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A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα;
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
diploma) is a person appointed by a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
or an intergovernmental institution such as the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
or the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
to conduct
diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, negotiation, and other nonviolent means. Diplomacy usually refers to international relations carried out through the inte ...

diplomacy
with one or more other states or
international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the behavior of states and other actors in the international system. Organizations ...
s. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state; initiation and facilitation of strategic agreements; treaties and conventions; promotion of information; trade and commerce; technology; and friendly relations. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations (for example, the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
, the world's largest diplomatic forum) as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and
negotiating Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues. Negotiation is an interaction and process ...
skills. Diplomats are members of foreign services and diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. The sending state is required to get the consent of the receiving state for a person proposed to serve in key diplomatic positions such as an ambassador, also referred to as the head of the mission. The receiving state of the proposed diplomat may accept the diplomat or refuse to accept the diplomat without having to provide reasons for its refusal or acceptance of the person. While the head of the mission or any member of the diplomatic staff is already on duty in the receiving state, the receiving state may still decide at anytime that the person is no longer wanted in the state and is considered
persona non grata In diplomacy, a ' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...
. When this happens, the sending state may discharge the person. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
institutions of a state, predating by centuries
foreign minister A foreign affairs minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly minister for foreign affairs) is generally a in charge of a 's and . The formal title of the top official varies between countries. In the United States it is "Secretar ...
s and ministerial offices. They usually have
diplomatic immunity Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, although they may still be deportation, expelled. Modern d ...
, and in their official travels they usually use a
diplomatic passport A passport is an official travel document A travel document is an identity document An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any documentation, document that may be used to prove a p ...
or, for UN officials, a
United Nations laissez-passer A United Nations laissez-passer (UNLP or LP) is a diplomatic travel document issued by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, sec ...
.


Terminology

The regular use of permanent diplomatic representation began in the states of 15th-century Italy. However the terms "diplomacy" and "diplomat" appeared during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
. "Diplomat" is derived from the Greek διπλωμάτης (''diplōmátēs''), the holder of a
diploma A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study. The word diploma also refers to an academic award w ...

diploma
, referring to diplomats' documents of
accreditation Accreditation is a third-party attestation related to a conformity assessment body (such as certification body, inspection body or laboratory) conveying formal demonstration of its competence to carry out specific conformity assessment tasks (such ...
from their sovereign. Diplomats themselves and historians often refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz (Vienna), the Quai d’Orsay (Paris), the Wilhelmstraße (Berlin);
Itamaraty The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MRE; pt, Ministério das Relações Exteriores, links=no; literally: ''Ministry of External Relations'') conducts Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), ...

Itamaraty
(from the former Itamaraty Palace in Rio de Janeiro, now transferred to Brasília since 1970) and Foggy Bottom (Washington). For imperial Russia to 1917 it was the Choristers' Bridge (St Petersburg). The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta."


Career diplomats and political appointees

Though any person can be appointed by the State's national government to conduct said state's relations with other States or international organizations, a number of States maintain an institutionalized group of career diplomats—that is, public servants with a steady professional connection to the country's
foreign ministry A foreign affairs minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly minister for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawer ...
. The term ''career diplomat'' is used worldwide in opposition to ''political appointees'' (that is, people from any other professional backgrounds who may equally be designated by an official government to act as diplomats abroad). While officially posted to an embassy or delegation in a foreign country or accredited to an international organization, both career diplomats and political appointees enjoy the same diplomatic immunities, as well as
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
officials.
Ceremonial heads of state
Ceremonial heads of state
commonly act as diplomats on behalf of their nation, usually following instructions from their head of Government.


Diplomatic ranks

Whether being a career diplomat or a political appointee, every diplomat, while posted abroad, will be classified in one of the ranks of diplomats (secretary, counselor, minister,
ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It enco ...

ambassador
,
envoy
envoy
, or ''
chargé d'affaires A ''chargé d'affaires'' (), plural ''chargés d'affaires'', often shortened to ''chargé'' (French) and sometimes in colloquial English to ''charge-D'', is a diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romani ...
'') as regulated by international law (namely, by the
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 is an international treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law ...

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations
of 1961). Diplomats can be contrasted with
consuls A consul is an official representative of the government of one Sovereign state, state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between th ...
and
attaché In diplomacy, an attaché is a person who is assigned ("to be attached") to the diplomatic or administrative staff of a higher placed person or another service or agency. Although a loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In ...
s, who represent their State in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions, or with international officers of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
.


Function

Diplomats in posts collect and report information that could affect national interests, often with advice about how the home-country government should respond. Then, once any policy response has been decided in the home country's capital, posts bear major responsibility for implementing it. Diplomats have the job of conveying, in the most persuasive way possible, the views of the home government to the governments to which they are accredited and, in doing so, of trying to convince those governments to act in ways that suit home-country interests. In this way, diplomats are part of the beginning and the end of each loop in the continuous process through which
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
develops. In general, it has become harder for diplomats to act autonomously. Diplomats use secure communication systems, such as emails, and mobile telephones that allow reaching even the most reclusive head of mission. This technology also gives diplomats the capacity for more immediate input about the policy-making processes in the home capital. Secure email has transformed the contact between diplomats and the ministry. It is less likely to leak, and enables more personal contact than the formal
cablegram Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messages where the sender uses a semaphore Semaphore is the use of an apparatus with telegraphy Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messages where the se ...
, with its wide distribution and impersonal style.


Advocacy

The home country will usually send instructions to a diplomatic post on what foreign policy goals to pursue, but decisions on tactics – who needs to be influenced, what will best persuade them, who are potential allies and adversaries, and how it can be done - are for the diplomats overseas to make. In this operation, the intelligence, integrity, cultural understanding, and energy of individual diplomats become critical. If competent, they will have developed relationships grounded in trust and mutual understanding with influential members of the country in which they are accredited. They will have worked hard to understand the motives, thought patterns and
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
of the other side.


Negotiation

The diplomat should be an excellent negotiator but, above all, a catalyst for peace and understanding between people. The diplomat's principal role is to foster peaceful relations between states. This role takes on heightened importance if war breaks out. Negotiation must necessarily continue – but within significantly altered contexts.


Training

Most career diplomats have
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
degrees Degree may refer to: As a unit of measurement * Degree symbol (°), a notation used in science, engineering, and mathematics * Degree (angle), a unit of angle measurement * Degree (temperature), any of various units of temperature measurement ...
in
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
,
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
,
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
,
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
, or
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
. "Emotional intelligence" has recently become a component of many foreign service training programs.


Status and public image

Diplomats have generally been considered members of an exclusive and prestigious profession. The public image of diplomats has been described as "a caricature of pinstriped men gliding their way around a never-ending global cocktail party". J. W. Burton has noted that "despite the absence of any specific professional training, diplomacy has a high professional status, due perhaps to a degree of secrecy and mystery that its practitioners self-consciously promote." The state supports the high status, privileges, and
self-esteem Self-esteem is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself (for example, "I am unloved", "I am worthy") as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Smith an ...
of its diplomats in order to support its own international status and position. The high regard for diplomats is also due to most countries' conspicuous selection of diplomats, with regard to their professionalism and ability to behave according to a certain
etiquette Etiquette ( and ; ) is the set of conventional rules of personal behaviour in polite society, usually in the form of an ethical code Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between right ...

etiquette
, in order to effectively promote their interests. Also,
international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of anal ...
grants diplomats extensive privileges and immunities, which further distinguishes the diplomat from the status of an ordinary
citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and th ...

citizen
.


Psychology and loyalty

While posted overseas, there is a danger that diplomats may become disconnected from their own country and culture. Sir
Harold Nicolson Sir Harold George Nicolson (21 November 1886 – 1 May 1968) was a British politician, diplomat, historian, biographer, diarist, novelist, lecturer, journalist, broadcaster and gardener. His wife was the writer Vita Sackville-West. Early life ...

Harold Nicolson
acknowledged that diplomats can become "denationalised, internationalised and therefore dehydrated, an elegant empty husk". Nicolson also claimed that personal motives often influenced the diplomatic pursuit of the national interest. For example, he wrote: "Nobody who has not actually watched statesmen dealing with each other can have any real idea of the immense part played in human affairs by such unavowable and often unrecognisable causes as lassitude, affability, personal affection or dislike, misunderstanding, deafness or incomplete command of a foreign language, vanity, social engagements, interruptions and momentary health." To prevent disconnection and apathy from their own state, many foreign services mandate their employees to return to their home countries in between period serving abroad.


International Day of Diplomats

Diplomats have started celebrating International Day of Diplomats on October 24 since 2017. The idea of celebrating International Day of Diplomats on the day the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
was founded was proposed by Indian diplomat
Abhay Kumar Abhay Kumar en Name Abhay K.(born 1980) is an Indian poet-diplomat and India's 21st Ambassador to Madagascar and Ambassador to Comoros. He has served in different diplomatic capacities earlier in Russia, Nepal and Brazil. His published collec ...

Abhay Kumar
to mark the occasion as diplomacy becoming the principal means of resolving disputes.Why the world needs International Day of Diplomats, our everyday peacekeepers
Daily O, 12 October 2017


See also

*


References


Further reading

* Anderson, Matthew S. ''The Rise of Modern Diplomacy, 1450–1919'' (1993). * Black, Jeremy. ''A History of Diplomacy'' (U. of Chicago Press, 2010) * Berridge, G. R. ''Diplomacy: Theory & Practice'', 3rd edition, Palgrave, Basingstoke, 2005, * Callieres, Francois De. ''The Practice of Diplomacy'' (1919). * Cunningham, George. ''Journey to Become a Diplomat: With a Guide to Careers in World Affairs'' FPA Global Vision Books 2005, * de Wicquefort, Abraham (2010) 716br>''The_Embassador_[sic]_and_His_Functions''
_.___(original). *_Dorman,_Shawn,_ed._''Inside_a_U.S._Embassy:_How_the_Foreign_Service_Works_for_America''_by_American_Foreign_Service_Association,_Second_edition_February_2003,_ *_Nicolson,_Sir_Harold_George._''The_Evolution_of_Diplomatic_Method''_(1977) *_Rana,_Kishan_S._and_Jovan_Kurbalija,_eds._''Foreign_Ministries:_Managing_Diplomatic_Networks_and_Optimizing_Value''_DiploFoundation,_2007,_ *_Rana,_Kishan_S._''The_21st_Century_Ambassador:_Plenipotentiary_to_Chief_Executive''_DiploFoundation,2004,_ *_ ''The_Embassador_[sic]_and_His_Functions''
_.___(original). *_Dorman,_Shawn,_ed._''Inside_a_U.S._Embassy:_How_the_Foreign_Service_Works_for_America''_by_American_Foreign_Service_Association,_Second_edition_February_2003,_ *_Nicolson,_Sir_Harold_George._''The_Evolution_of_Diplomatic_Method''_(1977) *_Rana,_Kishan_S._and_Jovan_Kurbalija,_eds._''Foreign_Ministries:_Managing_Diplomatic_Networks_and_Optimizing_Value''_DiploFoundation,_2007,_ *_Rana,_Kishan_S._''The_21st_Century_Ambassador:_Plenipotentiary_to_Chief_Executive''_DiploFoundation,2004,_ *_Ernest_Satow">Satow,_Ernest._''A_Guide_to_Diplomatic_Practice''_by_Longmans,_Green_&_Co._London_&_New_York,_1917._A_standard_reference_work_used_in_many_embassies_across_the_world_(though_not_British_ones)._Now_in_its_fifth_edition_(1998)._. *_Stevenson,_David._Chapter_3_"The_Diplomats"_in_Jay_Winter,_ed._''The_Cambridge_History_of_the_First_World_War:_Volume_II:_The_State''_(2014)._Volume_2._pp._66–90. *_ ''The_Embassador_[sic]_and_His_Functions''
_.___(original). *_Dorman,_Shawn,_ed._''Inside_a_U.S._Embassy:_How_the_Foreign_Service_Works_for_America''_by_American_Foreign_Service_Association,_Second_edition_February_2003,_ *_Nicolson,_Sir_Harold_George._''The_Evolution_of_Diplomatic_Method''_(1977) *_Rana,_Kishan_S._and_Jovan_Kurbalija,_eds._''Foreign_Ministries:_Managing_Diplomatic_Networks_and_Optimizing_Value''_DiploFoundation,_2007,_ *_Rana,_Kishan_S._''The_21st_Century_Ambassador:_Plenipotentiary_to_Chief_Executive''_DiploFoundation,2004,_ *_Ernest_Satow">Satow,_Ernest._''A_Guide_to_Diplomatic_Practice''_by_Longmans,_Green_&_Co._London_&_New_York,_1917._A_standard_reference_work_used_in_many_embassies_across_the_world_(though_not_British_ones)._Now_in_its_fifth_edition_(1998)._. *_Stevenson,_David._Chapter_3_"The_Diplomats"_in_Jay_Winter,_ed._''The_Cambridge_History_of_the_First_World_War:_Volume_II:_The_State''_(2014)._Volume_2._pp._66–90. *_Fredrik_Wesslau">Wesslau,_Fredrik_(2013)
''The_Political_Adviser's_Handbook''
_.


_External_links

*_ {{Authority_control Diplomats.html" ;"title="Fredrik_Wesslau.html" ;"title="Ernest_Satow.html" ;"title="ic] and His Functions''">''The Embassador [sic] and His Functions''
. (original). * Dorman, Shawn, ed. ''Inside a U.S. Embassy: How the Foreign Service Works for America'' by American Foreign Service Association, Second edition February 2003, * Nicolson, Sir Harold George. ''The Evolution of Diplomatic Method'' (1977) * Rana, Kishan S. and Jovan Kurbalija, eds. ''Foreign Ministries: Managing Diplomatic Networks and Optimizing Value'' DiploFoundation, 2007, * Rana, Kishan S. ''The 21st Century Ambassador: Plenipotentiary to Chief Executive'' DiploFoundation,2004, * Ernest Satow">Satow, Ernest. ''A Guide to Diplomatic Practice'' by Longmans, Green & Co. London & New York, 1917. A standard reference work used in many embassies across the world (though not British ones). Now in its fifth edition (1998). . * Stevenson, David. Chapter 3 "The Diplomats" in Jay Winter, ed. ''The Cambridge History of the First World War: Volume II: The State'' (2014). Volume 2. pp. 66–90. * Fredrik Wesslau">Wesslau, Fredrik (2013)
''The Political Adviser's Handbook''
.


External links

* {{Authority control Diplomats"> Political occupations Positions of authority