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The cover of the thesis_presented_by_Claude_Bernard_to_obtain_his_Doctor_of_Medicine.html" ;"title="Claude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine">Claude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843) A doctorate (from Latin ''docere'', "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin ''doctor'', "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism ''licentia docendi'' ("licence to teach"). In most countries, a research degree qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field or work in a specific
profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognised body of learning derived from re ...

profession
. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the
Doctor of Philosophy A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin or ''doctor philosophiae'') is the most common Academic degree, degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole bre ...

Doctor of Philosophy
(PhD), awarded in many different fields, ranging from the
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
to
scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

scientific
disciplines. In the United States and some other countries, there are also some types of technical or
professional degreeA professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession A profession is an occupation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of wh ...
s that include "doctor's" in their name and are classified as a doctorate in some of those countries. Professional doctorates historically came about to meet the needs of practitioners in a variety of disciplines. Many universities also award
honorary doctorate An honorary degree is an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic d ...
s to individuals deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or other contributions to the university or society.


History


Middle Ages

The term ''doctor'' derives from Latin, meaning "teacher" or "instructor". The doctorate (Latin: ''doctoratus'') appeared in
medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
as a license to teach Latin (''licentia docendi'') at a
university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...
. Its roots can be traced to the
early church The history of Christianity concerns the Christianity, Christian religion, Christendom, Christian countries, and the Christian Church, Church with its various Christian denomination, denominations, from the Christianity in the 1st century, 1st ...
in which the term ''doctor'' referred to the
Apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, parti ...

Apostles
,
church fathers The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers who established the intellectual and doctrinal foundations of Christianity Christianity is ...

church fathers
, and other
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible. The right to grant a ''licentia docendi'' (i.e. the doctorate) was originally reserved to the
Catholic church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wor ...

Catholic church
, which required the applicant to pass a test take an
oath of allegiance An oath of allegiance is an oath Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It sha ...

oath of allegiance
, and pay a fee. The
Third Council of the Lateran The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the eleventh ecumenical council. Pope Alexander III presided and 302 bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is gen ...
of 1179 guaranteed access—at that time essentially free of charge—to all able applicants. Applicants were tested for aptitude. This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the universities, slowly distancing themselves from the Church. In 1213 the right was granted by the
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
to the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin La ...
, where it became a universal license to teach (''licentia ubique docendi''). However, while the ''licentia'' continued to hold a higher prestige than the
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin ''baccalaureus'') or baccalaureate (from New Latin, Modern Latin ''baccalaureatus'') is an Undergraduate degree, undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a cours ...
(''baccalaureus''), the latter was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the master's degree (''magister'') and doctorate, both of which now became the accepted teaching qualifications. According to Keith Allan Noble (1994), the first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around 1150 by the University of Paris.
George Makdisi George Abraham Makdisi was born in Detroit, Michigan, on May 15, 1920. He died in Media, Pennsylvania, on September 6, 2002. He was a professor of oriental studies Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far ...
theorizes that the ''
ijazah An ''ijazah'' ( ar, الإِجازَة, "permission", "authorization", "license"; plural: ''ijazahs'' or ''ijazat'') is a license authorizing its holder to transmit a certain text or subject, which is issued by someone already possessing such au ...

ijazah
'' issued in early Islamic
madrasah Madrasa (, also , ; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Mich ...

madrasah
s was the origin of the doctorate later issued in medieval European
universities A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate ...
.
Alfred Guillaume Alfred Guillaume DD (8 November 1888 – 30 November 1965) was a British Christian Arabist, Islamic studies, scholar of Islam and Hebrew Bible / Old Testament scholar. Career Guillaume was born in Edmonton, London, Edmonton, Middlesex, the ...
and
Syed Farid al-Attas Syed Farid Alatas ( ar, سيد فريد العطاس ) is a Malaysian author and educator, serving as a professor in the Department of Sociology at the National University of Singapore The National University of Singapore (NUS) is the nationa ...
agree that there is a resemblance between the ''ijazah'' and the ''licentia docendi''. However,
Toby Huff Toby E. Huff was born in Portland, Maine, on April 24, 1942. He was trained as a sociologist but has been increasingly drawn to questions in the history, philosophy and sociology of science. Those inquiries led him to undertake Max Weber-inspired ...
and others reject Makdisi's theory. Devin J. Stewart notes a difference in the granting authority (individual professor for the ''ijzazah'' and a corporate entity in the case of the university doctorate).


17th and 18th centuries

The
doctorate of philosophy A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
developed in Germany in the 17th century (likely c. 1652). The term "philosophy" does not refer solely to the field or academic discipline of
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such ques ...

philosophy
. Still, it is used in a broader sense under its original
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
meaning: "love of wisdom". In most of
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...

Europe
, all fields (
history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 millio ...

history
, philosophy,
social sciences Social science is the branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central tru ...

social sciences
,
mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It has no generally ...
, and
natural philosophy Image:Planisphæri cœleste.jpg, 280px, A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin ''philosophia naturalis'') was the philosophy, philosophical study of ...
/
natural sciences Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer r ...
) were traditionally known as philosophy, and in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of
liberal arts Liberal arts education (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the po ...
was known as the "faculty of philosophy". The Doctorate of Philosophy adheres to this historic convention, even though most degrees are not for the study of philosophy. Chris Park explains that it was not until formal education and degree programs were standardized in the early 19th century that the Doctorate of Philosophy was reintroduced in Germany as a research degree,Park, C. (2007)
''Redefining the Doctorate''
, York, UK: The Higher Education Academy, p. 4.
abbreviated as Dr. phil. (similar to Ph.D. in Anglo-American countries). Germany, however, differentiated then in more detail between doctorates in philosophy and doctorates in the natural sciences, abbreviated as Dr. rer. nat. and also doctorates in the social/political sciences, abbreviated as Dr. rer. pol., similar to the other traditional doctorates in medicine (Dr. med.) and law (Dr. jur.). University doctoral training was a form of
apprenticeship An apprenticeship is a system for training a new generation of practitioners of a trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a gr ...

apprenticeship
to a
guild A guild is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as organizations of tradesmen, belonging to: a professional association, a trade union, a ...
. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Masters of Arts" was seven years, matching the apprenticeship term for other occupations. Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the
master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professiona ...
. University degrees, including doctorates, were originally restricted to men. The first women to be granted doctorates were
Juliana Morell Juliana Morell (16 February 1594 – 26 June 1653) was a Spanish Dominican nun and intellectual child prodigy. Some sources assert that she received a doctorate in canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is ...
in 1608 at Lyons or maybe Avignog (she "defended theses" in 1606 or 1607, although claims that she received a doctorate in
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical jurisdiction, ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or churc ...
in 1608 have been discredited),
Elena Cornaro Piscopia Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (, ) or Elena Lucrezia Corner (; 5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684), also known in English as Helen Cornaro, was a Venetian philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' come ...

Elena Cornaro Piscopia
in 1678 at the
University of Padua The University of Padua ( it, Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is an Italian university located in the city of Padua, region of Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , p ...
,
Laura Bassi Laura Maria Caterina Bassi Veratti (29 October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was an Italian physicist and academic. Recognized and depicted as "Minerva" (goddess of wisdom), she was the first woman to have a doctorate in science, and List of women w ...

Laura Bassi
in 1732 at
Bologna University The University of Bologna ( it, Alma mater studiorum - Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of high ...
,
Dorothea Erxleben Dorothea Christiane Erxleben ''née'' Leporin (13 November 1715, Quedlinburg Quedlinburg () is a town situated just north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany ) , image_map = , map ...

Dorothea Erxleben
in 1754 at
Halle University Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (german: Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg), also referred to as MLU, is a public, research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of ...
and María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda in 1785 at
Complutense University The Complutense University of Madrid ( es, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, links=no, ''Universidad de Madrid'', ''Universidad Central de Madrid''; la, Universitas Complutensis Matritensis, links=no) is a public In public relations and ...
, Madrid.


Modern times

The use and meaning of the doctorate have changed over time and are subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century, few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in
holy orders In certain Christian churches Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church ...
. After that time, the German practice of requiring lecturers to have completed a research doctorate spread. Universities' shift to research-oriented education (based upon the scientific method, inquiry, and observation) increased the doctorate's importance. Today, a research doctorate (PhD) or its equivalent (as defined in the US by the ) is generally a prerequisite for an
academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the w ...
career. However, many recipients do not work in academia. Professional doctorates developed in the United States from the 19th century onward. The first professional doctorate offered in the United States was the
M.D. Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
at Kings College (now
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...
) after the medical school's founding in 1767. However, this was not a professional doctorate in the modern American sense. It was awarded for further study after the qualifying Bachelor of Medicine (M.B.) rather than a qualifying degree. The MD became the standard first degree in medicine in the US during the 19th century, but as a three-year undergraduate degree. It did not become established as a graduate degree until 1930. As the standard qualifying degree in medicine,the MD gave that profession the ability (through the
American Medical Association The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association and lobby group of physicians—both Doctor of Medicine, MDs and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, DOs—and medical students in the United ...
, established in 1847 for this purpose) to set and raise standards for entry into professional practice. In the shape of the German-style PhD, the modern research degree was first awarded in the US in 1861, at
Yale University Yale University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term ''Ivy ...
. This differed from the MD in that the latter was a vocational "
professional degreeA professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession A profession is an occupation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of wh ...
" that trained students to apply or practice knowledge rather than generate it, similar to other students in vocational schools or institutes. In the UK, research doctorates initially took higher doctorates in Science and Letters, first introduced at
Durham University , mottoeng = Her foundations are upon the holy hills ( Psalm 87:1) , established = (university status) , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the ...
in 1882. The PhD spread to the UK from the US via Canada and was instituted at all British universities from 1917. The first (titled a DPhil) was awarded at the
University of Oxford , mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = £2.145 billion (2019–20) , chancellor = Chris Patten, The Lord Patten of Barnes , vice_chancellor = Louis ...
. Following the MD, the next professional doctorate in the US, the
Juris Doctor The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D., JD, D.Jur., or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. Although a graduate degree, the J ...
(J.D.), was established by the University of Chicago in 1902. However, it took a long time to be accepted, not replacing the Bachelor of Laws (LLB) until the 1960s, by which time the LLB was generally taken as a graduate degree. Notably, the JD and LLB curriculum were identical, with the degree being renamed as a doctorate, and it (like the MD) was not equivalent to the PhD, raising criticism that it was "not a 'true Doctorate. When professional doctorates were established in the UK in the late 1980s and early 1990s, they did not follow the US model. Still, they were set up as research degrees at the same level as PhDs but with some taught components and a professional focus for research work. Now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, the older-style doctorates take much longer to complete since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are less common than the PhD in some countries and are often awarded ''
honoris causa An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived all of the usual requirements, such as matriculation, attendance, course credits, a dissertation, and the passing of comprehen ...

honoris causa
''. The
habilitation Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship in many European countries. Despite changes implemented in European higher-education systems consequent to the Bologna ...
is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU. It involves either a long new thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications. The habilitation (highest available degree) demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing, and, more recently, the ability to generate supportive funding. The habilitation follows the research doctorate, and in Germany, it can be a requirement for appointment as a ''
Privatdozent ''Privatdozent'' (for men) or ''Privatdozentin'' (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualificat ...
'' or professor.


Types

Since the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
, the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities have proliferated throughout the world. Practice varies from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as "doctor", the use of the title varies widely, depending on the type and the associated occupation.


Research doctorate

Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of publishable academic research, at least in principle, in a
peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may re ...
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...
. The best-known research degree title in the
English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wor ...
, is
Doctor of Philosophy A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin or ''doctor philosophiae'') is the most common Academic degree, degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole bre ...

Doctor of Philosophy
(abbreviated Ph.D., PhD or, at some British universities, DPhil) awarded in many countries throughout the world. In the U.S., for instance, although the most typical research doctorate is the PhD, accounting for about 98% of the research doctorates awarded, there are more than 15 other research doctorate types. Other research doctorates include, the
Doctor of EducationThe Doctor of Education (Ed.D. or D.Ed.; Latin ''Educationis Doctor'' or ''Doctor Educationis'') is both a research and professional doctoral degree that focuses on the field of education Education is the process of facilitating learnin ...
(Ed.D. or EdD), the
Doctor of Science :''For the degree granted by Soviet institutions, see Doctor of Sciences.'' Doctor of Science ( la, links=no, Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries thro ...
(D.Sc. or Sc.D.),
Doctor of Arts The Doctor of Arts (D.A.; occasionally D.Arts or Art.D. from the Latin language, Latin ''artium doctor'') is a List of academic disciplines, discipline-based terminal degree, terminal doctorate, doctoral academic degree, degree that was originally ...
(D.A.),
Doctor of Juridical Science Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of the Science of Law, (in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
(J.S.D. or S.J.D.),
Doctor of Musical Arts The Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA) is a doctorate, doctoral academic degree in music. The DMA combines advanced studies in an applied area of specialization (usually Performance, music performance, music composition, or conducting) with graduate-leve ...
(D.M.A.),
Doctor of Professional Studies The Doctor of Professional Studies (or sometimes awarded as Doctorate in Professional Practice) (most commonly DProf, but also available as ProfD and DPS) is a doctoral degree for experienced professionals who wish to undertake a program that is app ...
/Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc or DProf),
Doctor of Public Health A Doctor of Public Health (abbr. DrPH, Dr.PH. or D.P.H.; Latin ) is a doctoral degree awarded in the field of Public health, Public Health. DrPH is an advanced and terminal degree that prepares its recipients for a career in advancing public health ...
(Dr.P.H.),
Doctor of Social ScienceThe Doctor of Social Science (DSocSci, SScD or DSS) degree is the highest degree offered by some universities in the field of social sciences, for which other universities confer a Ph.D.. Like the PhD, it is recognized as a terminal research degree ...
(D.S.Sc. or DSocSci),
Doctor of ManagementThe Doctor of Management (DM) is an applied research doctorate (or professional practice doctorate) with a degree focus in management, leadership, and organizational topics."
(D.M. or D.Mgt.),
Doctor of Business Administration The Doctor of Business Administration (commonly abbreviated as D.B.A., DBA, DrBA, or Dr.B.A) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study, examinations, project work and research in business administration. The D.B.A. is a terminal ...
(D.B.A. or DBA), the UK
Doctor of ManagementThe Doctor of Management (DM) is an applied research doctorate (or professional practice doctorate) with a degree focus in management, leadership, and organizational topics."
(DMan), various doctorates in engineering, such as the US
Doctor of Engineering The Doctor of Engineering, or Engineering Doctorate, (abbreviated Eng.D., D.Eng., D.Engr., Dr.Eng., or Dr.-Ing.) is a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of advanced study and research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work ...
(D.Eng., D.E.Sc. or D.E.S., also awarded in Japan and South Korea), the UK
Engineering Doctorate Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...
(EngD), the German engineering doctorate ''
DoktoringenieurThe Doktoringenieur (acronym Dr.-Ing., also ''Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften'') is the German engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, inc ...
'' (''Dr.-Ing.'') the German natural science doctorate ''Doctor rerum naturalium'' ('' Dr. rer. nat.'') and the economics and social science doctorate ''Doctor rerum politicarum'' ('' Dr. rer. pol.''). The UK
Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin language, Latin ''Medicinae Doctor'') is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, and some other countries, the M.D. denotes a profess ...
(MD or MD (Res)) and
Doctor of Dental Surgery There are a number of professional degreeA professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession A profession is an occupation founded upon specializ ...
(DDS) are research doctorates. The
Doctor of Theology Doctor of Theology ( la, Doctor Theologiae, abbreviated DTh, ThD, DTheol, or Dr. theol.) is a terminal degree in the academic discipline of theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, divine and, more broadly, of reli ...
(Th.D., D.Th. or ThD),
Doctor of Practical Theology The Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT, DPTh) is a professional doctorate developed for those seeking to apply theological principles to their professional practice. It should not be confused with a Doctor of Philosophy A Doctor of Philo ...
(DPT) and the
Doctor of Sacred Theology Doctor of Sacred Theology ( la, Sacrae Theologiae Doctor ''STD formerly Professor of Sacred Theology, ''STP is the final theological degree in the pontifical university system of the Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Church. The two terms were o ...
(S.T.D., or D.S.Th.) are research doctorates in theology. Criteria for research doctorates vary but typically require completion of a substantial body of original research, which may be presented as a single
thesis A thesis or dissertation (abbreviated diss.) is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher educa ...
or dissertation, or as a portfolio of shorter project reports (
thesis by publicationA thesis as a collection of articlesWri ...
). The submitted dissertation is assessed by a committee of, typically, internal, and external examiners. It is then typically defended by the candidate during an oral examination (called ''viva (voce)'' in the UK and India) by the committee, which then awards the degree unconditionally, awards the degree conditionally (ranging from corrections in grammar to additional research), or denies the degree. Candidates may also be required to complete graduate-level courses in their field and study research methodology. Criteria for admission to doctoral programs vary. Students may be admitted with a bachelor's degree in the U.S. and the U.K. However, elsewhere, e.g. in Finland and many other European countries, a master's degree is required. The time required to complete a research doctorate varies from three years, excluding undergraduate study, to six years or more.


Licentiate

Licentiate degrees vary widely in their meaning, and a few countries are doctoral-level qualifications.
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's for ...

Sweden
awards the licentiate degree as a two-year qualification at the doctoral level and the doctoral degree (PhD) as a four-year qualification. Sweden originally abolished the Licentiate in 1969 but reintroduced it in response to demands from business. Finland also has a two-year doctoral level licentiate degree, similar to Sweden's. Outside of Scandinavia, the licentiate is usually a lower-level qualification. In Belgium, the licentiate was the basic university degree prior to the
Bologna Process The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area ...
and was equivalent to a bachelor's degree. In France and other countries, it is the bachelor's-level qualification in the Bologna process. In the Pontifical system, the Licentiate in Sacred Theology (STL) is equivalent to an advanced master's degree, or the post-master's coursework required in preparation for a doctorate (i.e. similar in level to the Swedish/Finnish licentiate degree). While other licences (such as the Licence in Canon Law) are at the level of master's degrees.


Higher doctorate and post-doctoral degrees

A higher tier of research doctorates may be awarded based on a formally submitted portfolio of published research of an exceptionally high standard. Examples include the
Doctor of Science :''For the degree granted by Soviet institutions, see Doctor of Sciences.'' Doctor of Science ( la, links=no, Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries thro ...
(DSc) and
Doctor of Letters Doctor of Letters (D.Litt., Litt.D., D.Lit., or Lit.D.; Latin ' or ') is a terminal degree in the humanities that, depending on the country, may be considered equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or equal to a higher doctorate, such as t ...
(DLitt) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to Denmark, Norw ...

Scandinavia
. The École Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin of the
Université catholique de Louvain The Université catholique de Louvain (also known as the Catholic University of Louvain, the English translation of its French name, and the University of Louvain, its official English name) is Belgium's largest French-speaking university. It is ...
, for instance, has offered the opportunity for students who had already earned a doctorate to earn the degree of Maître Agrégé (M.Agg.) (''Magister Aggregatus''). The
habilitation Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship in many European countries. Despite changes implemented in European higher-education systems consequent to the Bologna ...
teaching qualification (''facultas docendi'' or "faculty to teach") under a university procedure with a thesis and an exam is commonly regarded as belonging to this category in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
,
Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is composed of nine States of Austria, federated states, one of which is Vienna, Austria's ca ...
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
,
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein ( ; ), officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (german: link=no, Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German language, German-speaking microstate located in the Alps between Austria and Switzerland. Liechtenstein is a constituti ...

Liechtenstein
,
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...

Switzerland
,
Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and ha ...

Poland
, etc. The degree developed in Germany in the 19th century "when holding a doctorate seemed no longer sufficient to guarantee a proficient transfer of knowledge to the next generation." In many federal states of Germany, the habilitation results in an award of a formal "Dr. habil." degree or the holder of the degree may add "habil." to their research doctorate such as "Dr. phil. habil." or "Dr. rer. nat. habil." In some European universities, especially in
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
-speaking countries, the degree is insufficient to have teaching duties without professor supervision (or teaching and supervising PhD students independently) without an additional teaching title such as
Privatdozent ''Privatdozent'' (for men) or ''Privatdozentin'' (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualificat ...
. In Austria, the habilitation bestows the graduate with the ''facultas docendi'', ''venia legendi.'' Since 2004, the honorary title of "Privatdozent" (before this, completing the habilitation resulted in appointment as a civil servant). In many
Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southe ...
countries, the degree gives ''venia legendi'', Latin for "the permission to lecture," or ''ius docendi'', "the right to teach," a specific academic subject at universities for a lifetime. The French academic system used to have a higher doctorate, called the "state doctorate" (''doctorat d'État''). Still, it was superseded by the habilitation (''habilitation à diriger des recherches'', "accreditation to supervise research", abbreviated HDR) in 1984. Higher doctorates are often also awarded ''
honoris causa An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived all of the usual requirements, such as matriculation, attendance, course credits, a dissertation, and the passing of comprehen ...

honoris causa
'' when a university formally recognize an individual's achievements and contributions to a particular field.


Professional doctorate

Depending on the country, professional doctorates may also be research degrees at the same level as
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
s. The relationship between research and practice is considered important and
professional degreeA professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession A profession is an occupation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of wh ...
s with little or no research content are typically aimed at professional performance. Many professional doctorates are named "Doctor of ubject nameand abbreviated using the form "D ubject abbreviation or " ubject abbreviation", or may use the more generic titles "Professional Doctorate", abbreviated "ProfDoc" or "DProf", "
Doctor of Professional Studies The Doctor of Professional Studies (or sometimes awarded as Doctorate in Professional Practice) (most commonly DProf, but also available as ProfD and DPS) is a doctoral degree for experienced professionals who wish to undertake a program that is app ...
" (DPS) or "Doctor of Professional Practice" (DPP). In the US, professional doctorates (formally "doctor's degree – professional practice" in government classifications) are defined by the
US Department of Education The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...
's National Center for Educational Statistics. These degrees that require a minimum of six years of university-level study (including any pre-professional bachelor's or associate degree) and meet the academic requirements for professional
licensure Licensure means a restricted practice or a restriction on the use of an occupational title, requiring a license. A license created under a "practice act" requires a license before performing a certain activity, such as driving a car on public roads ...
in the discipline. The definition does not include a dissertation or study beyond master's level, in contrast to the definition for research doctorates ("doctor's degree – research/scholarship"). However, individual programs may have different requirements. There is also a category of "doctor's degree – other" for doctorates that do not fall into either the "professional practice" or "research/scholarship" categories. All of these are considered doctoral degrees. In contrast to the US, many countries reserve the term "doctorate" for research degrees. If, as in Canada and Australia, professional degrees bear the name "Doctor of ...", etc., it is made clear that these are not doctorates. Examples of this include Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), Doctor of Medicine (MD), Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS), Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP), and Juris Doctor (JD). Contrariwise, for example, research doctorates like Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), Doctor of Education (EdD) and Doctor of Social Science (DSS) qualify as full academic doctorates in Canada though they normally incorporate aspects of professional practice in addition to a full dissertation. In the Philippines, the University of the Philippines Open University offers a Doctor of Communication (DComm) professional doctorate. All doctorates in the UK and Ireland are third cycle qualifications in the
Bologna Process The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area ...
, comparable to US research doctorates. Although all doctorates are research degrees, professional doctorates normally include taught components, while the name PhD/DPhil is normally used for doctorates purely by thesis. Professional, practitioner, or practice-based doctorates such as the DClinPsy, MD, DHSc, EdD, DBA and EngD are full academic doctorates. They are at the same level as the PhD in the national qualifications frameworks; they are not first professional degrees but are "often post-experience qualifications" in which practice is considered important in the research context. In 2009 there were 308 professional doctorate programs in the UK, up from 109 in 1998, with the most popular being the EdD (38 institutions), DBA (33), EngD/DEng (22), MD/DM (21), and DClinPsy/DClinPsych/ClinPsyD (17). Similarly, in Australia, the term "professional doctorate" is sometimes applied to the '''' (SJD), which, like the UK professional doctorates, is a research degree.


Honorary doctorate

When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's contributions to a particular field or
philanthropic Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, which are private initiatives for private good, focusing on material gain, and with government en ...

philanthropic
efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree ('for the sake of the honor'), waiving the usual requirements for granting the degree. Some universities do not award honorary degrees, for example,
Cornell University Cornell University is a Private university, private Ivy League and Statutory college, statutory Land-grant university, land-grant research university, based in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, Cornell w ...
, the
University of Virginia The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA) is a Public university#United States, public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia. It was founded in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. It is the f ...

University of Virginia
, and
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Bos ...
.


National variations


Argentina

In
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered b ...
the doctorate () is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce original contributions in their field knowledge within a frame of academic excellence. A dissertation or thesis is prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director. It is reviewed by a Doctoral Committee composed of examiners external to the program and at least one examiner external to the institution. The degree is conferred after a successful dissertation defence. In 2006, there were approximately 2,151 postgraduate careers in the country, of which 14% were doctoral degrees. Doctoral programs in Argentina are overseen by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation, an agency in Argentina's Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.


Brazil

Doctoral candidates are normally required to have a
master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professiona ...
in a related field. Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict. The admissions process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only. In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant. Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge. The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external. After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of ''Doutor'' (Doctor) followed by the main area of specialization, e.g. ''Doutor em Direito'' (Doctor of Laws), ''Doutor em Ciências da Computação'' (Doctor of Computer Sciences), ''Doutor em Filosofia'' (Doctor of Philosophy), ''Doutor em Economia'' (Doctor of Economics), ''Doutor em Engenharia'' (Doctor of Engineering) or ''Doutor em Medicina'' (Doctor of Medicine). The generic title of ''Doutor em Ciências'' (Doctor of Sciences) is normally used to refer collectively to doctorates in the natural sciences (i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc.) All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free (mandated by the
Brazilian constitution The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil ( pt, Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the Constitution, supreme law of Brazil. It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil a ...
). Some graduate students are additionally supported by institutional scholarships granted by federal government agencies like CNPq (''Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico'') and CAPES (''Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento do Pessoal de Ensino Superior''). Personal scholarships are provided by the various FAP's (''Fundações de Amparo à Pesquisa'') at the state level, especially FAPESP in the state of
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a municipality in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an global city, alpha global city (as listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Ga ...
, FAPERJ in the state of
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (; ;), or simply Rio, is the List of largest cities in Brazil, second-most populous city in Brazil and the Largest cities in the Americas, sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of States of Brazil, the ...

Rio de Janeiro
and FAPEMIG in the state of
Minas Gerais Minas Gerais () is a state in Southeastern Brazil The Southeast Region of Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5&nb ...

Minas Gerais
. Competition for graduate financial aid is intense and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master's studies and 4 years of doctoral studies. The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between US$500 and $1000. A degree of ''Doutor'' usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to a US assistant professor. Progression to full professorship, known as ''Professor Titular'' requires that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes additional years. In the federal university system, doctors who are admitted as junior faculty members may progress (usually by seniority) to the rank of associate professor, then become eligible to take the competitive exam for vacant full professorships. In São Paulo state universities, associate professorships and subsequent eligibility to apply for a full professorship are conditioned on the qualification of Livre-docente and requires, in addition to a doctorate, a second thesis or cumulative portfolio of peer-reviewed publications, a public lecture before a panel of experts (including external members from other universities), and a written exam. In recent years some initiatives as jointly supervised doctorates (e.g. "cotutelles") have become increasingly common in the country, as part of the country's efforts to open its universities to international students.


Denmark

Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central Constituent state, constituent of the Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, a constitution ...
offers four levels of degrees: #A three-year bachelor's degree (e.g. Bachelor of Arts degree) #A five-year candidate's degree (e.g. ''Candidatus/Candidata Magisterii''), generally compared to a master's degree #A ph.d. degree, which replaced the licentiate in 1988 #A doctor's degree (e.g. ''Doctor Philosophiae''), which is the higher doctorate. (A three-year extended research program, leading to the magister's degree was phased out to meet the international standards of the
Bologna Process The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area ...
.) For the Ph.D. degree, the candidate writes a thesis and defends it orally at a formal
disputation In the scholastic system of education of the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned int ...

disputation
. In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the
auditorium An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances. For movie theatres, the number of auditoria (or auditoriums) is expressed as the number of screens. Auditoria can be found in entertainment venues, community h ...
''(ex auditorio)''. For the higher doctorate, the candidate writes a major thesis and has to defend it orally in which the candidate (called ''præses'') defends this thesis against two official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium (''ex auditorio'').


Egypt

In Egypt, the highest degree doctorate is awarded by
Al-Azhar University Al-Azhar University ( ; ar, 1=جامعة الأزهر (الشريف), , "the (honorable) University of Al-Azhar") is a university in Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and larges ...
est. 970, which grants ( العالمية Ālimiyya\
Habilitation Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship in many European countries. Despite changes implemented in European higher-education systems consequent to the Bologna ...
). The Medical doctorate (abbreviated as M.D.) is equivalent to the
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
degree. To earn an M.D. in a science specialty, one must have a master's degree (M.Sc.) (or two diplomas before the introduction of M.Sc. degree in Egypt) before applying. The M.D. degree involves courses in the field and defending a dissertation. It takes on average three to five years. Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a doctorate. After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship (house officer), physicians and surgeons earn the M.B. B.Ch. degree, which is equivalent to a US MD degree. They can then apply to earn a master's degree or a speciality diploma, then an MD degree in a specialty. The Egyptian M.D. degree is written using the name of one's specialty. For example, M.D. (Geriatrics) means a doctorate in
Geriatrics Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. It aims to promote health by prevention (medical), preventing and treating diseases and disabilities in older adults. There is no set age at which pa ...
, which is equivalent to a Ph.D. in Geriatrics.


Finland

The Finnish requirement for the entrance into doctoral studies is a master's degree or equivalent. All universities have the right to award doctorates. The ''ammattikorkeakoulu'' institutes (institutes of higher vocational education that are not universities but often called "Universities of Applied Sciences" in English) do not award doctoral or other academic degrees. The student must: * Demonstrate understanding of their field and its meaning, while preparing to use scientific or scholarly study in their field, creating new knowledge. * Obtain a good understanding of development, basic problems and research methods * Obtain such understanding of the general theory of science and letters and such knowledge of neighbouring research fields that they are able to follow the development of these fields. The way to show that these general requirements have been met is: * Complete graduate coursework. * Demonstrate critical and independent thought * Prepare and publicly defend a dissertation (a
monograph A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference work A reference work is a work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it a ...

monograph
or a
compilation thesisA thesis as a collection of articlesClaude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843). A doctora ... dissertation that, as opposed to a coherent monog ...
of peer-reviewed articles). In fine arts, the dissertation may be substituted by works and/or performances as accepted by the faculty. Entrance to a doctoral program is available only for holders of a master's degree; there is no honors procedure for recruiting Bachelors. Entrance is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict
numerus clausus ''Numerus clausus'' ("closed number" in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Throug ...
is applied. Usually, a prospective student discusses their plans with a professor. If the professor agrees to accept the student, the student applies for admission. The professor may recruit students to their group. Formal acceptance does not imply funding. The student must obtain funding either by working in a research unit or through private scholarships. Funding is more available for natural and engineering sciences than in letters. Sometimes, normal work and research activity are combined. Prior to introduction of the Bologna process, Finland required at least 42 credit weeks (1,800 hours) of formal coursework. The requirement was removed in 2005, leaving the decision to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties or individual professors. In Engineering and Science, required coursework varies between 40 and 70 ECTS. The duration of graduate studies varies. It is possible to graduate three years after the master's degree, while much longer periods are not uncommon. The study ends with a dissertation, which must present substantial new scientific/scholarly knowledge. The dissertation can either be a monograph or it an edited collection of 3 to 7 journal articles. Students unable or unwilling to write a dissertation may qualify for a licentiate degree by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually summarizing one year of research. When the dissertation is ready, the faculty names two expert pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside the university. During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and respond with modifications. After the pre-examiners approve, the doctoral candidate applies the faculty for permission to print the thesis. When granting this permission, the faculty names the ''opponent'' for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert, with at least a doctorate. In all Finnish universities, long tradition requires that the printed dissertation hang on a cord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days prior to for the dissertation defence. The doctoral dissertation takes place in public. The opponent and the candidate conduct a formal debate, usually wearing
white tie White tie, also called full evening dress or a dress suit, is the most formal wear, formal in traditional evening western dress codes. For men, it consists of a black tailcoat#Dress coat, tail coat (alternatively referred to as a dress coat, usua ...
, under the supervision of the thesis supervisor. Family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community customarily attend the defence. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins with an approximately 20-minute popular lecture (''lectio praecursoria''), that is meant to introduce laymen to the thesis topic. The opponent follows with a short talk on the topic, after which the pair critically discuss the dissertation. The proceedings take two to three hours. At the end the opponent presents their final statement and reveals whether he/she will recommend that the faculty accept it. Any member of the public then has an opportunity to raise questions, although this is rare. Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the candidate drink coffee with the public. Usually, the attendees of the defence are given the printed dissertation. In the evening, the passed candidate hosts a dinner ( fi, karonkka) in honour of the opponent. Usually, the candidate invites their family, colleagues and collaborators. Doctoral graduates are often Doctors of Philosophy (''filosofian tohtori''), but many fields retain their traditional titles: Doctor of Medicine (''lääketieteen tohtori''), Doctor of Science in Technology (''tekniikan tohtori''), Doctor of Science in Arts (Art and Design), etc. The doctorate is a formal requirement for a docenture or professor's position, although these in practice require
postdoctoral research A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD). The ultimate goal of a postdoctoral research position is to pursue additional research, train ...
and further experience. Exceptions may be granted by the university governing board, but this is uncommon, and usually due to other work and expertise considered equivalent.


France

;History Before 1984 three research doctorates existed in France: the
State doctorate Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities A university ( la, universitas ...
(''doctorat d'État'', "DrE", the old doctorate introduced in 1808), the third cycle doctorate (''Doctorat de troisième cycle'', also called doctorate of specialty, ''Doctorat de spécialité'', created in 1954 and shorter than the State doctorate) and the
diploma A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study. The word diploma also refers to an academic award wh ...

diploma
of doctor-engineer (''diplôme de docteur-ingénieur'' created in 1923), for technical research. During the first half of the 20th century, following the submission of two theses (primary thesis, ''thèse principale'', and secondary thesis, ''thèse complémentaire'') to the Faculty of Letters (in France, "letters" is equivalent to "
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
") at the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin La ...
, the doctoral candidate was awarded the ''
Doctorat ès lettres Doctor of Letters (D.Litt., Litt.D., D.Lit., or Lit.D.; Latin ' or ') is a terminal degree in the humanities that, depending on the country, may be considered equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or equal to a higher doctorate, such as t ...
''. There was also the less prestigious "university doctorate" ''Doctorat d'université'' which could be received for the submission of a single thesis. In the 1950s, the ''Doctorat ès lettres'' was renamed to ''Doctorat d'État''.Alan D. Schrift (2006), ''Twentieth-Century French Philosophy: Key Themes And Thinkers'', Blackwell Publishing, p. 208. In 1954 (for the
sciences Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

sciences
) and 1958 (for letters and
human sciences Human science (or human sciences in the plural) studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life. Human science aims to expand our understanding of the human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous ...
), the less demanding ''Doctorat de troisième cycle'' degree was created on the model of the American
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
with the purpose to lessen what had become an increasingly long period of time between the typical students' completion of their Diplôme d'études supérieures, roughly equivalent to a
Master of Arts A Master of Arts ( la, Magister Artium or ''Artium Magister''; abbreviated MA or AM) is the holder of a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a co ...
) and their ''Doctorat d'État''. After 1984, only one type of doctoral degree remained: the "doctorate" (''Doctorat''). A special diploma was created called the "accreditation to supervise research" (''Habilitation à diriger des recherches''), a professional qualification to supervise doctoral work. (This diploma is similar in spirit to the older State doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain
tenure Tenure is a category of academic appointment existing in some countries. A tenured post is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program discon ...

tenure
in other systems.) Before only professors or senior full researchers of similar rank were normally authorized to supervise a doctoral candidate's work. Now habilitation is a prerequisite to the title of professor in university (''Professeur des universités'') and to the title of Research Director (''Directeur de recherche'') in national public research agency such as
CNRS Pushing boundaries , formation = , type = Governmental organisation , purpose = Fundamental research , headquarters = Campus Gérard Mégie, 16th arrondissement of Paris , language = French , leader_title = President , leader_name = An ...
,
INRIA The National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (Inria) () is a French national research institution focusing on computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and ...
, or INRAE. ;Admission Today, the doctorate (''doctorat'') is a research-only degree. It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by the minister of higher education and research. Only public institutions award the doctorate. It can be awarded in any field of study. The
master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professiona ...
is a prerequisite. The normal duration is three years. The writing of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctoral work. While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than 150 pages, and often substantially more. Some 15,000 new doctoral matriculations occur every year and ~10,000 doctorates are awarded. Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship. The most well known is the ''Contrat Doctoral'' (4,000 granted every year with a gross salary of 1758 euros per month ). Since 2002 candidates follow in-service training, but there is no written examination for the doctorate. The candidate has to write a thesis that is read by two external reviewers. The head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend the thesis, after considering the external reviews. The jury members are designated by the head of the institution. The candidate's supervisor and the external reviewers are generally jury members. The maximum number of jury members is 8. The defense generally lasts 45 minutes in scientific fields, followed by 1 – 2 and a half hours of questions from the jury or other doctors present. The defense and questions are public. The jury then deliberates in private and then declares the candidate admitted or "postponed". The latter is rare. New regulations were set in 2016 and do not award distinctions. The title of doctor (''docteur'') can also be used by medical and pharmaceutical practitioners who hold a doctor's State diploma (''diplôme d'État de docteur''). The diploma is a first-degree.


Germany

Doctoral degrees in Germany are research doctorates and are awarded by a process called ''Promotion'' ("promotion"). The concept of a US-style
professional doctorate The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine">Claude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843). A doctora ...
as an entry-level professional qualification does not exist. However, in medicine, "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study. The
European Research Council The European Research Council (ERC) is a public body for funding of scientific and technological research conducted within the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union ...
decided in 2010 that such Dr. med. degrees do not meet the international standards of a Ph. D. research degree. The duration of the doctorate depends on the field: a doctorate in medicine may take less than a full-time year to complete; those in other fields, two to six years. Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research (except for engineering, where the designation is German), instead of a general name for all fields (such as the
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
). The most important degrees are: * '' Dr. rer. nat.'' (''rerum naturalium'';
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...

natural
and
formal Formal, formality, informal or informality imply the complying with, or not complying with, some set theory, set of requirements (substantial form, forms, in Ancient Greek). They may refer to: Dress code and events * Formal wear, attire for forma ...
sciences, i.e. physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer science and information technology, or psychology); * ''Dr. phil.'' (''philosophiae''; humanities such as philosophy, philology, history, and social sciences such as sociology, political science, or psychology as well); * ''Dr. iur.'' (''iuris''; law); * ''Dr. oec.'' (''oeconomiae''; economics); * ''Dr. rer. pol.'' (''rerum politicarum''; economics, business administration, political science); * ''Dr. theol.'' (''theologiae''; theology); * ''Dr. med.'' (''medicinae''; medicine); * ''Dr. med. dent.'' (''medicinae dentariae''; dentistry); * ''Dr. med. vet.'' (''medicinae veterinariae''; veterinary medicine); * '' Dr.-Ing.'' (engineering). Over fifty such designations exist, many of them rare or no longer in use. As a title, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e.g., ''Dr. rer. nat. Max Mustermann'' or ''Dr. Max Mustermann'', dropping the designation entirely. However, leaving out the designation is only allowed when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which must be indicated by ''Dr. h.c.'' (from Latin honoris causa). Although the honorific does not become part of the name, holders can demand that the title appear in official documents. The title is not mandatory. The honorific is commonly used in formal letters. For holders of other titles, only the highest title is mentioned. Multiple holders of doctorate degrees can be addressed as ''Dres.'' (from Latin ''doctores''). Professional doctorates obtained in other countries, not requiring a thesis or not being third cycle qualifications under the Bologna process, can only be used postnominally, e.g., "Max Mustermann, MD", and do not allow the use of the title Dr. In contrast to English, in which a person's name is preceded by at most one title (except in very ceremonious usage), the formal German mode of address permits several titles in addition to "Herr" or "Frau" (which, unlike "Mr" or "Ms", is not considered a title at all, but an ''Anrede'' or "address"), including repetitions in the case of multiple degrees, as in "Frau Prof. Dr. Dr. Schmidt", for a person who would be addressed as "Prof. Schmidt" in English. In the German university system it is common to write two doctoral theses, the inaugural thesis (''Inauguraldissertation''), completing a course of study, and the
habilitation Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship in many European countries. Despite changes implemented in European higher-education systems consequent to the Bologna ...
thesis (''
Habilitationsschrift Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship in many European countries. Despite changes implemented in European higher-education systems consequent to the Bologna P ...
''), which opens the road to a professorship. Upon completion of the habilitation thesis, a ''Habilitation'' is awarded, which is indicated by appending ''habil.'' (''habilitata/habilitatus'') to the doctorate, e.g., ''Dr. rer. nat. habil. Max Mustermann''. It is considered as an additional academic qualification rather than an academic degree formally. It qualifies the owner to teach at German universities (''facultas docendi''). The holder of a ''Habilitation'' receives the authorization to teach a certain subject (''venia legendi''). This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining ''Privatdozent'' (PD) and employment as a full university
professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, highe ...

professor
. With the introduction of ''Juniorprofessuren''—around 2005—as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities (with tenure), ''Habilitation'' is no longer the only university career track.


India

In
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
, doctorates are offered by universities. Entry requirements include master's degree. Some universities consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law as qualifications for pursuing doctorate level degrees. Entrance examinations are held for almost all programs. In most universities, coursework duration and thesis is 5–6 years. The most common doctoral degree is Ph.D.


Italy

Until the introduction of the '' dottorato di ricerca'' in the mid-1980s, the ''
laurea In Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands o ...
'' generally constituted the highest academic degree obtainable in Italy. The first institution in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

Italy
to create a doctoral program was
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa The Scuola Normale Superiore (commonly known in Italy as "la Normale") is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituen ...
in 1927 under the historic name ''"Diploma di Perfezionamento"''.STATUTO DELLA SCUOLA NORMALE SUPERIORE DI PISA (legge 18 giugno 1986, n. 308)
Further, the ''dottorato di ricerca'' was introduced by law and presidential decree in 1980, in a reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods. Italy uses a three-level degree system following the
Bologna Process The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area ...
. The first-level degree, called a ''laurea'' (''Bachelor's degree''), requires three years and a short thesis. The second-level degree, called a ''laurea magistrale'' (''Master's degree''), is obtained after two additional years, specializing in a branch of the field. This degree requires more advanced thesis work, usually involving academic research or an internship. The final degree is called a ''dottorato di ricerca'' (''Ph.D.'') and is obtained after three years of academic research on the subject and a thesis. Alternatively, after obtaining the ''laurea'' or the ''laurea magistrale'', one can complete a "Master's" (first-level Master's after the ''laurea''; second-level Master's after the ''laurea magistrale'') of one or two years, usually including an internship. An Italian "Master's" is not the same as a master's degree; it is intended to be more focused on professional training and practical experience. Regardless of the field of study, the title for Bachelors Graduate students is ''
Dottore Il Dottore (, "the Doctor"; commonly known in Italian as ''Dottor Balan'' or simply ''Balanzone'' ; Bolognese egl, Dutåur Balanzån) is a '' commedia dell'arte'' stock character, one of the '' vecchi'', or "old men", whose function in a scenar ...
/Dottoressa'' (abbrev. ''Dott.''/''Dott.ssa'', or as ''Dr.''), not to be confused with the title for the Ph.D., which is instead ''Dottore/Dottoressa di Ricerca''. A ''laurea magistrale'' grants instead the title of ''Dottore/Dottoressa magistrale''. Graduates in the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called ''Dr. Prof.'' (or simply ''Professore'') or ''Maestro''. Many professional titles, such as ''ingegnere'' (engineer) are awarded only upon passing a post-graduation examination (''esame di stato''), and registration in the relevant professional association. The
Superior Graduate Schools in Italy A Superior Graduate School ( Italian: ''Scuola Superiore Universitaria'') is a completely independent institution from a legal point of view, which offers advanced training and research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work ...
Ricerca Italiana, Scuole di Eccellenza
(
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
: ''Scuola Superiore Universitaria''), also called ''Schools of Excellence'' (
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
: ''Scuole di Eccellenza'') such as
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa The Scuola Normale Superiore (commonly known in Italy as "la Normale") is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituen ...
and
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies , latin_name = , image = , motto = L'eccellenza come disciplina , mottoeng = Committed to excellence , established = 1987 from previously existing institutions , type = State-supported , staff = 82 , rec ...
keep their historical ''"Diploma di Perfezionamento"'' title by law and
MIUR The Ministry of Education, University and Research (in it, Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca, italic=no or MIUR) is the ministry of the Italian government The Government of Italy is in the form of a democratic republi ...
Decree.


Japan


Dissertation-only

Until the 1990s, most natural science and engineering doctorates in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies. These degrees were awarded by the employees' former university, usually after years of research in industrial laboratories. The only requirement is submission of a dissertation, along with articles published in well-known journals. This program is called . It produced the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities. University-based doctoral programs called , are gradually replacing these degrees. By 1994, more doctoral engineering degrees were earned for research within university laboratories (53%) than industrial research laboratories (47%). Since 1978, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) has provided tutorial and financial support for promising researchers in Asia and Africa. The program is called JSPS RONPAKU.


Professional degree

The only professional doctorate in Japan is the Juris Doctor, known as ''Hōmu Hakushi'' (法務博士) The program generally lasts two or three years. This curriculum is professionally oriented, but unlike in the US the program does not provide education sufficient for a law license. All candidates for a bar license must pass the bar exam (''Shihou shiken''), attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam (''Nikai Shiken'' or ''Shihou Shushusei koushi'').


Netherlands and Flanders

The traditional academic system of the
Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Dutch Caribbean, Caribbean. It is the largest of four Kingdom of the Netherlands#Constituent countries, cons ...

Netherlands
provided basic academic diploma: ''propaedeuse'' and three academic degrees: ''kandidaat'' (the lowest degree), depending on gender ''doctorandus'' or ''doctoranda'' (drs.) (with equivalent degrees in engineering – ir. and law – mr.) and ''doctor'' (dr.). After successful completion of the first year of university, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma (not a degree). In some fields, this diploma was abolished in the 1980s. In physics and mathematics, the student could directly obtain a ''kandidaats (candidate)'' diploma in two years. The candidate diploma was all but abolished by 1989. It used to be attained after completion of the majority of courses of the academic study (usually after completion of course requirements of the third year in the program), after which the student was allowed to begin work on their doctorandus thesis. The successful completion of this thesis conveyed the '' doctoranda/us'' title, implying that the student's initial studies were finished. In addition to these 'general' degrees, specific titles equivalent to the ''doctorandus'' degree were awarded for law: ''meester'' (master) (mr.), and for engineering: ''ingenieur'' (engineer)(ir.). Following the Bologna protocol the Dutch adopted the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees. The old candidate's degree was revived to become the bachelor's degree and the doctorandus' (mr and ir degree) were replaced by master's degrees. Students can only enroll in a doctorate system after completing a research university level master's degree; although dispensation can be granted on a case-by-case basis after scrutiny of the individual's portfolio. The most common way to conduct doctoral studies is to work as ''promovendus''/''assistent in opleiding'' (aio)/''onderzoeker in opleiding'' (oio) (
research assistantA research assistant, or RA, is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract, by a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, terti ...
with additional courses and supervision), perform extensive research and write a dissertation consisting of published articles (over a period of four or more years, averaging about 5.5 to 6). Research can also be conducted without official research assistant status, for example through a business-sponsored research laboratory. Every Ph.D. thesis has to be promoted by a full university professor or an associate professor  who has the role of principal advisor. The promotor (professor) determines whether the thesis quality suffices and can be submitted to the committee of experts. A committee of experts in the field review the thesis. Failures at this stage are rare because supervisors withhold inadequate work. The supervisors and promotor lose prestige among their colleagues should they allow a substandard thesis to be submitted. After reviewer approval, the candidate publishes the thesis (generally more than 100 copies) and sends it to colleagues, friends and family with an invitation to the public defense. The degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session, in which the thesis is defended against critical questions of the "opposition" (the review committee). Failure during this session is possible, but rare. Before the defense there may or may not be a public presentation, lasting 10 minutes (e.g. Eindhoven University of Technology) to exactly half hour (e.g. Delft University of Technology). The actual defense lasts exactly the assigned time slot (45 minutes to 1 hour exactly depending on the university) after which the defense is stopped by the
bedel The bedel (from medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Ro ...
who closes the process. The doctor's title is the highest academic title in the Netherlands. In research doctorates the degree is always Ph.D. or D. with no distinction between disciplines. Three Dutch universities of technology (
Eindhoven University of Technology The Eindhoven University of Technology ( nl, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven), abbr. TU/e, is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is ...
,
Delft University of Technology Delft University of Technology ( nl, Technische Universiteit Delft) also known as TU Delft, is the oldest and largest Dutch public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. ...
, and
University of Twente The University of Twente (Dutch: ''Universiteit Twente''; , abbr. ) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such grou ...

University of Twente
) also award a 2-year (lower ranked) Professional Doctorate in Engineering ( PDEng). Those who obtained a degree in a foreign country can only use the Dutch title drs. mr. ir. or dr. if approved by the ''Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs'' though according to the opportunity principle, little effort monitors such frauds. Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the uncapitalized shortcut dr. before their name. Those who have multiple doctor (dr.) titles may use the title dr.mult. Those who have received honoris causa doctorates may use dr.h.c. before their own name. In
Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. G ...
's
Flemish Community The Flemish Community ( nl, Vlaamse Gemeenschap ; french: Communauté flamande ; german: Flämische Gemeinschaft ) is one of the three institutional communities of Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), offici ...
the doctorandus title was only used by those who actually started their doctoral work. Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a Ph.D. student. The ''licentiaat'' (licensee) title was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the licentiaat degree to the master's degree (the Bologna reform abolished the two-year kandidaat degree and introduced a three-year academic bachelor's degree instead).


Russia

In the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
the academic degree "doctor of the sciences" (''
doktor nauk:''For overview article, see Doctor of Science :''For the degree granted by Soviet institutions, see Doctor of Sciences.'' Doctor of Science ( la, links=no, Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic researc ...
'') marked the highest academic degree that can be achieved by an examination. (The "doctor nauk" degree was introduced in Russia in 1819, abolished in 1917, and revived in the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a Political union, union of multiple national Republics of t ...

USSR
in 1934.) This system was generally adopted by the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a Political union, union of multiple national Republics of t ...

USSR
/
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
and many post-Soviet countries. A lower degree, " candidate octorof the sciences" (''kandidat nauk''; first introduced in the USSR on January 13, 1934, by a decision of the
Council of People's Commissars of the USSR The Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union was the highest collegial Collegiality is the relationship between ''colleagues''. Colleague is taken to mean a fellow member of the same profession, a group of colleagues united in a common pu ...

Council of People's Commissars of the USSR
), is, roughly, the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in other countries.


Spain

Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 778/1998), ''Real Decreto'' (in
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_an ...

Spanish
). They are granted by the university on behalf of the king. Its diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a national registry of theses called TESEO. According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), fewer than 5% of M.Sc. degree holders are admitted to Ph.D. programmes. All doctoral programs are research-oriented. A minimum of 4 years of study is required, divided into 2 stages: * A 2-year (or longer) period of studies concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 Professors. Upon approval from the university, the candidate receives a "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados" (part qualified doctor, equivalent to M.Sc.). From 2008 it is possible to substitute the former diploma by a recognized master program. * A 2-year (or longer) research period includes extensions for up to 10 years. The student must present a thesis describing a discovery or original contribution. If approved by their thesis director, the study is presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any Doctor attending the public defense is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions. If approved, the candidate receives the doctorate. Four marks used to be granted: Unsatisfactory (''Suspenso''), Pass (''Aprobado''), Remarkable (''Notable''), "Cum laude" (''Sobresaliente''), and "Summa cum laude" (''Sobresaliente Cum Laude''). Those Doctors granted their degree "Summa Cum Laude" were allowed to apply for an "Extraordinary Award". Since September 2012 and regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 99/2011) (in Spanish), three marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory (''No apto''), Pass (''Apto'') and "Cum laude" (''Apto Cum Laude'') as maximum mark. In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed. The ''Apto Cum Laude'' mark is awarded after the public defense as the result of a private, anonymous vote. Votes are verified by the university. A unanimous vote of the reviewers nominates Doctors granted ''Apto Cum Laude'' for an "Extraordinary Award" (''Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado''). In the same Royal Decree the initial 3-year study period was replaced by a Research master's degree (one or two years; Professional master's degrees do not grant direct access to Ph.D. Programs) that concludes with a public dissertation called "Trabajo de Fin de Máster" or "Proyecto de Fin de Máster". An approved project earns a master's degree that grants access to a Ph.D. program and initiates the period of research. A doctorate is required in order to teach at the university. Only
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
holders, Grandees and
Duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a duchy, or of a member of Royal family, royalty, or nobility. As rulers, dukes are ranked below emperors, kings, grand princes, grand dukes, and sovereign princes. As royalty or nobility, th ...
s can sit and cover their heads in the presence of the King. From 1857,
Complutense University The Complutense University of Madrid ( es, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, links=no, ''Universidad de Madrid'', ''Universidad Central de Madrid''; la, Universitas Complutensis Matritensis, links=no) is a public In public relations and ...
was the only one in Spain authorised to confer the doctorate. This law remained in effect until 1954, when the
University of Salamanca The University of Salamanca ( es, Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level ...

University of Salamanca
joined in commemoration of its septcentenary. In 1970, the right was extended to all Spanish universities. All doctorate holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain (according to the "Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994").


United Kingdom


History of the UK doctorate

The doctorate has long existed in the UK as, originally, the second degree in divinity, law, medicine and music. But it was not until the late 19th century that the research doctorate, now known as the higher doctorate, was introduced. The first higher doctorate was the
Doctor of Science :''For the degree granted by Soviet institutions, see Doctor of Sciences.'' Doctor of Science ( la, links=no, Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries thro ...
at
Durham University , mottoeng = Her foundations are upon the holy hills ( Psalm 87:1) , established = (university status) , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the ...
, introduced in 1882. This was soon followed by other universities, including the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
establishing its ScD in the same year, the
University of London The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a collegiate university, federal Public university, public research university located in London, England, United Kingdom. The university was established b ...
transforming its DSc from an advanced study course to a research degree in 1885, and the
University of Oxford , mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = £2.145 billion (2019–20) , chancellor = Chris Patten, The Lord Patten of Barnes , vice_chancellor = Louis ...
establishing its
Doctor of Letters Doctor of Letters (D.Litt., Litt.D., D.Lit., or Lit.D.; Latin ' or ') is a terminal degree in the humanities that, depending on the country, may be considered equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or equal to a higher doctorate, such as t ...
(DLitt) in 1900. The PhD was adopted in the UK following a joint decision in 1917 by British universities, although it took much longer for it to become established. Oxford became the first university to institute the new degree, although naming it the DPhil. The PhD was often distinguished from the earlier higher doctorates by distinctive academic dress. At Cambridge, for example, PhDs wear a master's gown with scarlet facings rather than the full scarlet gown of the higher doctors, while the
University of Wales , latin_name = , image = , motto = cy, Goreu Awen Gwirionedd , mottoeng = The Best Inspiration is Truth , established = , , type = Confederal, non-membership university , endowment = ...

University of Wales
gave PhDs crimson gowns rather than scarlet. Professional doctorates were introduced in Britain in the 1980s and 1990s. The earliest professional doctorates were in the social sciences, including the
Doctor of Business Administration The Doctor of Business Administration (commonly abbreviated as D.B.A., DBA, DrBA, or Dr.B.A) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study, examinations, project work and research in business administration. The D.B.A. is a terminal ...
(DBA),
Doctor of EducationThe Doctor of Education (Ed.D. or D.Ed.; Latin ''Educationis Doctor'' or ''Doctor Educationis'') is both a research and professional doctoral degree that focuses on the field of education Education is the process of facilitating learnin ...
(EdD) and
Doctor of Clinical Psychology Doctor or The Doctor may refer to: Personal titles * Doctor (title) Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an Agent noun, agentive noun of the Latin verb ...
(DClinPsy).


British doctorates today

Today, except for those awarded ''honoris causa'' (honorary degrees), all doctorates granted by British universities are research doctorates, in that their main (and in many cases only) component is the submission of an extensive and substantial thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university. UK doctorates are categorised as: ;Junior doctorates :# ''Subject specialist doctorates'' – normally PhD/DPhil; the most common form of doctorate :#* ''Integrated subject specialist doctorates'' – integrated PhDs including teaching at master's level :# ''Doctorates by publication'' – PhD by Published Works; only awarded infrequently :# ''Professional / practice-based / practitioner doctorates'' – e.g. EdD, ProfDoc/DProf, EngD, etc.; usually include taught elements and have an orientation that combines professional and academic aspects ;Higher doctorates: e.g. DD, LLD, DSc, DLitt; higher level than junior doctorates, usually awarded either for a substantial body of work over an extended period or as honorary degrees. The
Quality Assurance Agency The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) is the independent body that checks on standards and quality in UK higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also ...
states in the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies (which covers junior doctorates but not higher doctorates) that: In the UK, the (junior) doctorate is a qualification awarded at FHEQ level 8/level 12 of the FQHEIS on the national qualifications frameworks. The higher doctorates are stated to be "A higher level of award", which is not covered by the qualifications frameworks.


Subject specialist doctorates

These are the most common doctorates in the UK and are normally awarded as PhDs. While the master/apprentice model was traditionally used for British PhDs, since 2003 courses have become more structured, with students taking courses in research skills and receiving training for professional and personal development. However, the assessment of the PhD remains based on the production of a thesis or equivalent and its defence at a ''
viva voce ''Viva voce'' is a Latin phrase literally meaning "with living voice" but most often translated as "by word of mouth." It may refer to: *Word of mouth *A voice vote in a deliberative assembly *An oral exam **Thesis defence, in academia *Spoken Evid ...
'' oral examination, normally held in front of at least two examiners, one internal and one external. Access to PhDs normally requires an upper second class or first class
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin ''baccalaureus'') or baccalaureate (from New Latin, Modern Latin ''baccalaureatus'') is an Undergraduate degree, undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a cours ...
, or a
master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professiona ...
. Courses normally last three years, although it is common for students to be initially registered for MPhil degrees and then formally transferred onto the PhD after a year or two. Students who are not considered likely to complete a PhD may be offered the opportunity to complete an MPhil instead. Integrated doctorates, originally known as 'New Route PhDs', were introduced from 2000 onwards. These integrate teaching at master's level during the first one or two years of the degree, either alongside research or as a preliminary to starting research. These courses usually offer a master's-level exit degree after the taught courses are completed. While passing the taught elements is often required, examination of the final doctorate is still by thesis (or equivalent) alone. The duration of integrated doctorates is a minimum of four years, with three years spent on the research component. In 2013,
Research Councils UK Research Councils UK, sometimes known as RCUK, was a non-departmental public body which coordinated science policy in the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2018. It was an umbrella organisation that coordinated the seven separate research councils that ...
issued a 'Statement of Expectations for Postgraduate Training', which lays out the expectations for training in PhDs funded by the research councils. In the latest version (2016), issued together with
Cancer Research UK Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. As the world's largest independent ...
, the
Wellcome Trust The Wellcome Trust is a charitable foundation focused on health research based in London, in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1936 with legacies from the pharmaceutical magnate Henry Wellcome to fund research to improve human and animal ...
and the
British Heart Foundation The British Heart Foundation (BHF) is a charity organisation in the United Kingdom. It funds research related to heart and circulatory diseases and their risk factors. Foundation The British Heart Foundation was founded in 1961 by a group of ...
, these include the provision of careers advice, in-depth advanced training in the subject area, provision of transferable skills, training in experimental design and statistics, training in good research conduct, and training for compliance with legal, ethical and professional frameworks. The statement also encourages peer-group development through cohort training and/or Graduate schools.


Higher doctorates

Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate submits a collection of previously published, peer-refereed work, which is reviewed by a committee of internal and external academics who decide whether the candidate deserves the doctorate. The higher doctorate is similar in some respects to the
habilitation Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship in many European countries. Despite changes implemented in European higher-education systems consequent to the Bologna ...
in some European countries. However, the purpose of the award is significantly different. While the habilitation formally determines whether an academic is suitably qualified to be a university professor, the higher doctorate does not qualify the holder for a position but rather recognises their contribution to research. Higher doctorates were defined by the UK Council for Graduate Education (UKCGE) in 2013 as: In terms of number of institutions offering the awards, the most common doctorates of this type in UKCGE surveys carried out in 2008 and 2013 were the
Doctor of Science :''For the degree granted by Soviet institutions, see Doctor of Sciences.'' Doctor of Science ( la, links=no, Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries thro ...
(DSc),
Doctor of Letters Doctor of Letters (D.Litt., Litt.D., D.Lit., or Lit.D.; Latin ' or ') is a terminal degree in the humanities that, depending on the country, may be considered equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or equal to a higher doctorate, such as t ...
(DLitt),
Doctor of Law Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country and includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D), Juris Doctor (J.D.), Doctor of Philosophy A Doc ...
(LLD),
Doctor of Music The full-dress robes of a Doctor of Music at Cambridge. The Doctor of Music degree (D.Mus., D.M., Mus.D. or occasionally Mus.Doc.) is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of a substantial portfolio of compositions and/or scholarly publication ...
(DMus) and
Doctor of Divinity Aquatint of a Doctor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. (The doctor appears here in his convocation habit, rather than his full ceremonial dress.) Doctor of Divinity ( ...
(DD); in the 2008 survey the Doctor of Technology (DTech) tied with the DD. The DSc was offered by all 49 responding institutions in 2008 and 15 out of 16 in 2013 and the DLitt by only one less in each case, while the DD was offered in 10 responding institutions in 2008 and 3 in 2013. In terms of number of higher doctorates awarded (not including honorary doctorates) the DSc was most popular, but the number of awards was very low: the responding institutions had averaged an award of at most one earned higher doctorate per year over the period 2003–2013.


Honorary degrees

Most British universities award degrees ''honoris causa'' to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field. Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the candidate's achievements. However, some universities differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, using the degree of Doctor of the University (D.Univ.) for these purposes, and reserve the higher doctorates for formal academic research.


United States

U.S. research doctorates are awarded for advanced study followed by successfully completing and defending independent research presented in the form of a dissertation. Professional degrees may use the term "doctor" in their titles, such as
Juris Doctor The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D., JD, D.Jur., or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. Although a graduate degree, the J ...
and
Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin language, Latin ''Medicinae Doctor'') is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, and some other countries, the M.D. denotes a profess ...
, but these degrees rarely contain an independent research component and are not research doctorates. Law school graduates, although awarded the J.D. degree, are not normally addressed as "doctor". In legal studies, the
Doctor of Juridical Science Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of the Science of Law, (in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
is considered the equivalent to a Ph.D. Many universities offer Ph.D./D.Phil. followed by a professional doctorate or joint Ph.D./D.Phil. with a professional degree. Often, Ph.D. work is sequential to the professional degree, e.g., Ph.D./D.Phil. in law after a J.D. or equivalent in physical therapy after DPT, in
pharmacy Pharmacy is the clinical health science The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are those sciences which focus on health Health is a state of physical, mental a ...

pharmacy
after Pharm.D. Such professional degrees are referred to as an entry level doctorate program and Ph.D. as a post-professional doctorate.


Research degrees

The most common research doctorate is the
Doctor of Philosophy A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin or ''doctor philosophiae'') is the most common Academic degree, degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole bre ...

Doctor of Philosophy
(Ph.D. or D.Phil.). This degree was first awarded in the U.S. at the 1861
Yale University Yale University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term ''Ivy ...
commencement.. Retrieved on 2010-10-26. The
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine colonial coll ...

University of Pennsylvania
followed in 1871, with
Cornell Cornell University ( ) is a private, statutory, Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United Stat ...
(1872),
Harvard Harvard University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term '' ...

Harvard
(1873),
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
(1876) and
Princeton Princeton University is a private Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term '' ...

Princeton
(1879) following suit. Controversy and opposition followed the introduction of the Ph.D. into the U.S. educational system, lasting into the 1950s, as it was seen as an unnecessary artificial transplant from a foreign (Germany) educational system, which corrupted a system based on England's
Oxbridge File:Emmanuel_College_Front_Court,_Cambridge,_UK_-_Diliff.jpg, Emmanuel College, Cambridge Oxbridge is a portmanteau of University of Oxford, Oxford and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the two oldest, wealthiest, and most famous universities ...
model. Ph.D.s and other research doctorates in the U.S. typically entail successful completion of coursework, passing a
comprehensive examination In higher education, a comprehensive examination (or comprehensive exam or exams), often abbreviated as "comps", is a specific type of examination that must be completed by graduate students in some disciplines and courses of study, and also by und ...
, and defending a dissertation. The median number of years for completion of U.S. doctoral degrees is seven. Doctoral applicants were previously required to have a
master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professiona ...
, but many programs accept students immediately following undergraduate studies. Many programs gauge the potential of applicants to their program and grant a master's degree upon completion of the necessary course work. When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the master's degree despite not holding one, though this tradition is under heavy criticism. Successfully finishing Ph.D. qualifying exams confers Ph.D. candidate status, allowing dissertation work to begin. The International Affairs Office of the U.S. Department of Education has listed 18 frequently awarded research doctorate titles identified by the
National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the United States government Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group)The Independents were a group of ...

National Science Foundation
(NSF) as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Ph.D.


Professional degrees

Many fields offer professional doctorates (or professional master's) such as
pharmacy Pharmacy is the clinical health science The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are those sciences which focus on health Health is a state of physical, mental a ...

pharmacy
,
medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations ...

medicine
,
public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing disease", prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations (public and private), C ...

public health
,
dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, oral cavity (the mouth), commonly in the ...
,
optometry Optometry is a health care profession that involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as prescribing the correction of refractive error with glasses Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spec ...
,
psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologis ...

psychology
,
speech–language pathology Speech–language pathology (or speech and language pathology) is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician A clinician is a health care Health care, health-care, or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the preventive ...
, physical therapy, occupational therapy,
health science The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are those sciences which focus on health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also kno ...
,
advanced practice registered nurse An advanced practice nurse (APN) is a nurse with post-graduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphe ...
,
chiropractic Chiropractic is a Pseudoscience, pseudoscientific complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the vertebral column, spine. Chi ...
,
naturopathic medicine Naturopathy or naturopathic medicine is a form of alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) , practice ...
,
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, ...
,
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archit ...
,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion a ...
,
teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion a ...

teaching
,
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trade ...

business
,
management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit, non-profit organization, or a government body. It is the art and science of managing resources. Management includes the activities o ...

management
, and others that require such degrees for professional practice or
licensure Licensure means a restricted practice or a restriction on the use of an occupational title, requiring a license. A license created under a "practice act" requires a license before performing a certain activity, such as driving a car on public roads ...
. Some of these degrees are also termed "
first professional degreeA professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession A profession is an occupation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of wh ...
s," since they are the first field-specific master's or doctoral degrees. A Doctor of Pharmacy is awarded as the professional degree in pharmacy replacing a bachelor's degree. It is the only professional pharmacy degree awarded in the US. Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4 years for matriculants with a B.S./B.A. to 6 years for others. In the twenty-first century professional doctorates appeared in other fields, such as the
Doctor of Audiology The Doctor of Audiology (AuD) is a professional degree for an audiologist. The AuD program is designed to produce audiologists who are skilled in providing diagnostic, rehabilitative, and other services associated with hearing, balance, tinnitus ...
in 2007. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses were expected to completely transition to the
Doctor of Nursing Practice The doctor of nursing practice (DNP) is a degree in nursing. In the United States, the DNP is one of two doctorate degrees in nursing, the other being the PhD (doctor of philosophy). The curriculum for the DNP degree builds on traditional master's ...
by 2015, and physical therapists to the
Doctor of Physical TherapyA Doctor of Physical Therapy or Doctor of Physiotherapy (DPT) degree is a qualifying degree in physical therapy. In the United States it is a doctoral degree, which includes training in all areas of musculoskeletal treatments and doctoral-level rese ...
by 2020. Professional associations play a central role in this transformation amid criticisms on the lack of proper criteria to assure appropriate rigor. In many cases Masters level programs were relabeled as doctoral programs.


Revocation

A doctoral degree can be revoked or rescinded by the university that awarded it. Possible reasons include plagiarism, criminal or unethical activities of the holder, or malfunction or manipulation of academic evaluation processes.


See also

*
Compilation thesisA thesis as a collection of articlesClaude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843). A doctora ... dissertation that, as opposed to a coherent monog ...
*
Habilitation thesis Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship in many European countries. Despite changes implemented in European higher-education systems consequent to the Bologna ...
*
Doctor (title) Doctor is an Academic degree, academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an Agent noun, agentive noun of the Latin verb 'to teach'. It has been used as an academic title in Europ ...
* Eurodoctorate * List of fields of doctoral studies


References

{{Authority control Academic degrees of the United States