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, the Italian dictator from 1922 to 1943 and Adolf Hitler, the German dictator from 1933 to 1945 A dictator is a political leader who possesses autocracy|absolute power. A dictatorship is a state ruled by one dictator or by a small clique. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and ''justitium''). Like the term "tyrant" (which was originally a non-pejorative Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive rule. In modern usage the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents; not abiding by the rule of law procedures, and cult of personality. Dictatorships are often one-party or dominant-party states. A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, one-party states, dominant-party states, and civilian governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators. They may hold left or right-wing views.


Etymology


Originally an emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic and the Etruscan culture, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now. A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the end of the term, the Dictator's power was returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing. The term started to get its modern negative meaning with Cornelius Sulla's ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla's second civil war, making himself the first Dictator in Rome in more than a century (during which the office was ostensibly abolished) as well as ''de facto'' eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation. He avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later. Julius Caesar followed Sulla's example in 49 BC and in February 44 BC was proclaimed ''Dictator perpetuo'', "Dictator in perpetuity", officially doing away with any limitations on his power, which he kept until his assassination the following month. Following Julius' assassination, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, but he declined it. Later successors also declined the title of dictator, and usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers.


Modern era


As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term ''dictator'' had occasional positive implications. For example, during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the national leader Lajos Kossuth was often referred to as dictator, without any negative connotations, by his supporters and detractors alike, although his official title was that of regent-president. When creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi officially assumed the title of "Dictator" (see Dictatorship of Garibaldi). Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, "Dictator" was also the official title of four leaders, the first being Ludwik Mierosławski. Past that time, however, the term ''dictator'' assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a ''dictatorship'' is often associated with brutality and oppression. As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has also come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have also come to grant themselves increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours. For instance, Idi Amin Dada, who had been a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself "''His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular''". In the movie ''The Great Dictator'' (1940), Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself. A benevolent dictatorship refers to a government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with the regard for benefit of the population as a whole, standing in contrast to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator. A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power, and often makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term. It might be seen as a republic a form of enlightened despotism. The label has been applied to leaders such as Ioannis Metaxas of Greece (1936–41), Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1953–80),
"...All Yugoslavs had educational opportunities, jobs, food, and housing regardless of nationality. Tito, seen by most as a benevolent dictator, brought peaceful co-existence to the Balkan region, a region historically synonymous with factionalism."
and Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore (1959–90). The association between a dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military and they often wear military uniforms. In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a lieutenant general in the Spanish Army before he became Chief of State of Spain; Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces. In other cases, the association is mere pretense. Some dictators have been masters of crowd manipulation, such as Mussolini and Hitler. Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Stalin and Franco. Typically the dictator's people seize control of all media, censor or destroy the opposition, and give strong doses of propaganda daily, often built around a cult of personality. Mussolini and Hitler used similar, modest titles referring to them as "the Leader". Mussolini used "Il Duce" and Hitler was generally referred to as "der Führer". Franco used a similar title "El Caudillo" ("the Head") and for Stalin his adopted name became synonyms with his role as the absolute leader. For Mussolini, Hitler, and Franco, the use of modest, non-traditional titles displayed their absolute power even stronger as they did not need any, not even a historic legitimacy either. The usage of the term "dictator" in western media has been criticised as "Code for Government We Don’t Like". Leaders that would generally be considered autoritarian but are allied with the USA such as Paul Biya or Nursultan Nazarbayev are rarely referred to as "dictators", while leaders of countries opposed to US policy such as Nicolas Maduro or Bashar Al-Assad have the term applied much more liberally.


Modern usage in formal titles


Because of its negative and pejorative connotations, modern authoritarian leaders very rarely (if ever) use the term ''dictator'' in their formal titles, instead they most often simply have title of president. In the 19th century, however, its official usage was more common: * Hungary ** Artúr Görgei was styled Dictator from 11 August 13 August 1849, during the last days of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. * Italy ** In the former city-state of Venice, and while it was a republic resisting annexation by either the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia or the Austrian empire, a former Chief Executive (president, 23 March 1848 5 July 1848), Daniele Manin (b. 1804 d. 1857), was styled Dictator 11–13 August 1848 before joining the 13 August 1848 7 March 1849 Triumvirate. ** The Dictatorial Government of Sicily (27 May 4 November 1860) was a provisional executive government appointed by Giuseppe Garibaldi to rule Sicily. The government ended when Sicily's annexation into the Kingdom of Italy was ratified by plebiscite. * Philippines **Emilio Aguinaldo, regarded as the First President of the Philippines briefly led a Dictatorial Government and held the title of Dictator from May 24 to June 23, 1898. * Poland ** Józef Chłopicki was styled Dictator from 5 December 1830 23 January 1831 ** Jan Tyssowski was Dictator from 24 February 1846 2 March 1846. ** Ludwik Mierosławski was Dictator from 22 January 1863 10 March 1863 ** Marian Langiewicz was Dictator from 10 March 1863 19 March 1863 ** An ''Executive Dictatorial Commission'' of three members existed from 19 March 1863 20 March 1863 ** Romuald Traugutt was Dictator from 17 October 1863 10 April 1864 * Russia during their Civil War ** Nazarov was Dictator of the Don Republic (which before, since its founding on 2 December 1917 at Novocherkassk, had been governed by a Triumvirate including the last pre-Soviet Ataman, Aleksei Maksimovich Kaledin) from 11 February 1918 till 25 February 1918 when Bolshevik troops ended their existence ** Prince N. Tarkovsky was Dictator of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.


Human rights abuses


150px|general_secretary_[[Xi_Jinping.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="General Secretary of the Communist Party of China">general secretary [[Xi Jinping">General Secretary of the Communist Party of China">general secretary [[Xi Jinping ordered to establish [[Xinjiang re-education camps Over time, dictators have been known to use tactics that violate human rights. For example, under the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, government policy was enforced by secret police and the Gulag system of prison labour camps. Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time. Data collected from Soviet archives gives the death toll from Gulags at 1,053,829. Other human rights abuses by the Soviet state included human experimentation, the use of psychiatry as a political weapon and the denial of freedom of religion, assembly, speech and association. Pol Pot became dictator of Cambodia in 1975. In all, an estimated 1.7 million people (out of a population of 7 million) died due to the policies of his four-year dictatorship. As a result, Pol Pot is sometimes described as "the Hitler of Cambodia" and "a genocidal tyrant". The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Sudan's military dictator Omar al-Bashir over alleged war crimes in Darfur.


In game theory


In social choice theory, the notion of a dictator is formally defined as a person who can achieve any feasible social outcome he/she wishes. The formal definition yields an interesting distinction between two different types of dictators. * ''The strong dictator'' has, for any social goal he/she has in mind (e.g. raise taxes, having someone killed, etc.), a definite way of achieving that goal. This can be seen as having explicit absolute power, like Sulla. * ''The weak dictator'' has, for any social goal he/she has in mind, and for any political scenario, a course of action that would bring about the desired goal. For the ''weak'' dictator, it is usually not enough to "give their orders", rather he/she has to manipulate the political scene appropriately. This means that the ''weak'' dictator might actually be lurking in the shadows, working within a political setup that seems to be non-dictatorial. An example of such a figure is Lorenzo the Magnificent, who controlled Renaissance Florence. Note that these definitions disregard some alleged dictators who are not interested in the actual achieving of social goals, as much as in propaganda and controlling public opinion. Monarchs and military dictators are also excluded from these definitions, because their rule relies on the consent of other political powers (the nobility or the army).

List of people described as dictators from the 19th to the 21st century



Africa

*Houari Boumédiène (1965–1978), Algeria *Abdelaziz Bouteflika (1999–2019), Algeria *Muhammad Ali of Egypt (1805-1848), Egypt *Gamal Abdel Nasser (1954–1970), Egypt and United Arab Republic *Anwar Sadat (1970–1981), Egypt *Hosni Mubarak (1981–2011), Egypt *Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (2014–present), Egypt *Agostinho Neto (1975–1979), Angola *José Eduardo dos Santos (1979–2017), Angola *Mathieu Kérékou (1972–1991;1996–2006), Benin *Maurice Yaméogo (1960–1966), Upper Volta, today Burkina Faso *Sangoulé Lamizana (1966–1980), Upper Volta *Saye Zerbo (1980–1982), Upper Volta *Thomas Sankara (1983–1987), Burkina Faso *Blaise Compaoré (1987-2014), Burkina Faso *Michel Micombero (1966–1976), Burundi *Jean-Baptiste Bagaza (1976–1987), Burundi *Pierre Buyoya (1987–1993; 1996–2005), Burundi *Pierre Nkurunziza (2005–2020), Burundi *Ahmadou Ahidjo (1960–1982), Cameroon *Paul Biya (1982–present), Cameroon *Jean-Bédel Bokassa (1966–1979), Central African Republic *André Kolingba (1981–1993), Central African Republic *François Tombalbaye (1960–1975), Chad *Hissène Habré (1982–1990), Chad *Idriss Déby (1990–2021), Chad *Mobutu Sese Seko (1965–1997), Democratic Republic of the Congo *Laurent-Désiré Kabila (1997–2001), Democratic Republic of the Congo *Isaias Afwerki (1993–present), Eritrea *Haile Selassie (1930–1974), Ethiopia *Mengistu Haile Mariam (1977–1991), Ethiopia *Meles Zenawi (1991–2012), Ethiopia *Omar Bongo (1967–2009), Gabon *Ali Bongo (2009–present), Gabon *Dawda Jawara (1970–1994), The Gambia *Yahya Jammeh (1994–2017), The Gambia *Kwame Nkrumah (1960–1966), Ghana *Jerry Rawlings (1979;1981–1993;1993–2001), Ghana *Ahmed Sékou Touré (1958–1984), Guinea *Lansana Conté (1984–2008), Guinea *Francisco Macías Nguema (1968–1979), Equatorial Guinea *Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (1979–present), Equatorial Guinea *Félix Houphouët-Boigny (1960–1993), Ivory Coast *Jomo Kenyatta (1963–1978), Kenya *Daniel arap Moi (1978–2004), Kenya *William Tubman (1944–1971), Liberia *William Tolbert (1971–1980), Liberia *Samuel Doe (1980–1990), Liberia *Charles Taylor (1997–2004), Liberia *Muammar Gaddafi (1969–2011), Libya *Hastings Banda (1966–1994), Malawi *Modibo Keïta (1960–1968), Mali *Moussa Traoré (1968–1991), Mali *Yakubu Gowon (1966–1975), Nigeria *Murtala Mohammed (1975-1976), Nigeria *Olusegun Obasanjo (1976–1979), Nigeria *Ibrahim Babangida (1985–1993), Nigeria *Sani Abacha (1993–1998), Nigeria *Grégoire Kayibanda (1961–1973), Rwanda *Juvénal Habyarimana (1973–1994), Rwanda *Théodore Sindikubwabo (1994), Rwanda *Paul Kagame (2000–present), Rwanda *Siad Barre (1969–1991), Somalia *Jaafar Nimeiry (1969–1985), Sudan *Omar al-Bashir (1989–2019), Sudan *Abdel Fattah al-Burhan (2019-present), Sudan *Salva Kiir Mayardit (2011-present), South Sudan *France-Albert René (1977–2004), Seychelles *Mswati III (1986–present), eSwatini *Julius Nyerere (1962–1985), Tanzania, Tanganyika *Ali Hassan Mwinyi (1985–1995), Tanzania *Sylvanus Olympio (1960–1963), Togo *Gnassingbé Eyadéma (1967–2005), Togo *Milton Obote (1966–1971), Uganda *Idi Amin (1971–1979), Uganda *Yoweri Museveni (1986–present), Uganda *Kenneth Kaunda (1964–1991), Zambia *Robert Mugabe (1980–2017), Zimbabwe *Emmerson Mnangagwa (2017–present), Zimbabwe

Asia

*Mohammed Omar (1996–2001), Afghanistan *Taliban (2001-present), Afghanistan *Nikol Pashinyan (2018–present), Armenia *Ziaur Rahman (1977–1981), Bangladesh *Hussain Muhammad Ershad (1983–1990), Bangladesh *Hassanal Bolkiah (1967–present), Brunei *Norodom Sihanouk (1953–1970), Cambodia *Lon Nol (1970-1975), Khmer Republic *Pol Pot (1975–1979), Cambodia *Hun Sen (1985–present), Cambodia *Yuan Shikai (1912–1916), China *Zhang Zuolin (1926–1928), China *Chiang Kai-shek (1928–1975), China, Taiwan *Chiang Ching-kuo (1975–1988), Taiwan *Mao Zedong (1949–1976), China *Hua Guofeng (1976–1978), China *Deng Xiaoping (1978–1989), China *Jiang Zemin (1989–2004), China *Hu Jintao (2004–2012), China *Xi Jinping (2012–present), China *Sukarno (1945–1967), Indonesia *Suharto (1967–1998), Indonesia *Reza Shah (1925–1941), Iran *Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1975–1979), Iran *Ruhollah Khomeini (1979–1989), Iran *Ali Khamenei (1989–present), Iran *Abd al-Karim Qasim (1958–1963), Iraq *Abdul Salam Arif (1963–1966), Iraq *Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (1968-1979), Iraq *Saddam Hussein (1979–2003), Iraq *Hideki Tojo (1941–1944), Japan *Kim Il-sung (1948–1994), North Korea *Kim Jong-il (1994–2011), North Korea *Kim Jong-un (2011–present), North Korea *Syngman Rhee (1948–1960), South Korea *Park Chung-hee (1961–1979), South Korea *Chun Doo-hwan (1979–1988), South Korea *Khorloogiin Choibalsan (1939–1952), Mongolia *Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal (1952–1984), Mongolia *Genghis Khan (Spring 1206 – August 18, 1227), Mongolia *Attila the Hun (434–453), Mongolia *Jambyn Batmönkh (1984–1990), Mongolia *Ba Maw (1943–1945), Burma *Ne Win (1958–1960; 1962–1988), Burma *Saw Maung (1988–1992), Myanmar *Than Shwe (1992–2011), Myanmar *Min Aung Hlaing (2021-present), Myanmar *Ayub Khan (1958–1969), Pakistan *Yahya Khan (1969–1971), Pakistan *Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (1977–1988), Pakistan *Pervez Musharraf (1999–2008), Pakistan *Emilio Aguinaldo (1899–1901), Philippines *Ferdinand Marcos (1965–1986), Philippines *Lee Kuan Yew (1959–1990), Singapore *Amin al-Hafiz (1963–1966), Syria *Salah Jadid (1966–1970), Syria *Hafez al-Assad (1970–2000), Syria *Bashar al-Assad (2000–present), Syria *Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena (1933–1938), Thailand *Plaek Phibunsongkhram (1938–1944; 1948–1957), Thailand *Sarit Thanarat (1958–1963), Thailand *Thanom Kittikachorn (1963–1973), Thailand *Thanin Kraivichien (1976–1977) Thailand *Kriangsak Chamanan (1977–1980), Thailand *Prem Tinsulanonda (1980–1988), Thailand *Suchinda Kraprayoon (1991–1992), Thailand *Sonthi Boonyaratglin (2006–2008), Thailand *Prayut Chan-o-cha (2014–present), Thailand *Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1923–1938), Turkey *İsmet İnönü (1938–1945), Turkey *Cemal Gürsel (1960–1961), Turkey *Kenan Evren (1980–1989), Turkey *Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (2014–present), TurkeyErtug Tombus, "The Fall of Turkish Democracy"
Publicseminar.org, 3 March 2017. Downloaded 19 April 2017.
*Emomali Rahmon (1994–present), Tajikistan *Saparmurat Niyazov (1985–2006), Turkmenistan *Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow (2006–present), Turkmenistan *Islam Karimov (1991–2016), Uzbekistan *Timur (9 April 1370 – 14 February 1405), Uzbekistan *Ho Chi Minh (1945–1969), North Vietnam *Ngo Dinh Diem (1955–1963), South Vietnam *Dương Văn Minh (1963–1964), South Vietnam *Nguyễn Khánh (1964–1965), South Vietnam *Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (1965–1975), South Vietnam *Tôn Đức Thắng (1976-1980), Vietnam *Lê Duẩn (1960-1986), North Vietnam, Vietnam *Ali Abdullah Saleh (1978–2012), Yemen *Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi (2012–present), Yemen

Europe

*Zog I (1925–1939), Albania *Shefqet Vërlaci (1939–1941), Albania *Mustafa Merlika-Kruja (1941–1943), Albania *Rexhep Mitrovica (1943–1944), Albania *Enver Hoxha (1944–1985), Albania *Ramiz Alia (1985–1991), Albania *Engelbert Dollfuss (1932–1934), Austria *Kurt Schuschnigg (1934–1938), Austria *Radasłaŭ Astroŭski (1943–1944), Belarus *Alexander Lukashenko (1994–present), Belarus *Boris III (1935–1943), Bulgaria *Valko Chervenkov (1949–1954), Bulgaria *Todor Zhivkov (1954–1989), Bulgaria *Ante Pavelić (1941–1945), Croatia *Klement Gottwald (1948–1953), Czechoslovakia *Antonín Novotný (1953–1968), Czechoslovakia *Gustáv Husák (1969–1989), Czechoslovakia *Konstantin Päts (1934–1940), Estonia *Kullervo Manner (1918), Finland *Napoleon (1799–1814; 1815), France *Louis XVI (10 May 1774 – 21 September 1792), France *Napoleon III (1848–1870), France *Louis-Jules Trochu (1870–1871), France *Philippe Pétain (1940–1944), France *Otto von Bismarck (1871–1890), Germany *Paul von Hindenburg (1916–1919; 1930–1933), Germany *Adolf Hitler (1933–1945), Germany *Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971), East Germany *Erich Honecker (1971–1989), East Germany *Otto (1832–1843), Greece *Ioannis Metaxas (1936–1941), Greece *Georgios Tsolakoglou (1941–1942), Greece *Konstantinos Logothetopoulos (1942–1943), Greece *Ioannis Rallis (1943–1944), Greece *Georgios Papadopoulos (1967–1973), Greece *Dimitrios Ioannidis (1973–1974), Greece *Lajos Kossuth (1849), Hungary *Miklós Horthy (1920–1944), Hungary *Ferenc Szálasi (1944–1945), Hungary *Mátyás Rákosi (1949–1956), Hungary *János Kádár (1956–1988), Hungary *Benito Mussolini (1922–1945), Italy, Italian Social Republic *Julius Caesar (49-44 BC), Italy *Elagabalus (8 June 218 – 11 March 222 AD), Italy *Tiberius (18 September 14 – 16 March 37 AD), Italy *Commodus (176 – 31 December 192), Italy *Caligula (16 March 37 – 24 January 41 AD), Italy *Nero (13 October 54 – 9 June 68 AD), Italy *Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535–509 BC), Italy *Kārlis Ulmanis (1934–1940), Latvia *Antanas Smetona (1926–1940), Lithuania *Anton Mussert (1942–1945), Netherlands *Vidkun Quisling (1942–1945), Norway *Abdul Hamid II (1878–1908), Ottoman Empire *The Three Pashas (1913–1918), Ottoman Empire *Ludwik Mierosławski, Marian Langiewicz, Romuald Traugutt (1863–1864), Poland *Józef Piłsudski (1918–1922; 1926–1935), Poland *Ignacy Mościcki (1935–1939), Poland *Bolesław Bierut (1948–1956), Poland *Wladyslaw Gomulka (1953–1970), Poland *Edward Gierek (1970–1980), Poland *Wojciech Jaruzelski (1981–1990), Poland *Miguel I (1828–1834), Portugal *Óscar Carmona (1926–1933), Portugal *António de Oliveira Salazar (1932–1968), Portugal *Marcelo Caetano (1968–1974), Portugal *Octavian Goga (1937–1938), Romania *Carol II (1938–1940), Romania *Ion Antonescu (1940–1944), Romania *Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (1947–1965), Romania *Nicolae Ceaușescu (1965–1989), Romania *Nicholas II of Russia, Russia *Alexander Kolchak (1918–1920), Russia *Vladimir Putin (1999–present), Russia *Milan Nedić (1941–1944), Serbia *Slobodan Milošević (1989–2000), Serbia and Montenegro *Giuseppe Garibaldi (1880), Sicily *Jozef Tiso (1939–1945), Slovakia *Vladimir Lenin (1917–1924), Soviet Russia, Soviet Union *Joseph Stalin (1924–1953), Soviet Union *Joseph Bonaparte (1808–1813), Spain *Ferdinand VII (1813–1833), Spain *Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923–1930), Spain *Francisco Franco (1939–1975), Spain *Pavlo Skoropadskyi (1918), Ukraine *Alexander I (1929–1934), Yugoslavia *Josip Broz Tito (1945–1980), Yugoslavia

North America

*Jesús Jiménez Zamora (1868–1870), Costa Rica *Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez (1870–1882), Costa Rica *Federico Tinoco Granados (1917–1919), Costa Rica *Fulgencio Batista (1952–1959), Cuba *Fidel Castro (1959–2011), Cuba *Pedro Santana (1844–1862), Dominican Republic *Ulises Heureaux (1882–1899), Dominican Republic *Rafael Trujillo (1930–1961), Dominican Republic *Joaquín Balaguer (1966–1978), Dominican Republic *Maximiliano Hernández Martínez (1931–1944), El Salvador *Salvador Castaneda Castro (1945–1948), El Salvador *Nayib Bukele (2019-present), El Salvador *Óscar Osorio (1948–1956), El Salvador *José María Lemus (1956–1960), El Salvador *Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo (1961–1967), El Salvador *Fidel Sánchez Hernández (1967–1972), El Salvador *Arturo Armando Molina (1972–1977), El Salvador *Carlos Humberto Romero (1977–1979), El Salvador *Adolfo Arnoldo Majano (1979–1980), El Salvador *Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez (1980), El Salvador *José Napoleón Duarte (1980–1982), El Salvador *Rafael Carrera (1844–1865), Guatemala *Manuel Estrada Cabrera (1898–1920), Guatemala *José María Orellana (1921–1926), Guatemala *Jorge Ubico (1931–1944), Guatemala *Carlos Castillo Armas (1954–1957), Guatemala *Enrique Peralta Azurdia (1963–1966), Guatemala *Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio (1970-1974), Guatemala *Kjell Eugenio Laugerud Garcia (1974-1978), Guatemala *Fernando Romeo Lucas Garcia (1978-1982), Guatemala *Efraín Ríos Montt (1982–1983), Guatemala *Óscar Humberto Mejía Víctores (1983–1986), Guatemala *Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1804–1806), Haiti *Henri Christophe (1807–1820), Haiti *Alexandre Pétion (1816–1818), Haiti *Jean-Pierre Boyer (1818–1843), Haiti *Faustin Soulouque (1847–1859), Haiti *Paul Magloire (1950–1956), Haiti *François Duvalier (1957–1971), Haiti *Jean-Claude Duvalier (1971–1986), Haiti *Henri Namphy (1986–1988) Haiti *Prosper Avril (1988–1990) Haiti *Raoul Cedras (1991–1994) Haiti *Tiburcio Carías Andino (1933–1949), Honduras *Oswaldo López Arellano (1963–1971, 1972–1975), Honduras *Juan Alberto Melgar Castro (1975–1978), Honduras *Policarpo Paz García (1978–1982), Honduras * Gustavo Álvarez Martínez (1982-1984), Honduras *Porfirio Díaz (1876–1911), Mexico *Victoriano Huerta (1913-1914), Mexico *Plutarco Elías Calles (1924–1935), Mexico *Lazaro Cardenas (1935-1940), Mexico *Manuel Ávila Camacho (1940-1946), Mexico *Miguel Aleman Valdes (1946-1952), Mexico *Adolfo Ruiz Cortines (1952-1958), Mexico *Adolfo Lopez Mateos (1958-1964), Mexico *Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (1964–1970), Mexico *Luis Echeverria (1970-1976), Mexico *Jose Lopez Portillo (1976-1982), Mexico *Miguel de la Madrid (1982-1988), Mexico *Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1988-1994), Mexico *Anastasio Somoza García (1936–1956), Nicaragua *Luis Somoza Debayle (1956–1967), Nicaragua *Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1967–1979), Nicaragua *Omar Torrijos (1968–1981), Panama *Rubén Darío Paredes (1982–1983), Panama *Manuel Noriega (1983–1989), Panama

South America

*Juan Manuel de Rosas (1829–1852), Argentina *José Félix Uriburu (1930–1932), Argentina *Pedro Pablo Ramírez (1943–1944), Argentina *Edelmiro Julián Farrell (1944–1946), Argentina *Eduardo Lonardi (1955), Argentina *Pedro Eugenio Aramburu (1955–1958), Argentina *Juan Carlos Onganía (1966–1970), Argentina *Roberto M. Levingston (1970–1971), Argentina *Alejandro Agustín Lanusse (1971–1973), Argentina *Jorge Rafael Videla (1976–1981), Argentina *Roberto Eduardo Viola (1981), Argentina *Leopoldo Galtieri (1981–1982), Argentina *Reynaldo Bignone (1982–1983), Argentina *Andrés de Santa Cruz (1829–1839), Bolivia *José Miguel de Velasco Franco (1839–1841; 1848), Bolivia *Sebastián Ágreda (1841), Bolivia *José Ballivián (1841–1847), Bolivia *Manuel Isidoro Belzu (1848–1855), Bolivia *José María Linares (1857–1861), Bolivia *José María de Achá (1861–1864), Bolivia *Mariano Melgarejo (1864–1871), Bolivia *Agustín Morales (1871–1872), Bolivia *Hilarión Daza (1876–1879), Bolivia *David Toro (1936–1937), Bolivia *Germán Busch (1937–1939), Bolivia *Gualberto Villarroel (1943–1946), Bolivia *Hugo Ballivián (1951–1952), Bolivia *René Barrientos (1964–1969), Bolivia *Alfredo Ovando Candía (1969–1970), Bolivia *Juan José Torres (1970–1971), Bolivia *Hugo Banzer (1971–1978), Bolivia *Juan Pereda (1978), Bolivia *David Padilla (1978–1979), Bolivia *Alberto Natusch (1979), Bolivia *Luis García Meza (1980–1981), Bolivia *Celso Torrelio (1981–1982), Bolivia *Guido Vildoso (1982), Bolivia *Deodoro da Fonseca (1889–1891), Brazil *Floriano Peixoto (1891–1894), Brazil *Getúlio Vargas (1930–1945), Brazil *Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco (1964–1967), Brazil *Artur da Costa e Silva (1967–1969), Brazil *Emílio Garrastazu Médici (1969–1974), Brazil *Ernesto Geisel (1974–1979), Brazil *João Figueiredo (1979–1985), Brazil *José Miguel Carrera (1811–1814), Chile *Bernardo O'Higgins (1817–1823), Chile *Ramón Freire (1823–1826), Chile *Luis Altamirano (1924–1925), Chile *Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (1927-1931) Chile *Augusto Pinochet (1973–1990), Chile *Simón Bolívar (1828–1830), Colombia *José María Melo (1854), Colombia *Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (1953–1957), Colombia *Gabriel García Moreno (1859–1875), Ecuador *Ignacio de Veintemilla (1876–1883), Ecuador *Eloy Alfaro (1895–1911), Ecuador *Federico Páez (1935–1937), Ecuador *Alberto Enríquez Gallo (1937–1938), Ecuador *Ramón Castro Jijón (1963–1966), Ecuador *José María Velasco Ibarra (1970–1972), Ecuador *Guillermo Rodríguez (1972–1976), Ecuador *Alfredo Poveda (1976–1979), Ecuador *Forbes Burnham (1966–1985) Guyana *José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia (1814–1840), Paraguay *Carlos Antonio López (1840–1862), Paraguay *Francisco Solano López (1862–1870), Paraguay *Rafael Franco (1936–1937), Paraguay *José Félix Estigarribia (1939–1940), Paraguay *Higinio Morínigo (1940–1948), Paraguay *Alfredo Stroessner (1954–1989), Paraguay *Simón Bolívar (1824–1827), Peru *Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco (1843–1844), Peru *Mariano Ignacio Prado (1865–1868), Peru *Tomás Gutiérrez (1872), Peru *Nicolás de Piérola (1879–1881), Peru *Augusto B. Leguía (1919–1930), Peru *Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro (1930–1933), Peru *Óscar R. Benavides (1933–1939), Peru *Manuel A. Odría (1948–1956), Peru *Ricardo Pérez Godoy (1962–1963), Peru *Juan Velasco Alvarado (1968–1975), Peru *Francisco Morales-Bermúdez (1975–1980), Peru *Alberto Fujimori (1992-2000), Peru *Desi Bouterse (1980-1988), Suriname *Venancio Flores (1865–1868), Uruguay *Lorenzo Latorre (1875–1880), Uruguay *Juan Lindolfo Cuestas (1897–1903), Uruguay *Gabriel Terra (1933–1938), Uruguay *Alfredo Baldomir (1942–1943), Uruguay *Juan María Bordaberry (1972–1976), Uruguay *Aparicio Méndez (1976–1981), Uruguay *Gregorio Conrado Álvarez (1981–1985), Uruguay *Cipriano Castro (1899–1908), Venezuela *Juan Vicente Gómez (1908–1935), Venezuela *Carlos Delgado Chalbaud (1948–1950), Venezuela *Marcos Pérez Jiménez (1950–1958), Venezuela *Hugo Chávez (1999–2013), Venezuela *Nicolás Maduro (2013–present), Venezuela


See also


* Authoritarian personality * Benevolent dictator for life * Benevolent dictatorship * Dictator novel * Emergency powers * List of coups d'état and coup attempts * List of coups d'état and coup attempts by country * List of political leaders who held active military ranks in office * List of political leaders who suspended the constitution * Lists of state leaders by year * Maximum Leader (disambiguation) * Military rule (disambiguation) * President for life * Strongman (politics) * Supreme Leader * Democracy Index


References





Notes


* A He conferred a doctorate of law on himself from Makerere University. * B The Victorious Cross (VC) was a medal made to emulate the British Victoria Cross.Lloyd, Lorna (2007) p.239


Citations





Bibliography


* * *


External links


*
Current Dictators of the World
{{Authority control * Category:Heads of government Category:Heads of state Category:Positions of authority Category:Titles Category:Titles of national or ethnic leadership cs:Diktátor