner for several reasons ...

Rain gutter
*
Retaining wall Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting soil laterally so that it can be retained at different levels on the two sides. Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil to a slope that it would not naturally keep to ( ...

Retaining wall
*
Sewage collection and disposal The history of water supply and sanitation is one of a logistical challenge to provide clean water and sanitation Sanitation refers to public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventin ...
*
Soil salinity control Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land. The aim of soil salinity control is to prevent soil degradation by salination and land reclamation, reclaim already salty (salin ...
by subsurface drainage *
Tile drainageIn agriculture, tile drainage is a type of drainage system (agriculture), drainage system that removes excess water from soil below its surface. Whereas irrigation is the practice of providing additional water to soil when it is naturally too dry, dr ...
*
Trench drain A trench drain (also channel drain, line drain, slot drain, linear drain or strip drain) is a specific type of floor drain containing a dominant trough- or channel-shaped body. It is used for the rapid evacuation of surface water or for the cont ...
*
Trencher (machine) A trencher is a piece of construction equipment Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical ...
*
Urban exploration Urban exploration (often shortened as UE, urbex and sometimes known as roof-and-tunnel hacking) is the exploration of manmade structures, usually abandoned ruins or hidden components of the manmade environment. Photography and historical interes ...

Urban exploration
*
Watertable controlWatertable control is the practice of controlling the height of the water table The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water. It can ...


References


External links

{{Authority control Water management de:Drainage (Boden) pl:Drenaż (hydrogeologia)