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A diaspora ( ) is a scattered population whose
origin Origin(s) or The Origin may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics and manga * , a Wolverine comic book mini-series published by Marvel Comics in 2002 * , a 1999 ''Buffy the Vampire Slayer'' comic book series * , a major ''Judge Dred ...
lies in a separate geographic locale. Historically, the word diaspora was used to refer to the mass dispersion of a population from its indigenous territories, specifically the dispersion of Jews. Whilst the word was originally used to describe the forced displacement of certain peoples, "diasporas" is now generally used to describe those who identify with a "homeland", but live outside of it. Some notable diasporas are the
Assyrian Diaspora Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people Assyrians (, ) are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East. Some self-identify as Terms for Syriac Christians#Syriac identity, Syriacs, Chaldean ...
which originated during and after the Arab conquest of Iraq,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...

Turkey
and
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, and continued in the aftermath of the
Assyrian genocide The ''Seyfo'' or ''Sayfo'' ( syr, ܣܝܦܐ ; see below), also known as the Assyrian genocide or the Syriac-Aramean Genocide, was the mass slaughter and deportation of Syriac Christians (mostly belonging to the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church o ...

Assyrian genocide
; the southern
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
and
Indians Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
who left their homelands during the 19th to 20th century; the
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
who left Ireland during and after the Great Famine; the Scots who emigrated on a large scale after the
Highland Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) refers to ranges of hills, typically up to . Highland (or highlands) is usually reserved for ranges of low mountains. Highlan ...
and
Lowland Clearances The Lowland Clearances were one of the results of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland in the seventeenth century. Thousands of cottars and tenant farmer ...
; the
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...

Romani
from India; the
Italian diaspora The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance peoples, Romance Ethnic groups in Europe, ethnic group and nation native to the Italian geographical region and its neighboring insular terr ...
and the
Mexican diaspora Emigration from Mexico is the movement of people from Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. ...
; the exile and deportation of
Circassians The Circassians (also referred to as Cherkess or Adyghe; ; ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish th ...

Circassians
; the
Palestinian diaspora The Palestinian diaspora ( ar, الشتات الفلسطيني, ''al-shatat al-filastini''), part of the wider Arab diaspora, are Palestinian people The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī'' ...
following the flight or expulsion of Arabs from
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
; the Armenian Diaspora following the
Armenian genocide The Armenian Genocide (Terminology of the Armenian Genocide, other names) was the systematic mass murder and ethnic cleansing of around 1 million ethnic Armenians from Asia Minor and adjoining regions by the Ottoman Empire and its ruling ...

Armenian genocide
; the
Lebanese Diaspora Lebanese diaspora refers to Lebanese migrants and their descendants who, whether by choice or coercion, emigrated from Lebanon Lebanon (), officially known as the Lebanese Republic,''Republic of Lebanon'' is the most common phrase used b ...
due to the
Lebanese Civil War The Lebanese Civil War (13 April 1975 – 13 October 1990, ar, الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية, translit=Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities. ...
; the fleeing of
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
from Turkey after the fall of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (), Tsargrad (), Qustantiniya (), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City"), Πό ...

Constantinople
, the later
Greek genocide The Greek genocide (, ''Genoktonia ton Ellinon''), including the Pontic genocide, was the systematic killing of the Christian Ottoman Greek population of Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also kn ...
, and the Istanbul pogroms, and the emigration of
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a who inhabited . They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the coastlands of . However, the of the Anglo-Saxons occurred within Britain, and the ide ...
warriors and their families after the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of thousands of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French ...
, primarily to the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
. Recently, scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as
colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of colonisation, colonisers may impose the ...

colonialism
, trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands. Some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, keeping ties back home (country of origin) relationships with other communities in the diaspora, and lack of full integration into the host countries. Diasporas often maintain ties to the country of their historical affiliation and influence the policies of the country where they are located. As of 2019, according to the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
, the
Indian diaspora Overseas Indians, officially known as Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) or Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs), are people of Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aborigin ...
is the world's largest diaspora with a population of 17.5 million, followed by the
Mexican diaspora Emigration from Mexico is the movement of people from Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. ...
with a population of 11.8 million and the
Chinese diaspora Overseas Chinese () are people of ethnic Chinese birth who reside outside the territories of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and ...

Chinese diaspora
with a population of 10.7 million.With $78 billion, India still highest overseas remittance receiver
Eonomic Times, 28 November 2019.


Etymology

The term is derived from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
verb διασπείρω (''diaspeirō''), "I scatter", "I spread about" which in turn is composed of διά (''dia''), "between, through, across" and the verb σπείρω (''speirō''), "I sow, I scatter". In
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
the term διασπορά (''diaspora'') hence meant "scattering" and was inter alia used to refer to citizens of a dominant
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereignty, sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including c ...
who emigrated to a conquered land with the purpose of
colonization Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their—or their ancestors'—former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such l ...
, to assimilate the territory into the empire. An example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the century-long exile of the
Messenians Messenia or Messinia ( el, Μεσσηνία) was an ancient district of the southwestern Peloponnese more or less overlapping the modern Messenia region of Greece. To the north it had a border with Elis along the Neda (river), Neda river. From ther ...
under
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
n rule and the Ageanites as described by Thucydides in his "history of the Peloponnesian wars." Its use began to develop from this original sense when the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, and the Ketuvim. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a f ...

Hebrew Bible
was translated into Greek; the first mention of a diaspora created as a result of exile is found in the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible and deuterocanonical books. The ...
, first in *
Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos'') is the fifth book of the Jewish , where it is called ''Devarim'' ( he, דְּבָרִים), "the words f Moses F, or f, is the sixth Letter (alphabet), let ...
28:25, in the phrase , ''esē en diaspora en pasais tais basileiais tēs gēs'', translated to mean "thou shalt be a dispersion in all kingdoms of the earth" and secondly in *
Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ( ...

Psalms
146(147).2, in the phrase , ''oikodomōn Ierousalēm ho
Kyrios ''Kyrios'' or ''kurios'' ( grc, κύριος, kū́rios) is a Greek language, Greek word which is usually translated as "lord" or "master". It is used in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew religious text, scriptures about 7000 times, in pa ...

Kyrios
kai tas diasporas tou Israēl episynaxē'', translated to mean "The Lord doth build up Jerusalem: he gathereth together the outcasts of Israel". So after the Bible's translation into Greek, the word ''diaspora'' would then have been used to refer to the Northern Kingdom exiled between 740 and 722 BC from Israel by the Assyrians, as well as Jews, Benjaminites, and Levites exiled from the Southern Kingdom in 587 BC by the
Babylonians Babylonia () was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; Syriac language, Classical Syriac: ...
, and from
Roman Judea The Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each p ...
in 70 AD by the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. It subsequently came to be used to refer to the historical movements and settlement patterns of the dispersed indigenous population of Israel. When relating to Judaism and capitalized without modifiers (that is simply, ''the Diaspora''), the term refers specifically to the
Jewish diaspora The Jewish diaspora ( he, תְּפוּצָה, təfūṣā) or exile (Hebrew: ; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a High German languages, High German–derived language historically spoken by As ...
; when uncapitalized '' diaspora'' may refer to
refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region In geography, regions are areas that are broa ...

refugee
or
immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...

immigrant
populations of other origins or ethnicities living "away from an indigenous or established homeland". The wider application of ''diaspora'' evolved from the Assyrian two-way mass deportation policy of conquered populations to deny future territorial claims on their part.


Definition

According to the ''
Oxford English Dictionary Online The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive res ...
'', the first known recorded usage of the word ''diaspora'' in the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
was in 1876 referring "extensive ''diaspora'' work (as it is termed) of evangelizing among the National Protestant Churches on the continent". The term became more widely assimilated into
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
by the mid 1950s, with long-term
expatriates An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, eithe ...
in significant numbers from other particular countries or regions also being referred to as a diaspora. An academic field,
diaspora studies Diaspora studies is an academic field established in the late 20th century to study dispersed ethnicity, ethnic populations, which are often termed diaspora peoples. The usage of the term diaspora carries the connotation of forced resettlement, d ...
, has become established relating to this sense of the word. In English, capitalized, and without modifiers (that is simply, ''the Diaspora''), the term refers specifically to the
Jewish diaspora The Jewish diaspora ( he, תְּפוּצָה, təfūṣā) or exile (Hebrew: ; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a High German languages, High German–derived language historically spoken by As ...
in the context of Judaism. In all cases, the term ''diaspora'' carries a sense of
displacement Displacement may refer to: Physical sciences Mathematics and Physics *Displacement (geometry), is the difference between the final and initial position of a point trajectory (for instance, the center of mass of a moving object). The actual path c ...
. The population so described finds itself for whatever reason separated from its national territory, and usually, its people have a hope, or at least a desire, to return to their homeland at some point if the "homeland" still exists in any meaningful sense. Some writers have noted that diaspora may result in a loss of nostalgia for a single home as people "re-root" in a series of meaningful displacements. In this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their diaspora, with different reasons for maintaining some form of attachment to each. Diasporic cultural development often assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement. Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in culture, traditions, language, and other factors. The last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora is often found in community resistance to
language change Language change is variation over time in a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
and in the maintenance of traditional religious practice.


Scholarly work and expanding definition

William SafranWilliam Safran (born 1930) is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Colorado Boulder. It has been argued that Safran "has contributed substantially to the body of knowledge regarding ethnicity, ethnic politics, nationalism, and ...
in an article published in 1991, set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities. These included criteria that the group maintains a myth or collective memory of their homeland; they regard their ancestral homeland as their true home, to which they will eventually return; being committed to the restoration or maintenance of that homeland, and they relate "personally or vicariously" to the homeland to a point where it shapes their identity. While Safran's definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term. Rogers Brubaker (2005) also notes that the use of the term diaspora has been widening. He suggests that one element of this expansion in use "involves the application of the term diaspora to an ever-broadening set of cases: essentially to any and every nameable population category that is to some extent dispersed in space". Brubaker has used the
WorldCat#REDIRECT WorldCat WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 15,600 libraries A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or bo ...
database to show that 17 out of the 18 books on diaspora published between 1900 and 1910 were on the Jewish diaspora. The majority of works in the 1960s were also about the Jewish diaspora, but in 2002 only two out of 20 books sampled (out of a total of 253) were about the Jewish case, with a total of eight different diasporas covered. Brubaker outlines the original use of the term diaspora as follows:
Most early discussions of the diaspora were firmly rooted in a conceptual 'homeland'; they were concerned with a paradigmatic case, or a small number of core cases. The paradigmatic case was, of course, the Jewish diaspora; some dictionary definitions of diaspora, until recently, did not simply illustrate but defined the word with reference to that case.
Brubaker argues that the initial expansion of the use of the phrase extended it to other, similar cases, such as the
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
and
Greek diaspora The Greek diaspora, Hellenic diaspora or homogenea ( el, Ὁμογένεια) are the communities of Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hel ...
s. More recently, it has been applied to emigrant groups that continue their involvement in their homeland from overseas, such as the category of long-distance nationalists identified by
Benedict Anderson Benedict Richard O'Gorman Anderson (August 26, 1936 – December 13, 2015) was a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List ...
. Brubaker notes that (as examples): Albanians, Basques, Hindu Indians, Irish, Japanese, Kashmiri, Koreans, Kurds, Palestinians, and Tamils have been conceptualized as diasporas in this sense. Furthermore, "labor migrants who maintain (to some degree) emotional and social ties with a homeland" have also been described as diasporas. In further cases of the use of the term, "the reference to the conceptual homeland – to the 'classical' diasporas – has become more attenuated still, to the point of being lost altogether". Here, Brubaker cites "transethnic and transborder linguistic categories...such as
Francophone This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from ...

Francophone
, and
Lusophone Lusophones ( pt, Lusófonos) are peoples and nations that comprise an estimated 270 million people spread across 10 sovereign states and territories that recognize Recognition may refer to: *Award, something given in recognition of an achieveme ...
'communities'", along with Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Confucian, Huguenot, Muslim and Catholic 'diasporas'. Brubaker notes that, , there were also academic books or articles on the
Dixie Dixie, also known as Dixieland and Dixie Land, is a nickname for the southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east ...
, white, liberal, gay, queer and digital diasporas. Some observers have labeled evacuation from
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
Merriam-Webster.
; french: La Nouvelle-Orléans ) is a Consolidat ...

New Orleans
and the
Gulf Coast The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean T ...

Gulf Coast
in the wake of
Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina was a large and destructive Category 5 Atlantic hurricane A Category 5 Atlantic hurricane is a tropical cyclone that reaches Category 5 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, within the Atlantic Ocean to ...
the New Orleans diaspora, since a significant number of evacuees have not been able to return, yet maintain aspirations to do so. Agnieszka Weinar (2010) notes the widening use of the term, arguing that recently, "a growing body of literature succeeded in reformulating the definition, framing diaspora as almost any ''population'' on the move and no longer referring to the specific ''context'' of their existence". It has even been noted that as charismatic Christianity becomes increasingly globalized, many Christians conceive of themselves as a diaspora, and form an imaginary that mimics salient features of ethnic diasporas. Professional communities of individuals no longer in their homeland can also be considered diaspora. For example, science diasporas are communities of scientists who conduct their research away from their homeland. In an article published in 1996, Khachig Tölölyan argues that the media have used the term corporate diaspora in a rather arbitrary and inaccurate fashion, for example as applied to “mid-level, mid-career executives who have been forced to find new places at a time of corporate upheaval” (10) The use of corporate diaspora reflects the increasing popularity of the diaspora notion to describe a wide range of phenomena related to contemporary migration, displacement and transnational mobility. While corporate diaspora seems to avoid or contradict connotations of violence, coercion, and unnatural uprooting historically associated with the notion of diaspora, its scholarly use may heuristically describe the ways in which corporations function alongside diasporas. In this way, corporate diaspora might foreground the racial histories of diasporic formations without losing sight of the cultural logic of
late capitalism Late capitalism, or late-stage capitalism, is a term first used in print by German economist Werner Sombart around the turn of the 20th century. Since 2016, the term has been used in the United States and Canada to refer to perceived absurdities, ...
in which corporations orchestrate the transnational circulation of people, images, ideologies and capital.


African diasporas

One of the largest diasporas of modern times is that of Sub-Saharan Africans, which dates back several centuries. During the
Atlantic slave trade The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** ...
, 10.7 million people from
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
survived transportation to arrive in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
as
slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved per ...
. Currently, migrant Africans can only enter thirteen African countries without advanced visas. In pursuing a unified future, the
African Union The African Union (AU) is a continental union A continental union is a regional organization which facilitates pan-continental integration. Continental unions vary from collaborative intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental organiza ...

African Union
(AU) will allow people to move freely between the 54 countries of the AU under a visa free passport and encourage migrants to return to Africa. From the 8th through the 19th centuries, the
Arab slave trade Arab slave trade refers to various periods in which a slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the ensla ...
dispersed millions of Africans to Asia and the islands of the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
. The Islamic slave trade also has resulted in the creation of communities of African descent in India, most notably the
Siddi The Siddi (), also known as the Sheedi, Sidi, Siddhi, or Habshi, are an ethnic group inhabiting India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies ...

Siddi
, Makrani and
Sri Lanka Kaffirs The Sri Lankan Kaffirs (cafrinhas in Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese diale ...
. In the early 500s AD incursions by the kingdom of Aksum in Himyar led to the formation of African diasporic communities.


Asian diasporas

The largest Asian diaspora, and in the world, is the
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
diaspora. The overseas Indian community, estimated at over 17.5 million, is spread across many regions in the world, on every continent. It constitutes a diverse, heterogeneous and eclectic global community representing different regions, languages, cultures, and faiths (see
Desi Desi (; ) is a word used to describe the people, cultures, and products of the Indian subcontinent and their diaspora, derived from Sanskrit देश (''deśá''), meaning "land, country". Desi traces its origin specifically to the people of the ...

Desi
). Similarly, the
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...

Romani
, numbering roughly 12 million in Europe trace their origins to the Indian subcontinent, and their presence in Europe is first attested to in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. The earliest known Asian diaspora of note is the
Jewish diaspora The Jewish diaspora ( he, תְּפוּצָה, təfūṣā) or exile (Hebrew: ; Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a High German languages, High German–derived language historically spoken by As ...
. With roots in the
Babylonian Captivity The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. After the Battle of Carchemish in ...
and later migration under Hellenism, the majority of the diaspora can be attributed to the Roman conquest, expulsion, and enslavement of the Jewish population of
Judea Judea or Judaea ( or ; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Yehūḏā''; el, Ἰουδαία, ; la, Iūdaea) is the ancient, historic, Biblical Hebrew, contemporaneous ...

Judea
, whose descendants became the
Ashkenazim Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations ...
,
Sephardim Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews, ''Sephardim'',, Modern Hebrew: ''Sefaraddim'', Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm, also , ''Ye'hude Sepharad'', lit. "The Jews of Spain", es, Judíos sefardíes (or ), pt, Judeus sefarditas or Hispanic Jew ...
, and
Mizrahim Mizrahi Jews ( he, יהודי המִזְרָח) or ''Mizrahim'' (), also sometimes referred to as Mizrachi (), Edot HaMizrach (; ) or Oriental Jews, are the descendants of the local Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Isra ...
of today, roughly numbering 15 million of which 8 million still live in the diaspora, though the number was much higher before Zionist immigration to what is now Israel and the murder of 6 million Jews in the
Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural syst ...

Holocaust
.
Chinese emigration Waves of Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese diaspora) have happened throughout history. The mass emigration, which occurred from the 19th century to 1949, was mainly caused by corruption, starvation, and war in mainland China, and ...
(also known as the Chinese Diaspora; see also
Overseas Chinese Overseas Chinese () refers to people of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by populat ...

Overseas Chinese
) first occurred thousands of years ago. The mass emigration that occurred from the 19th century to 1949 was caused mainly by wars and starvation in
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
, as well as political corruption. Most migrants were illiterate or poorly educated peasants, called by the now-recognized racial slur
coolies A coolie (also spelled koelie, kuli, cooli, cooly, or quli) is a low-wage laborer, typically of Asian descent. The term is considered outdated and offensive. The word ''coolie'' was first popularized in the 16th century by European traders a ...
(Chinese: 苦力, literally "hard labor"), who migrated to developing countries in need of labor, such as the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
,
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, Malaya and other places. At least three waves of Nepalese diaspora can be identified. The earliest wave dates back to hundreds of years as early marriage and high birthrates propelled Hindu settlement eastward across Nepal, then into
Sikkim Sikkim (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Sikkim
and
Bhutan Bhutan (; dz, འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, Druk Yul, ), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan ( dz, འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by Chin ...

Bhutan
. A backlash developed in the 1980s as Bhutan's political elites realized that Bhutanese Buddhists were at risk of becoming a minority in their own country. At least 60,000 ethnic Nepalese from
Bhutan Bhutan (; dz, འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, Druk Yul, ), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan ( dz, འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by Chin ...

Bhutan
have been resettled in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. A second wave was driven by British recruitment of mercenary soldiers beginning around 1815 and resettlement after retirement in the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
and Southeast Asia. The third wave began in the 1970s as land shortages intensified and the pool of educated labor greatly exceeded job openings in Nepal. Job-related emigration created Nepalese enclaves in India, the wealthier countries of the Middle East, Europe, and North America. Current estimates of the number of Nepalese living outside Nepal range well up into the millions. In
Siam ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai language, ...

Siam
, regional power struggles among several kingdoms in the region led to a large diaspora of ethnic
Lao__NOTOC__ Lao may refer to: Laos * Something of, from, or related to Laos, a country in Southeast Asia * Lao people (people from Laos, or of Lao descent) * The Lao language * Lao script, the writing system used to write the Lao language ** Lao (Un ...

Lao
between the 1700s–1800s by Siamese rulers to settle large areas of the Siamese kingdom's northeast region, where Lao ethnicity is still a major factor in 2012. During this period, Siam decimated the Lao capital, capturing, torturing, and killing the Lao king Anuwongse.


European diasporas

European history contains numerous diaspora-like events. In ancient times, the trading and colonising activities of the ancient Greeks, Greek tribes from the Balkans and Anatolia, Asia Minor spread people of Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, establishing Greek city-states in Magna Graecia (Sicily, southern Italy), northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, and the Black Sea coasts. Greeks founded more than 400 colonies. Tyre and Carthage also colonised the Mediterranean. Alexander the Great's the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa, with Greek ruling-classes established in Ptolemaic dynasty, Egypt, Seleucid Empire, southwest Asia and Indo-Greek Kingdom, northwest India. Subsequent waves of colonization and migration during the Middle Ages added to the older settlements or created new ones, thus replenishing the
Greek diaspora The Greek diaspora, Hellenic diaspora or homogenea ( el, Ὁμογένεια) are the communities of Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hel ...
and making it one of the most long-standing and widespread in the world. The Migration Period, Migration-Period relocations, which included several phases, are just one set of many in history. The first phase Migration-Period displacement (between CE 300 and 500) included relocation of the Goths (Ostrogoths and Visigoths), Vandals, Franks, various other Germanic peoples (Burgundians, Lombards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi, Alemanni, Varangians and Normans), Alans and numerous Slavic peoples, Slavic tribes. The second phase, between CE 500 and 900, saw Slavic peoples, Slavic, Turkic people, Turkic, and other tribes on the move, resettling in Eastern Europe and gradually leaving it predominantly Slavic, and affecting Anatolia and the Caucasus as the first Turkic tribes (Avars (Carpathians), Avars, Huns, Khazars, Pechenegs), as well as Bulgars, and possibly Magyars arrived. The last phase of the Migration Period, migrations saw the coming of the Hungarian Magyars. The Vikings, Viking expansion out of Scandinavia into southern and eastern Europe, Iceland and Greenland. The recent application of the word "diaspora" to the Viking lexicon highlights their cultural profile distinct from their predatory reputation in the regions they settled, especially in the North Atlantic. The more positive connotations associated with the social science term helping to view the movement of the Scandinavian peoples in the Viking Age in a new way. Such colonizing migrations cannot be considered indefinitely as diasporas; over very long periods, eventually, the migrants assimilate into the settled area so completely that it becomes their new mental homeland. Thus the modern Magyars of Hungary do not feel that they belong in the Western Siberia that the Hungarian Magyars left 12 centuries ago; and the England, English descendants of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes do not yearn to reoccupy the plains of Northwest Germany. In 1492 a Spanish-financed expedition headed by Christopher Columbus arrived in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
, after which European exploration and colonization rapidly expanded. Historian James Axtell estimates that 240,000 people left Europe for the Americas in the 16th century. Emigration continued. In the 19th century alone over 50 million Europeans migrated to North and South America. Other Europeans moved to Siberia, Africa, and Australasia. A specific 19th-century example is the Irish diaspora, beginning in the mid-19th century and brought about by ''An Gorta Mór'' or "the Great Hunger" of the Great Famine (Ireland), Irish Famine. An estimated 45% to 85% of Ireland's population emigrated to areas including Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand. The size of the Irish diaspora is demonstrated by the number of people around the world who claim Irish ancestry; some sources put the figure at 80 to 100 million. From the 1860s the Circassians, Circassian people, originally from Europe, Circassian diaspora, were dispersed through Anatolia, Australia, the Balkans, the Levant, North America, and West Europe, leaving less than 10% of their population in the homeland – parts of historical Circassia (in the modern-day Russian portion of the North Caucasus, Caucasus).Richmond 172-73. The Scottish Diaspora includes large populations of Highlanders moving to the United States and Canada after the Highland Clearances; as well as the Lowlanders, becoming the Ulster Scots people, Ulster Scots in Ireland and the Scotch-Irish Americans, Scotch-Irish in America.


Internal diasporas

In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
of America, approximately 4.3 million people moved outside their home U.S. state, states in 2010, according to Internal Revenue Service, IRS tax-exemption data. In a 2011 TEDx presentation, Detroit native Garlin Gilchrist referenced the formation of distinct "Detroit diaspora" communities in Seattle and in Washington, D.C., while layoffs in the Automotive industry in the United States, auto industry also led to substantial blue-collar worker, blue-collar migration from Michigan to Wyoming 2005. In response to a statewide exodus of talent, the State of Michigan continues to host "MichAGAIN" career-recruiting events in places throughout the United States with significant Michigan-diaspora populations. In the People's Republic of China, millions of migrant workers have sought greater opportunity in the country's booming coastal metropolises, though this trend has slowed with the further development of China's interior. Migrant social structures in Chinese megacities are often based on place of origin, such as a shared hometown or province, and recruiters and foremen commonly select entire work-crews from the same village. In two separate June 2011 incidents, Sichuanese people, Sichuanese migrant workers organized violent protests against alleged police misconduct and migrant-labor abuse near the southern manufacturing hub of Guangzhou. Much of Siberia's Demographics of Siberia, population has its origins in internal migration – voluntary or otherwise – from European Russia since the 16th century.


Twentieth century

The twentieth century saw huge population movements. Some involved large-scale transfers of people by government action. Some migrations occurred to avoid conflict and warfare. Other diasporas formed as a consequence of political developments, such as the end of
colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of colonisation, colonisers may impose the ...

colonialism
.


World War II, colonialism and post-colonialism

As World War II (1939-1945) unfolded, Nazi Germany, Nazi German authorities deported and killed millions of Jews; they also enslaved or murdered millions of other people, including Ukrainians, Russians and other Slavs. Some Jews fled from persecution to unoccupied parts of western Europe or to the Americas before borders closed. Later, other eastern European refugees moved west, away from Soviet Union, Soviet expansion and from the Iron Curtain regimes established as World War II ended. Hundreds of thousands of these anti-Soviet political refugees and displaced persons ended up in western Europe, Australia, Canada, and the United States of America. After World War II, the Soviet Union and Communism, Communist-controlled Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), expelled millions of ethnic Germans, most them descendants of immigrants who had settled in those areas centuries previously. This was allegedly in reaction to German Nazi invasions and to pan-German attempts at annexation. Most of the refugees moved to Western world, the West, including western Europe, and with tens of thousands seeking refuge in the United States. Spain sent many political activists into exile during the rule of Francisco Franco, Franco's military regime from 1936 to his death in 1975. Prior to World War II and the re-establishment of Israel in 1948, a series of anti-Jewish pogroms broke out in the Arab world and caused many to flee, mostly to Palestine/Israel. The 1947–1949 Palestine war likewise saw at least 750,000 Palestinians expelled or forced to flee from the newly forming Israel. Many Palestinians continue to live in refugee camps in the Middle East, while others have resettled in other countries. The Partition of India, 1947 Partition in the Indian subcontinent resulted in the migration of millions of people between India, Pakistan and present-day Bangladesh. Many were murdered in the religious violence of the period, with estimates of fatalities up to 2 million people. Thousands of former subjects of the British Raj went to the UK from the Indian subcontinent after India and Pakistan became independent in 1947. From the late 19th century, and formally from 1910, Japan made Korea under Japanese rule, Korea a Japanese colony. Millions of Chinese fled to western provinces not occupied by Japan (that is, in particular, Szechuan/Szechwan and Yunnan in the Southwest and Shensi and Kansu in the Northwest) and to Southeast Asia. More than 100,000 Koryo-saram, Koreans moved across the Amur River into the Russian Far East (and later into the Soviet Union) away from the Japanese.


The Cold War and the formation of post-colonial states

During and after the Cold War-era, huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from then-developing countries. Upheaval in the Middle East and Central Asia, some of which related to power struggles between the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and the Soviet Union, produced new refugee populations that developed into global diasporas. In
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, many Vietnamese people emigrated to France and later millions to the United States, Australia and Canada after the Cold War-related Vietnam War of 1955–1975. Later, 30,000 French people, French ''colons'' from Cambodia were displaced after being expelled by the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime under Pol Pot. A small, predominantly Muslim ethnic group, the Cham (Asia), Cham people, long residing in Cambodia, were nearly eradicated. The mass exodus of Vietnamese people from Vietnam from 1975 onwards led to the popularisation of the term "boat people". In Southwest China, many Tibetan people emigrated to India, following the 14th Dalai Lama after the failure of his 1959 Tibetan uprising. This wave lasted until the 1960s, and another wave followed when Tibet opened up to trade and tourism in the 1980s. It is estimated that about 200,000 Tibetans live now dispersed worldwide, half of them in India, Nepal and
Bhutan Bhutan (; dz, འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, Druk Yul, ), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan ( dz, འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by Chin ...

Bhutan
. In lieu of lost citizenship papers, the Central Tibetan Administration offers Green Book (Tibetan document), Green Book identity documents to Tibetan refugees. Sri Lankan Tamils have historically migrated to find work, notably during the British Ceylon period, British colonial period (1796-1948). Since the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 1983, more than 800,000 Tamils have been displaced within Sri Lanka as a local diaspora, and over a half-million Tamils have emigrated as the Tamil diaspora to destinations such as India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the UK, and Europe. The Afghanistan, Afghan diaspora resulted from the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan by the former Soviet Union; both official and unofficial records indicate that the war displaced over 6 million people, resulting in the creation of the second-largest refugee population worldwide (2.6 million in 2018). Many Iranian people, Iranians fled the 1979 Iranian Revolution which culminated in the fall of the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, USA/British-ensconced Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah. In Africa, a new series of diasporas formed following the end of colonial rule. In some cases, as countries became independent, numerous minority descendants of Europeans emigrated; others stayed in the lands which had been family homes for generations. Uganda expelled Expulsion of Asians from Uganda, 80,000 South Asians in 1972 and took over their businesses and properties. The 1990-1994 Rwandan Civil War between rival social/ethnic groups (Hutu and Tutsi) turned deadly and produced a mass efflux of refugees. In Latin America, following the 1959 Cuban Revolution and the introduction of communism, over a million people have left Cuba. A new Jamaican diaspora formed around the start of the 21st century. More than 1 million People of the Dominican Republic, Dominicans live abroad, a majority living in the US. A million Colombian refugees have left Colombia since 1965 to escape that country's Colombian conflict, violence and civil wars. In South America, thousands of Argentine and Uruguay refugees fled to Europe during periods of military junta, military rule in the 1970s and 1980s. In Central America, Nicaraguan Diaspora, Nicaraguans, El Salvador, Salvadorans, Guatemalans, and Honduras, Hondurans have fled conflict and poor economic conditions. Hundreds of thousands of people fled from the Rwandan genocide in 1994 and moved into neighboring countries. Between 4 and 6 million have emigrated from Zimbabwe beginning in the 1990s especially since 2000, greatly increasing the Zimbabwean diaspora due to a protracted socioeconomic crisis, forming large communities in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
, the United Kingdom,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, Canada, and smaller communities in the United States, New Zealand and Ireland, where their skills have been in high demand. The Congo Civil War (disambiguation), long war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo, in which numerous nations have been involved, has also spawned millions of refugees. A South Korean diaspora movement during the 1990s caused the homeland fertility rate to drop when a large amount of the middle class emigrated, as the rest of the population continued to age. To counteract the change in these demographics, the South Korean government initiated a diaspora-engagement policy in 1997.


Twenty-first century


Middle Eastern conflicts

Following the Iraq War, nearly 3 million Iraqis had been displaced as of 2011, with 1.3 million within Iraq and 1.6 million in neighboring countries, mainly Jordan and Syria. The Syrian Civil War has forced further migration, with at least 4 million displaced as per UN estimates.


Venezuelan refugee crisis

Following the presidency of Hugo Chávez and the establishment of his Bolivarian Revolution, over 1.6 million Venezuelan people, Venezuelans emigrated from Venezuela in what has been called the Bolivarian diaspora. The analysis of a study by the Central University of Venezuela titled ''Venezuelan Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile'' by ''El Universal (Caracas), El Universal'' states that the Bolivarian diaspora in Venezuela has been caused by the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change in leadership in the near future".


Diaspora Internet services

There are numerous web-based news portals and forum sites dedicated to specific diaspora communities, often organized on the basis of an origin characteristic and a current location characteristic. The location-based networking features of mobile applications such as China's WeChat have also created de facto online diaspora communities when used outside of their home markets. Now, large companies from the emerging countries are looking at leveraging diaspora communities to enter the more mature market.


In popular culture

''Gran Torino'', a 2008 drama starring Clint Eastwood, was the first mainstream American film to feature the Hmong American diaspora.


See also

* List of diasporas * List of sovereign states and dependent territories by immigrant population * Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany * Partition of India *
Armenian genocide The Armenian Genocide (Terminology of the Armenian Genocide, other names) was the systematic mass murder and ethnic cleansing of around 1 million ethnic Armenians from Asia Minor and adjoining regions by the Ottoman Empire and its ruling ...

Armenian genocide
* Diaspora politics * Ethnic cleansing * Kurdish refugees * The Exodus * Expulsions and exoduses of Jews * Forced displacement * Human migration * Long Walk of the Navajo * Population transfer * Rural exodus * State collapse * Stateless nation * Trail of Tears * Ummah * Yom HaAliyah * Rohingya genocide * Expulsion of the Moriscos


Notes


References

* Barclay, John M. G., (ed.), ''Negotiating Diaspora: Jewish Strategies in the Roman Empire'', Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004 * Baser, B and Swain, A. ''Diasporas as Peacemakers: Third Party Mediation in Homeland Conflicts'' with Ashok Swain. International Journal on World Peace 25, 3, September 2008. * Braziel, Jana Evans. 2008. ''Diaspora – an introduction''. Malden, MA: Blackwell. * * Bueltmann, Tanja, et al. eds. ''Locating the English Diaspora, 1500–2010'' (Liverpool University Press, 2012) * * Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, ''People of Palestine'' (Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books, 2012), * Gershon Galil, Galil, Gershon, & Moshe Weinfeld, Weinfeld, Moshe, ''Studies in Historical Geography and Biblical Historiography: Presented to Zekharyah Ḳalai'', Brill, 2000 * Jayasuriya, S. and Pankhurst, R. eds. (2003) ''The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean''. Trenton: Africa World Press * Kantor, Mattis, ''The Jewish timeline encyclopedia: a year-by-year history from Creation to the Present'', (New updated edition), Jason Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1992 * Kenny, Kevin, ''Diaspora: A Very Short Introduction''. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. * Luciuk, Lubomyr, "Searching for Place: Ukrainian Displaced Persons, Canada and the Migration of Memory," University of Toronto Press, 2000. * Mahroum, Sami & De Guchteneire, P. (2007), ''Transnational Knowledge Through Diaspora Networks-Editorial''. International Journal of Multicultural Societies 8 (1), 1–3 * Mahroum, Sami; Eldridge, Cynthia; Daar, Abdallah S. (2006). ''Transnational diaspora options: How developing countries could benefit from their emigrant populations''. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 2006. *Nesterovych, Volodymyr (2013).
Impact of ethnic diasporas on the adoption of normative legal acts in the United States
. Viche. 8: 19–23. * Oonk, G, ''Global Indian Diasporas: trajectories of migration and theory'', Amsterdam University Press, 2007 Free downloa
here
* Shain, Yossi, ''Kinship and Diasporas in International Politics'', Michigan University Press, 2007 * Tetlow, Elisabeth Meier, ''Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society'', Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005 * Weheliye, Alexander G. "My Volk to Come: Peoplehood in Recent Diaspora Discourse and Afro-German Popular Music." Black Europe and the African Diaspora. Ed. Darlene Clark. Hine, Trica Danielle. Keaton, and Stephen Small. Urbana: U of Illinois, 2009. 161–79. Print. * * Xharra, B. & Wählisch, M. ''Beyond Remittances: Public Diplomacy and Kosovo's Diaspora'', Foreign Policy Club, Pristina (2012), abstract and free acces
here


Further reading

* Gewecke, Frauke

(2012). University Bielefeld – Center for InterAmerican Studies.


External links


Livius.org: Diaspora

Open access book on Diasporas

Integration: Building Inclusive Societies (IBIS)
UN Alliance of Civilizations online community on Good Practices of Integration of Migrants across the World
Diasporic Trajectories: Transnational Cultures in the 21st Century
Podcast playlist of a seminar series held in 2015 at the University of Edinburgh, School of Literatures, Languages, and Cultures {{Authority control Diasporas, Diaspora studies