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In
naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized a ...

naval
terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable, long-endurance
warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster and ...
intended to escort larger vessels in a
fleet Fleet may refer to: Vehicles *Fishing fleet *Naval fleet *Fleet vehicles, a pool of motor vehicles *Fleet Aircraft, the aircraft manufacturing company Places Canada *Fleet, Alberta, Canada, a hamlet England *Chesil Beach#The Fleet Lagoon, The F ...
,
convoy during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries— ...

convoy
or
battle groupBattle group may refer to: * Battlegroup (army), the basic building block of an army's fighting force * Battleship battle group, a battleship and its escorts * Carrier battle group, a carrier and its escorts * Battlegroup of the European Union, an ar ...
and defend them against powerful short range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by
Fernando Villaamil Fernando Villaamil Fernández-Cueto (November 23, 1845 – July 3, 1898) was a Spanish naval officer, remembered for his internationally recognized professionalism, for being the designer of the first destroyer In naval terminology, a destroye ...

Fernando Villaamil
for the
Spanish Navy The Spanish Navy ( es, link=no, Armada Española) is the Navy, maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world. The Spanish navy was responsible for a number of major historic achievements in na ...
Smith, Charles Edgar: ''A short history of naval and marine engineering.'' Babcock & Wilcox, ltd. at the University Press, 1937, page 263 as a defense against
torpedo boat A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship Image:HMAS Darwin (FFG 04).jpg, , an Australian frigate A naval ship is a military ship (or sometimes boat, depending on classification) used by a navy. Naval ships are differentiat ...
s, and by the time of the
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War) was fought between the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation ...
in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
. Before
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations; typically a number of destroyers and a single
destroyer tender A destroyer tender or destroyer depot ship is a type of depot ship: an auxiliary ship designed to provide maintenance support to a flotilla of destroyers or other small warships. The use of this class has faded from its peak in the first half ...
operated together. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles previously filled by battleships and cruisers. This resulted in larger and more powerful
guided missile destroyer A guided-missile destroyer is designed to launch anti-aircraft guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, and anti-surface operations. The NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary i ...
s more capable of independent operation. At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for
surface combatant Surface combatants (or surface ships or surface vessels) are a subset of naval warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As ...
ships, with only two nations (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
) officially operating the heavier class
cruiser A cruiser is a type of . Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after s and s, and can usually perform several roles. The term "cruiser", in use for several hundred years, has changed its meaning over time. During the , ...

cruiser
s, with no
battleship A battleship is a large armored warship A warship or combatant ship is a that is built and primarily intended for . Usually they belong to the of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually ...

battleship
s or true
battlecruiser The battlecruiser (also written as battle cruiser or battle-cruiser) was a type of capital ship of the first half of the 20th century. They were similar in displacement, armament and cost to battleships, but differed slightly in form and balance ...
s remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in
tonnage Tonnage is a measure of the cargo-carrying capacity of a ship, and is commonly used to assess fees on commerce, commercial shipping. The term derives from the taxation paid on ''Tun (unit), tuns'' or casks of wine. In modern maritime usage, "to ...
but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, and are capable of carrying nuclear-tipped
cruise missile A cruise missile is a Missile, guided missile used against terrestrial targets, that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhea ...
s. At long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, and with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the are actually larger and more heavily armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers. The Chinese
Type 055 destroyer The Type 055 destroyer (NATO/Office of the Secretary of Defense, OSD ''Renhai''-class cruiser) is a ship class, class of Stealth ship, stealth guided missile destroyers being constructed for the China, Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Surface F ...

Type 055 destroyer
has been described as a cruiser in some US Navy reports due to its size and armament. Some
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
navies, such as the
Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the At ...
, French,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
,
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
and
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
, use the term "
frigate A frigate () is a type of warship A warship or combatant ship is a that is built and primarily intended for . Usually they belong to the of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faste ...

frigate
" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion. After the Second World War, destroyers grew in size. The American s had a displacement of 2,200 tons, while the ''Arleigh Burke'' class has a displacement of up to 9,600 tons, thus growing in size almost 340%.


Origins

The emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled
torpedo A modern torpedo is an underwater ranged weapon launched above or below the water surface, self-propelled towards a target, and with an explosive warhead designed to detonate either on contact with or in proximity to the target. Historically, su ...

torpedo
in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using steam launches to fire torpedoes. Cheap, fast boats armed with torpedoes called
torpedo boat A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship Image:HMAS Darwin (FFG 04).jpg, , an Australian frigate A naval ship is a military ship (or sometimes boat, depending on classification) used by a navy. Naval ships are differentiat ...
s were built and became a threat to large capital ships near enemy coasts. The first seagoing vessel designed to launch the self-propelled
Whitehead torpedo The Whitehead torpedo was the first self-propelled or "locomotive" torpedo A modern torpedo is an underwater ranged weapon launched above or below the water surface, self-propelled towards a target, and with an explosive warhead designed to deto ...
was the 33-ton in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a single
torpedo tube A torpedo tube is a cylinder-shaped device for launching torpedo A modern torpedo is an underwater ranged weapon launched above or below the water surface, self-propelled towards a target, and with an explosive warhead designed to detonate ei ...
in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats. At first, the threat of a torpedo boat attack to a battle fleet was considered to exist only when at anchor; but as faster and longer-range torpedo boats and torpedoes were developed, the threat extended to cruising at sea. In response to this new threat, more heavily gunned picket boats called "catchers" were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea. They needed significant seaworthiness and endurance to operate with the battle fleet, and as they necessarily became larger, they became officially designated "torpedo boat destroyers", and by the First World War were largely known as "destroyers" in English. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including (),
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
(),
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
(),
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
(),
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(, ''αντιτορπιλικό''),
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
() and, up until the Second World War,
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
(, now obsolete). Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage, it was realized that they were also ideal to take over the offensive role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were also fitted with torpedo tubes in addition to their anti torpedo-boat guns. At that time, and even into
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future.


Early designs

An important development came with the construction of HMS ''Swift'' in 1884, later redesignated TB 81. This was a large (137 ton) torpedo boat with four 47 mm quick-firing guns and three torpedo tubes. At , while still not fast enough to engage enemy torpedo boats reliably, the ship at least had the armament to deal with them. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat (''Falcon''), built in 1885. Designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the Isle of Dogs, London Yarrow shipyard in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887. The long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder (37 mm) quick-firing guns and six
torpedo A modern torpedo is an underwater ranged weapon launched above or below the water surface, self-propelled towards a target, and with an explosive warhead designed to detonate either on contact with or in proximity to the target. Historically, su ...

torpedo
tubes, reached , and at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat built to date. In her trials in 1889, ''Kotaka'' demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, and was capable of accompanying larger
warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster and ...
s on the high seas. The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for ''Kotaka'', "considered Japan to have effectively invented the destroyer". The German
aviso An ''aviso'' was originally a kind of dispatch boat or "advice boat", carrying orders before the development of effective remote communication. The term, derived from the Portuguese language, Portuguese and Spanish language, Spanish word for " ...
, launched in 1886, was designed as a "''torpedojäger''" (torpedo hunter), intended to screen the fleet against attacks by torpedo boats. The ship was significantly larger than torpedo boats of the period, displacing some , with an armament of guns and
Hotchkiss revolver cannon Hotchkiss may refer to: Places Canada * Hotchkiss, Alberta * Hotchkiss, Calgary United States * Hotchkiss, Colorado * Hotchkiss, Virginia * Hotchkiss, West Virginia Business and industry * Hotchkiss (car), a French automobile manufacturer * ...
.


Torpedo gunboat

The first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the
torpedo gunboat In late 19th-century naval terminology, torpedo gunboats were a form of gunboat ironclad river gunboats assault the Confederates at Fort Donelson on February 1862, during the American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by N ...
. Essentially very small
cruiser A cruiser is a type of . Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after s and s, and can usually perform several roles. The term "cruiser", in use for several hundred years, has changed its meaning over time. During the , ...

cruiser
s, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes and an adequate gun armament, intended for hunting down smaller enemy boats. By the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster. The first example of this was , designed by
Nathaniel Barnaby Sir Nathaniel Barnaby, (25 February 1829 – 16 June 1915) was Director of Naval Construction, Chief Constructor of the Royal Navy from 1872 to 1885. Biography Born on 25 February 1829 in Chatham, Medway, Chatham, Barnaby began his career as a ...
in 1885, and commissioned in response to the Russian War scare. The gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying smaller
torpedo boat A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship Image:HMAS Darwin (FFG 04).jpg, , an Australian frigate A naval ship is a military ship (or sometimes boat, depending on classification) used by a navy. Naval ships are differentiat ...
s. Exactly long and in beam, she displaced 550 tons. Built of steel, ''Rattlesnake'' was un-armoured with the exception of a -inch protective deck. She was armed with a single 4-inch/25-pounder breech-loading gun, six 3-pounder QF guns and four torpedo tubes, arranged with two fixed tubes at the bow and a set of torpedo dropping carriages on either side. Four torpedo reloads were carried. A number of torpedo gunboat classes followed, including the ''Grasshopper'' class, the , the and the – all built for the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
during the 1880s and the 1890s.
Fernando Villaamil Fernando Villaamil Fernández-Cueto (November 23, 1845 – July 3, 1898) was a Spanish naval officer, remembered for his internationally recognized professionalism, for being the designer of the first destroyer In naval terminology, a destroye ...

Fernando Villaamil
, second officer of the Ministry of the Navy of Spain, designed his own torpedo gunboat to combat the threat from the torpedo boat. He asked several British shipyards to submit proposals capable of fulfilling these specifications. In 1885 the Spanish Navy chose the design submitted by the shipyard of James and George Thomson of
Clydebank Clydebank ( sco, Clidbaunk; gd, Bruach Chluaidh, IPA: pɾuəxˈxɫ̪uə is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. Situated on the north bank of the River Clyde, it borders the village of Old Kilpatrick (with Bowling, West Dunbartonshire, B ...
. (''Destroyer'' in Spanish) was laid down at the end of the year, launched in 1886, and commissioned in 1887. Some authors considered her as the first destroyer ever built. She displaced 348 tons, and was the first warship equipped with twin
triple-expansion engine A compound steam engine unit is a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages. A typical arrangement for a compound engine is that the steam is first expanded in a high-pressure ''(HP)'' Cylinder (engine), cylinder, then h ...
s generating , for a maximum speed of ,''Contratorpedero Destructor''
which made her one of the faster ships in the world in 1888. She was armed with one Spanish-designed
breech-loading A breechloader is a firearm A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launch typically solid projectiles, but can also project pressurized liquid (e.g. water guns/ cannon ...
gun,Fitzsimmons, Bernard: ''The Illustrated encyclopedia of 20th century weapons and warfare.'' Columbia House, 1978, v. 8, page 835 four ( 6-pounder) Nordenfelt guns, two (3-pdr) Hotchkiss cannons and two Schwartzkopff torpedo tubes. The ship carried three torpedoes per tube. She carried a crew of 60. In terms of gunnery, speed and dimensions, the specialised design to chase torpedo boats and her high seas capabilities, ''Destructor'' was an important precursor to the torpedo boat destroyer.Fitzsimmons, Bernard: ''The Illustrated encyclopedia of 20th century weapons and warfare.'' Columbia House, 1978, v. 8, page 835


Development of the modern destroyer

The first classes of ships to bear the formal designation "torpedo boat destroyer" (TBD) were the of two ships and of two ships of the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
. Early
torpedo gunboat In late 19th-century naval terminology, torpedo gunboats were a form of gunboat ironclad river gunboats assault the Confederates at Fort Donelson on February 1862, during the American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by N ...
designs lacked the range and speed to keep up with the fleet they were supposed to protect. In 1892, the
Third Sea Lord The post of Controller of the Navy (abbreviated as CofN) was originally created in 1859 when the Surveyor of the Navy's title changed to Controller of the Navy. In 1869 the controller's office was abolished and its duties were assumed by that of ...
,
Rear Admiral Rear admiral is a senior naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for wa ...
John "Jacky" Fisher ordered the development of a new type of ships equipped with the then novel
water-tube boiler A high pressure watertube boiler (also spelled water-tube and water tube) is a type of boiler Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europ ...
s and quick-firing small calibre guns. Six ships to the specifications circulated by the Admiralty were ordered initially, comprising three different designs each produced by a different shipbuilder: and from John I. Thornycroft & Company, and from Yarrows, and and from Laird, Son & Company. These torpedo boat destroyers all featured a turtleback (i.e. rounded)
forecastle The forecastle ( ; contracted as fo'c'sle or fo'c's'le) is the upper deck of a sailing ship A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a ...

forecastle
that was characteristic of early British TBDs. and were both built by
Thornycroft Thornycroft was an English vehicle manufacturer which built coaches, buses, and truck mining truck A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration. Smaller varietie ...

Thornycroft
, displaced 260 tons (287.8 tons full load) and were 185 feet in length. They were armed with one 12-pounder gun and three 6-pounder guns, with one fixed 18-in torpedo tube in the bow plus two more torpedo tubes on a revolving mount abaft the two funnels. Later the bow torpedo tube was removed and two more 6-pounder guns added instead. They produced 4,200 hp from a pair of Thornycroft water-tube boilers, giving them a top speed of 27 knots, giving the range and speed to travel effectively with a battle fleet. In common with subsequent early Thornycroft boats, they had sloping sterns and double rudders. The French navy, an extensive user of torpedo boats, built its first torpedo boat destroyer in 1899, with the 'torpilleur d'escadre'. The United States commissioned its first torpedo boat destroyer, , Destroyer No. 1, in 1902 and by 1906 there were 16 destroyers in service with the US Navy.


Subsequent improvements

Torpedo boat destroyer designs continued to evolve around the turn of the 20th century in several key ways. The first was the introduction of the
steam turbine A steam turbine is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, f ...
. The spectacular unauthorized demonstration of the turbine-powered at the 1897 Spithead Navy Review, which, significantly, was of torpedo boat size, prompted the Royal Navy to order a prototype turbine powered destroyer, of 1899. This was the first turbine warship of any kind and achieved a remarkable on sea trials. By 1910 the turbine had been widely adopted by all navies for their faster ships. The second development was the replacement of the torpedo-boat-style turtleback foredeck by a raised
forecastle The forecastle ( ; contracted as fo'c'sle or fo'c's'le) is the upper deck of a sailing ship A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a ...

forecastle
for the new s built in 1903, which provided better sea-keeping as well as more space below deck. The first warship to use only
fuel oil Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel, bunker, furnace oil, or gasoil) is a fraction A fraction (from Latin ', "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fr ...
propulsion was the Royal Navy's torpedo boat destroyer , after experiments in 1904, although the obsolescence of coal as a fuel in British warships was delayed by its availability. Other navies also adopted oil, for instance the USN with the of 1909. In spite of all this variety, destroyers adopted a largely similar pattern. The hull was long and narrow, with a relatively shallow draft. The bow was either raised in a forecastle or covered under a turtleback; underneath this were the crew spaces, extending to the way along the hull. Aft of the crew spaces was as much engine space as the technology of the time would allow: several boilers and engines or turbines. Above deck, one or more quick-firing guns were mounted in the bows, in front of the bridge; several more were mounted amidships and astern. Two tube mountings (later on, multiple mountings) were generally found amidships. Between 1892 and 1914 destroyers became markedly larger: initially 275 tons with a length of for the Royal Navy's first of torpedo boat destroyers, up to the First World War with long destroyers displacing 1,000 tons was not unusual. However, construction remained focused on putting the biggest possible engines into a small hull, resulting in a somewhat flimsy construction. Often hulls were built of
high-tensile steel Carbon steel is a steel Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength of materials, strength and fracture toughness, fracture resistance compared to iron. Many other elements may be pres ...
only thick. By 1910 the steam-driven displacement (that is, not hydroplaning) torpedo boat had become redundant as a separate type. Germany nevertheless continued to build such boats until the end of World War I, although these were effectively small coastal destroyers. In fact Germany never distinguished between the two types, giving them pennant numbers in the same series and never giving names to destroyers. Ultimately the term ''torpedo boat'' came to be attached to a quite different vessel – the very fast hydroplaning motor driven MTB.


Early use and World War I

Navies originally built torpedo boat destroyers to protect against torpedo boats, but admirals soon appreciated the flexibility of the fast, multi-purpose vessels that resulted. Vice-Admiral Sir Baldwin Walker laid down destroyer duties for the Royal Navy: * screening the advance of a fleet when hostile torpedo craft are about * searching a hostile coast along which a fleet might pass * watching an enemy's port for the purpose of harassing his torpedo craft and preventing their return * attacking an enemy fleet Early destroyers were extremely cramped places to live, being "without a doubt magnificent fighting vessels... but unable to stand bad weather". During the
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War) was fought between the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation ...
in 1904, the commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy torpedo boat destroyer ''Akatsuki'' described "being in command of a destroyer for a long period, especially in wartime... is not very good for the health". Stating that he had originally been strong and healthy, he continued, "life on a destroyer in winter, with bad food, no comforts, would sap the powers of the strongest men in the long run. A ''destroyer'' is always more uncomfortable than the others, and rain, snow, and ''sea-water'' combine to make them damp; in fact, in bad weather there is not a dry spot where one can rest for a moment."Grant p. 102, 103 The Japanese destroyer-commander finished with, "Yesterday I looked at myself in a mirror for a long time; I was disagreeably surprised to see my face thin, full of wrinkles, and as old as though I were fifty. My clothes (uniform) cover nothing but a skeleton, and my bones are full of
rheumatism Rheumatism or rheumatic disorders are conditions causing chronic pain, chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints or connective tissue. Rheumatism does not designate any specific disorder, but covers at least 200 different conditions, i ...
." In 1898, the US Navy officially classified , a long all steel vessel displacing 165 tons, as a ''torpedo boat.'' However, her commander, LT. John C. Fremont, described her as "...a compact mass of machinery not meant to keep the sea nor to live in... as five sevenths of the ship are taken up by machinery and fuel, whilst the remaining two sevenths, fore and aft, are the crew's quarters; officers forward and the men placed aft. And even in those spaces are placed anchor engines, steering engines, steam pipes, etc. rendering them unbearably hot in tropical regions."


Early combat

The torpedo boat destroyer's first major use in combat came during the Japanese surprise attack on the Russian fleet anchored in Port Arthur at the opening of the
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War (russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná; ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War) was fought between the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation ...
on 8 February 1904. Three destroyer divisions attacked the Russian fleet in port, firing a total of 18 torpedoes. However, only two Russian battleships, and , and a
protected cruiser Protected cruisers, a type of naval cruiser A cruiser is a type of warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces A militar ...

protected cruiser
, , were seriously damaged due to the proper deployment of
torpedo net Torpedo nets were a passive ship defensive device against torpedoes. They were in common use from the 1890s until the World War II, Second World War. They were superseded by the anti-torpedo bulge and torpedo belts. Origins With the introduction of ...
s. ''Tsesarevich'', the Russian flagship, had her nets deployed, with at least four enemy torpedoes "hung up" in them, and other warships were similarly saved from further damage by their nets. While capital ship engagements were scarce in World War I, destroyer units engaged almost continually in raiding and patrol actions. The first shot of the war at sea was fired on 5 August 1914 by , one of the 3rd Destroyer Flotilla, in an engagement with the German auxiliary
minelayer Minelaying is the act of deploying explosive mines. Historically this has been carried out by ships, submarines and aircraft. Additionally, since World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World ...
. Destroyers were involved in the skirmishes that prompted the Battle of Heligoland Bight, and filled a range of roles in the
Battle of Gallipoli The Gallipoli campaign, or ). was a military campaign in the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey), from 17 February 1915 to 9 January 1916. The Allies of World War I, Entente powers, United K ...

Battle of Gallipoli
, acting as troop transports and as fire-support vessels, as well as their fleet-screening role. Over 80 British destroyers and 60 German torpedo-boats took part in the
Battle of Jutland The Battle of Jutland (german: Skagerrakschlacht, the Battle of Skagerrak) was a naval battle Naval warfare is human combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving a major body of water such as a large lake or wid ...
, which involved pitched small-boat actions between the main fleets, and several foolhardy attacks by unsupported destroyers on capital ships. Jutland also concluded with a messy night action between the German
High Seas Fleet The High Seas Fleet (''Hochseeflotte'') was the battle fleet of the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Ge ...

High Seas Fleet
and part of the British destroyer screen. The threat evolved by
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
with the development of the
submarine A submarine (or sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated ...

submarine
, or
U-boat U-boats were naval submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most importa ...

U-boat
. The submarine had the potential to hide from gunfire and close underwater to fire torpedoes. Early-war destroyers had the speed and armament to intercept submarines before they submerged, either by gunfire or by ramming. Destroyers also had a shallow enough draft that torpedoes would find it difficult to hit them. The desire to attack submarines underwater led to rapid destroyer evolution during the war. They were quickly equipped with strengthened bows for ramming, and
depth charge A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) weapon. It is intended to destroy a submarine by being dropped into the water nearby and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive Shock factor, hydraulic shock. Most depth ...
s and
hydrophone A hydrophone ( grc, ὕδωρ + φωνή, , water + sound) is a microphone A microphone, colloquially called a mic or mike (), is a device – a transducer – that converts sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική ( ...

hydrophone
s for identifying submarine targets. The first submarine casualty credited to a destroyer was the German , rammed by on 29 October 1914. While ''U-19'' was only damaged, the next month successfully sank . The first depth-charge sinking was on 4 December 1916, when was sunk by HMS ''Llewellyn''. The submarine threat meant that many destroyers spent their time on anti-submarine patrol. Once Germany adopted
unrestricted submarine warfare Unrestricted submarine warfare is type of naval warfare Naval warfare is human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligen ...
in January 1917, destroyers were called on to escort merchant
convoy during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries— ...

convoy
s. US Navy destroyers were among the first American units to be dispatched upon the American entry to the war, and a squadron of Japanese destroyers even joined Allied patrols in the Mediterranean. Patrol duty was far from safe; of the 67 British destroyers lost in the war, collisions accounted for 18, while 12 were wrecked. At the end of the war, the state-of-the-art was represented by the British W class.


1918–1945

The trend during World War I had been towards larger destroyers with heavier armaments. A number of opportunities to fire at capital ships had been missed during the War, because destroyers had expended all their torpedoes in an initial salvo. The British V and W classes of the late war had sought to address this by mounting six torpedo tubes in two triple mounts, instead of the four or two on earlier models. The 'V' and 'W's set the standard of destroyer building well into the 1920s. The two Romanian destroyers and , on the other hand, had the greatest firepower of all destroyers in the world throughout the first half of the 1920s. This was largely due to the fact that, between their commissioning in 1920 and 1926, they retained the armament that they had while serving in the Italian Navy as
scout cruiser 250px, ''HMS Sentinel'', the first scout cruiser A scout cruiser was a type of warship of the early 20th Century, which were smaller, faster, more lightly armed and armoured than protected cruisers or light cruisers, but larger than contemporary d ...
s ('' esploratori''). When initially ordered by Romania in 1913, the Romanian specifications envisioned three 120 mm guns, a caliber which would eventually be adopted as the standard for future Italian destroyers. Armed with three 152 mm and four 76 mm guns after being completed as scout cruisers, the two warships were officially re-rated as destroyers by the Romanian Navy. The two Romanian warships were thus the destroyers with the greatest firepower in the world throughout much of the interwar period. As of 1939, when the Second World War started, their artillery, although changed, was still close to cruiser standards, amounting to nine heavy naval guns (five of 120 mm and four of 76 mm). In addition, they retained their two twin 457 mm torpedo tubes as well as two machine guns, plus the capacity to carry up to 50 mines. The next major innovation came with the Japanese or 'special type', designed in 1923 and delivered in 1928. The design was initially noted for its powerful armament of six five-inch (127 mm) guns and three triple torpedo mounts. The second batch of the class gave the guns high-angle turrets for anti-aircraft warfare, and the oxygen-fueled 'Long Lance'
Type 93 torpedo The was a -diameter torpedo A modern torpedo is an underwater ranged weapon launched above or below the water surface, self-propelled towards a target, and with an explosive warhead designed to detonate either on contact with or in proximity to ...
. The later of 1931 further improved the torpedo armament by storing its reload torpedoes close at hand in the superstructure, allowing reloading within 15 minutes. Most other nations replied with similar larger ships. The US adopted twin five-inch (127 mm) guns, and the subsequent and es (the latter of 1934) increased the number of torpedo tubes to 12 and 16 respectively. In the Mediterranean, the Italian Navy's building of very fast light cruisers of the prompted the French to produce exceptional destroyer designs. The French had long been keen on large destroyers, with their of 1922 displacing over 2,000 tons and carrying 130 mm guns; a further three similar classes were produced around 1930. The of 1935 carried five guns and nine torpedo tubes, but could achieve speeds of , which remains the record speed for a steamship and for any destroyer. The Italians' own destroyers were almost as swift, most Italian designs of the 1930s being rated at over , while carrying torpedoes and either four or six 120 mm guns. Germany started to build destroyers again during the 1930s as part of Hitler's rearmament program. The Germans were also fond of large destroyers, but while the initial Type 1934 displaced over 3,000 tons, their armament was equal to smaller vessels. This changed from the Type 1936 onwards, which mounted heavy guns. German destroyers also used innovative high-pressure steam machinery: while this should have helped their efficiency, it more often resulted in mechanical problems. Once German and Japanese rearmament became clear, the British and American navies consciously focused on building destroyers that were smaller but more numerous than those used by other nations. The British built a series of destroyers (the to ) which were about 1,400 tons standard displacement, had four guns and eight torpedo tubes; the American of 1938 similar in size, but carried five guns and ten torpedo tubes. Realizing the need for heavier gun armament, the British built the of 1936 (sometimes called ''Afridi'' after one of two lead ships). These ships displaced 1,850 tons and were armed with eight guns in four twin turrets and four torpedo tubes. These were followed by the J-, K- and N-class destroyer, J-class and L-class destroyers, with six guns in twin turrets and eight torpedo tubes. Anti-submarine sensors included sonar (or ASDIC), although training in their use was indifferent. Anti-submarine weapons changed little, and ahead-throwing weapons, a need recognized in World War I, had made no progress.


Later combat

During the 1920s and 1930s, destroyers were often deployed to areas of diplomatic tension or humanitarian disaster. British and American destroyers were common on the Chinese coast and rivers, even supplying landing parties to protect colonial interests. By
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
the threat had evolved once again. Submarines were more effective, and aircraft had become important weapons of naval warfare; once again the early-war fleet destroyers were ill-equipped for combating these new targets. They were fitted with new light anti-aircraft guns, radar, and Hedgehog (weapon), forward-launched ASW weapons, in addition to their existing dual-purpose guns,
depth charge A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) weapon. It is intended to destroy a submarine by being dropped into the water nearby and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive Shock factor, hydraulic shock. Most depth ...
s, and torpedoes. Increasing size allowed improved internal arrangement of propulsion machinery with compartmentation so ships were less likely to be sunk by a single hit. In most cases torpedo and/or dual-purpose gun armament was reduced to accommodate new anti-air warfare, anti-air and anti-submarine warfare, anti-submarine weapons. By this time the destroyers had become large, multi-purpose vessels, expensive targets in their own right. As a result, casualties on destroyers were among the highest. In the US Navy, particularly in World War II, destroyers became known as Tin Can Sailors, tin cans due to their light armor compared to battleships and cruisers. The need for large numbers of anti-submarine ships led to the introduction of smaller and cheaper specialized anti-submarine warships called corvettes and
frigate A frigate () is a type of warship A warship or combatant ship is a that is built and primarily intended for . Usually they belong to the of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faste ...

frigate
s by the Royal Navy and destroyer escorts by the USN. A similar programme was belatedly started by the Japanese (see ). These ships had the size and displacement of the original torpedo boat destroyers that the contemporary destroyer had evolved from.


Post-World War II

Some conventional destroyers were completed in the late 1940s and 1950s which built on wartime experience. These vessels were significantly larger than wartime ships and had fully automatic main guns, unit machinery, radar, sonar, and antisubmarine weapons such as the Squid (weapon), Squid mortar. Examples include the British , US , and the Soviet s. Some World War II–vintage ships were modernized for anti-submarine warfare, and to extend their service lives, to avoid having to build (expensive) brand-new ships. Examples include the US FRAM I programme and the British Type 15 frigates converted from fleet destroyers. The advent of surface-to-air missiles and surface-to-surface missiles, such as the Exocet, in the early 1960s changed naval warfare. Guided missile destroyers (DDG in the US Navy) were developed to carry these weapons and protect the fleet from air, submarine and surface threats. Examples include the Soviet , the British , and the US . 21st century destroyers tend to display features such as large, slab sides without complicated corners and crevices to keep the radar cross-section small, vertical launch systems to carry a large number of missiles at high readiness to fire and helicopter flight decks and hangars.


Operators

* Operates four s and a single modified Type 42 destroyer. * Operates three s. They are the first Australian warships to use the AEGIS Combat System and are based on Spain's ''Álvaro de Bazán''-class destroyers. * Operates three Type 055 destroyer, ''Renhai''-class destroyers, two Type 052B destroyer, ''Luyang I''-class destroyers, six Type 052C destroyer, ''Luyang II''-class destroyers, 18 Type 052D destroyer, ''Luyang III''-class destroyers and two Type 051C destroyer, ''Luzhou''-class destroyers. China also operates two Type 052 destroyer, ''Luhu''-class destroyers, one Type 051B destroyer, ''Luhai''-class destroyer and 4 Sovremenny-class destroyer, ''Sovremenny''-class destroyers that are of older models. It is notable that the ''Renhai''-class (Type 055) is considered to be a
cruiser A cruiser is a type of . Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after s and s, and can usually perform several roles. The term "cruiser", in use for several hundred years, has changed its meaning over time. During the , ...

cruiser
by
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
and the United States Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Defense for its tonnage and capability matching that of the . * (Taiwan) Operates four s, purchased from the United States. * Operates a single FREMM multipurpose frigate purchased from France, and a single W and Z-class destroyer, Z-class destroyer for training use. * Operates eight FREMM multipurpose frigates, two s, a single . The French Navy does not use the term "destroyer" but rather "first-rate frigate" to these ship types, but they are marked with the NATO "D" hull code which places them in the destroyer type, as opposed to "F" for frigate. * operates three s and threes. These ships are officially classified as frigates by Germany, but regarded as destroyers internationally due to size and capability. * USS Charrette, HS ''Velos'' (D-16), a , remains ceremonially in commission due to her historical significance. * Operates one , the s, , and destroyers. * operates three s. These ships are classified as destroyers by Iran, but internationally regarded as light frigates. * Operates two s and two Horizon-class frigate, ''Orizzonte''-class destroyers. * Operates the , , and destroyers which all employ the Aegis combat system. Japan also operates two , four , five , nine , eight , three , and six destroyers, as well as three Hatsuyuki-class destroyer#Sub-class, ''Shimayuki''-class destroyers for training use. * Operates several classes of destroyers including the (KDX-III), the (KDX-II) and (KDX-I) destroyers. The KDX-III is equipped with the Aegis combat system, Goalkeeper CIWS, Hyunmoo
cruise missile A cruise missile is a Missile, guided missile used against terrestrial targets, that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhea ...
and the Hae Sung anti-ship missile. * operates a single FREMM multipurpose frigate ordered from France. * operates four s. These ships are classified as frigates by The Netherlands, but regarded as destroyers internationally due to size and capability. * operates four s. These ships are officially classified as frigates by Norway, but are regarded both internationally and by their officers as destroyers. They carry the AEGIS combat system. They are a subclass of Spain's ''Álvaro de Bazán''-class destroyers. * Operates three s purchased from the United Kingdom. * The , remains ceremonially in commission due to her historical significance. * operates the Romanian frigate Mărășești, ''Mărășești''. This ship was classified as a destroyer from 1990 to 2001, when she was reclassified as a frigate. No official reason was given for this and there was no change in armament or capability, thus remaining in the destroyer type. * The Russian Navy operates 4 and 8 destroyers. * operates five s. These ships are officially classified as a frigates by Spain, but due to their size and capabilities are regarded internationally as destroyers. the design draws elements from the American ''Arleigh Burke''-class destroyers and carry the AEGIS combat system and inspired the design of the ''Hobart'' and ''Fridtjof Nansen''-class destroyers. * Operates a single purchased from the United States for training use. * Operates the Type 45 destroyer, Type 45, or ''Daring''-class, stealth destroyer which displaces roughly 8,000 tonnes. Six ships of the class are operational. They are equipped with the UK variant of the PAAMS, Principal Anti-Air Missile System (PAAMS) and BAE Systems SAMPSON radar. * Operates 68 active guided missile destroyers (DDGs) of a planned class of 89, and also has one active destroyer of a planned class of three, all .


Former operators

* lost its entire navy upon the Empire's collapse following World War I. * lost its entire navy upon its reintegration into the Soviet Union in 1921. * sold its two and s to Peru in 1933, to prevent their capture by the Soviet Union. * transferred its only back to Japan in 1942. * decommissioned its only in 1963. * decommissioned its last in 1965. * decommissioned its last in 1967. * decommissioned its last W and Z-class destroyer, ''Z''-class destroyer in 1972. * decommissioned its G and H-class destroyer, ''H''-class destroyer in 1972. * transferred its remaining to The Philippines in 1975 following the Fall of Saigon. * decommissioned its last W and Z-class destroyer, ''W''-class destroyer in 1976. * decommissioned its only destroyer, Yugoslav destroyer Split, ''Split'' in 1980. * decommissioned both its and four s in 1982 following defense reviews. * decommissioned both its s and its lone in 1986. * decommissioned its last in 1991. * lone was destroyed by a fire in 1992. * decommissioned its lone in 1994. * decommissioned its lone in 1997. * decommissioned its last in 2000. * decommissioned its lone in 2003. * decommissioned all four s in 2003. * decommissioned its last in 2004. * decommissioned its last in 2006. * decommissioned its last in 2007. * decommissioned its last Garcia-class frigate, ''Garcia''-class destroyer escort in 2008. * decommissioned its last in 2011. * decommissioned its last in 2015. * decommissioned its last in 2017. * decommissioned its last in 2018.


Future development

plans to build 7,000-ton destroyers after the delivery of the new frigates, and TKMS presented to the Navy its most modern 7,200-ton MEKO A-400 air defense destroyer, an updated version of the German Baden-Württemberg-class frigate, F-125-class frigates. The similarities between the projects and the high rate of commonality between requirements were also crucial for the consortium's victory. is adding Type 052D destroyer and
Type 055 destroyer The Type 055 destroyer (NATO/Office of the Secretary of Defense, OSD ''Renhai''-class cruiser) is a ship class, class of Stealth ship, stealth guided missile destroyers being constructed for the China, Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Surface F ...

Type 055 destroyer
class ships to its navy. is adding FREMM multipurpose frigates to their fleet. is currently building s. They are to replace the aging s. In addition, six multi-mission surface combat ships are planned under the name 'Mehrzweckkampfschiff 180' (MKS 180), which will have destroyer-size and corresponding capabilities (length: 163m, displacement: 10,400 tons) is building s. is currently building 1-2 s. is currently research development into their new DDX project to replace their ''Durand da le Penne''-class destroyers. Is developing plans for its DDR Destroyer Revolution Project. has begun development of its KDX-IIA destroyers. These ships are to be a subclass of South Korea's s. The first unit is expected to enter service in 2019. Additionally, s are being built. has begun development of its . Design work was ongoing as of 2020. is currently developing its TF2000-class frigate, TF2000-class destroyer as the largest part of the MILGEM project. A total of seven ships will be constructed and will specialise in anti-air warfare. is in the early stages of developing a Type 83 destroyer design after the unveiling of these plans in the Defence in a Competitive Age, 2021 defence white paper. The class is projected to replace the current Type 45 destroyer fleet beginning in the latter 2030s. , as of 2018, has 68 active ''Arleigh Burke'' destroyers and 15 planned or under construction. The new ships will be the upgraded "flight III" version.


Preserved destroyers

A number of countries have destroyers preserved as museum ships. These include: * in Sydney, New South Wales. * BNS ''Bauru'', formerly in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. * in Hamilton, Ontario, Hamilton, Ontario. * in Qingdao, China. * in Rushan, Shandong, Rushan, China * in Dalian, China * Type 051 destroyer, Chinese ''Luda''-class destroyers, ''Jinan'', ''Yinchuan'', ''Nanjing'', ''Nanchang'', ''Chongqing'', ''Xining'', ''Zhanijiang'', ''Zhuhai'', ''Xi'an'', ''Hefei'', & ''Dalian'', ''Zunyi'' – on display in China. * ARC ''Boyaca'' (DE-16), formerly in Guatape, Colombia. * in Nantes, France. * in Wilhelmshaven, Germany. * HS ''Velos'' (D-16), formerly in Palaio Faliro, Greece. * in Sangley Point, Philippines * in Gdynia, Poland. The oldest preserved destroyer in the world. * Russian destroyer Bespokoynyy, Russian destroyer ''Bespokoynyy'' in Kronstadt, Russia * Russian destroyer Smetlivy, Russian destroyer ''Smetlivy'' in Sevastopol, Crimea * ROKS ''Jeong Buk'' (DD-916), formerly in Gangneung, South Korea. * ROKS ''Jeong Ju'' (DD-925), formerly in Dangjin, South Korea. * in Gothenburg, Sweden. * ROCS ''Te Yang'' (DDG-925), formerly in Tainan City, Taiwan * TCG ''Gayret'' (D352), formerly in Izmit, Turkey. * in Chatham, Kent, Chatham, Kent. * in Boston, Massachusetts. * in Buffalo, New York, Buffalo, New York (state), New York. * in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. * in Albany, New York, Albany, New York (state), New York. * in Galveston, Texas, Galveston, Texas. * in Lake Charles, Louisiana, Lake Charles, Louisiana. * in Bremerton, Washington (state), Washington. * in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. * in Bay City, Michigan, Bay City, Michigan. * in Fall River, Massachusetts.


Former museums

* was on display in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia from 1994 to 2011. Later scrapped due to her deteriorating condition. * Ukuru-class escort ship, IJN ''Shiga'' was on display in Chiba City, Japan from 1964 to 1998 when she was scrapped due to her deteriorating condition. * USS William R. Rush (DD-714), ROKS ''Kang Won'' (DD-922) was on display from 2000 to 2016, when she was closed due to her deteriorating condition, and later scrapped. * ORP Burza, ORP ''Burza'' was on display in Gdynia, Poland from 1951 to 1977, until she was replaced in the role by ''Blyskawica'' due to her deteriorating condition, and later scrapped. * was on display in Washington, D. C. from 1984 to 2015, until she was closed to make room for a bridge expansion. She is currently in lay up in Philadelphia awaiting scrapping.


See also

* List of destroyer classes * United States Navy 1975 ship reclassification * Bombardment of Cherbourg * List of destroyers of the Second World War


Notes


References


Further reading

* Evans, David C. ''Kaigun'': Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy'', 1887–1941, Mark Peattie, Mark R. Peattie. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland * Gardiner, Robert (Editor). ''Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships (1860–1905)'': Naval Institute Press, 1985. * Gove, Philip Babock (Editor in Chief). ''Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged.'' (2002) Merriam-Webster Inc., Publishers, Massachusetts, USA. * Grant, R. Captain. ''Before Port Arthur in a Destroyer; The Personal Diary of a Japanese Naval Officer.'' London, John Murray; first and second editions published in 1907. * Howe, Christopher. ''Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy: Development and Technology in Asia from 1540 to the Pacific War,'' The University of Chicago Press, * Jentschura, Hansgeorg. ''Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945.'' United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1977. . * Lyon, David, ''The First Destroyers.'' Chatham Publishing, 1 & 2 Faulkner's Alley, Cowcross St. London, Great Britain; 1996. . * Sanders, Michael S. (2001)
The Yard: Building a Destroyer at the Bath Iron Works
', HarperCollins, * Simpson, Richard V. ''Building The Mosquito Fleet, The US Navy's First Torpedo Boats.'' Arcadia Publishing, (2001); Charleston, South Carolina, USA. . * Preston, Anthony. ''Destroyers'', Bison Books (London) 1977. * Van der Vat, Dan. ''The Atlantic Campaign''.




External links

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