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Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch.
ORB: The Online Reference for Medieval Studies, 1999
It may be done by coup,
impeachment Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
,
invasion An invasion is a military offensive An offensive is a military operation A military operation is the coordinated military action War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
, or forced
abdication Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political legitimacy and ...
.The deposition of Richard II
, J.P.Sommerville, History Department, University of Wisconsin
The term may also refer to the official removal of a clergyman, especially a
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
, from ecclesiastical office.


Notable deposed politicians

*
Juan Manuel de Rosas Juan Manuel de Rosas (30 March 1793 – 14 March 1877), nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was an Argentine politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and briefly the Argentine Confederation. Although born into a wealthy fam ...

Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1852) *
Sam Houston Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793July 26, 1863) was an American general. He was an important leader of the Texas Revolution, Houston served as the first and third president of the Republic of Texas, and was one of the first two individuals to repre ...

Sam Houston
(1861) *
José Antonio Páez José Antonio Páez Herrera (; 13 June 1790 – 6 May 1873) was a Venezuelan leader who fought against the History of Spain (1810–73), Spanish Crown for Simón Bolívar during the Venezuelan War of Independence. He was recognized like one of t ...

José Antonio Páez
(1863) *
Mariano Melgarejo Manuel Mariano Melgarejo Valencia (13 April 1820 – 23 November 1871) was a Bolivians, Bolivian military officer who served as the 15th President of Bolivia from 1864 to 1871. Early life Melgarejo was born on 13 April 1820 in the Departmen ...

Mariano Melgarejo
(1871) *
Porfirio Díaz José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ( or ; ; 15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico The president of Mexico ( es, link=no, Presidente de México), officially kn ...

Porfirio Díaz
(1911) *
Alexander Kerensky Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky ( ; russian: link=no, Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский, ; original spelling: ; – 11 June 1970) was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary A revolutionary is a person who either partici ...
(1917) *
Bernardino Machado Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães, GCTE, GCL (; 28 March 1851 – 29 April 1944), was a Portuguese political figure, the third and eighth President of Portugal The president of the Portuguese Republic ( pt, Presidente da República ...

Bernardino Machado
(1917 and 1926) *
Washington Luís Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa (; 26 October 1869 – 4 August 1957) was a Brazilian politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions i ...

Washington Luís
(1930) *
Konstantin Päts
Konstantin Päts
(1940) *
Antanas Smetona Antanas Smetona (; 10 August 1874 – 9 January 1944) was one of the most important Lithuanian political figures between World War I and World War II. He served as the first President of Lithuania from 4 April 1919 to 19 June 1920. He again served ...
(1940) *
Kārlis Ulmanis Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (, (4 September 1877 – 20 September 1942) was a Latvian politician. He was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated a ...
(1940) *
Getúlio Vargas Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (; 19 April 1882 – 24 August 1954) was a Brazilian lawyer and politician who served as president of Brazil during two periods: the first was from 1930 to 1945, when he served as interim president from 1930 to 1934, ...
(1945) *
Ferenc Nagy Ferenc Nagy (; 8 October 1903 – 12 June 1979) was a Hungarian politician of the Smallholders Party who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1946 until his forced resignation in 1947. He was also a Speaker of the National Assembly of Hun ...
(1947) *
Carlos Luz Carlos Coimbra da Luz (; 4 August 1894 – 9 February 1961) was a Brazilian people, Brazilian Political figure, politician, lawyer, teacher and journalist who served as Acting President of Brazil from November 8 to November 11, 1955. After the ...
(1955) *
Imre Nagy Imre Nagy (; 7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally ...
(1956) *
Fulgencio Batista Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (; ; born Rubén Zaldívar, January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was a Cuban military officer and politician who served as the elected president of Cuba from 1940 to 1944 and as its U.S.-backed military dictator f ...

Fulgencio Batista
(1959) *
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
(1964) *
João Goulart João Belchior Marques Goulart (Gaúcho dialect, gaúcho , or in the standard Rio de Janeiro (state), Fluminense dialect; 1 March 1918 – 6 December 1976) was a Brazilian politician who served as the List of Presidents of Brazil, 24th preside ...
(1964) *
Eric Gairy Sir Eric Matthew Gairy PC (18 February 192223 August 1997) was the first Prime Minister of Grenada Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French: ''Gwenad'') is an island country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Gr ...
(1973) *
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
(1974) *
Idi Amin Idi Amin Dada Oumee (, ; 16 August 2003) was a Ugandan military officer who served as the third president of Uganda The President of the Republic of Uganda is the head of state and the head of government of Uganda. The President leads the ...
(1979) *
Anastasio Somoza Debayle Anastasio "Tachito" Somoza Debayle (; 5 December 1925 – 17 September 1980) was a Nicaraguan dictator and officially the President of Nicaragua The president of Nicaragua ( es, Presidente de Nicaragua), officially known as the President of ...
(1979) *
Jean-Claude Duvalier Jean-Claude Duvalier (), nicknamed "Baby Doc" ( ht, Bebe Dòk; 3 July 19514 October 2014), was a Haitian politician who was the President of Haiti The president of Haiti (french: Président d'Haïti, ht, Prezidan peyi Ayiti), officially called ...
(1986) *
Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and lawyer who was the 10th president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometime ...
(1986) *
Habib Bourguiba Habib Bourguiba (; ar, الحبيب بورقيبة, al-Ḥabīb Būrqībah; 3 August 19036 April 2000) was a Tunisian lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorn ...
(1987) *
Alfredo Stroessner Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda (; 3 November 1912 – 16 August 2006) was a Paraguayan Army officer who was the dictator of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. He ascended to the position after leading 1954 Paraguayan coup d'état, an army coup in 1954. Hi ...
(1989) *
Erich Honecker Erich Ernst Paul Honecker (; 25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was an East German communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokra ...
(1989) *
Todor Zhivkov Todor Hristov Zhivkov ( bg, Тодор Христов Живков ; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998) was a Bulgarian communist statesman who served as the '' de facto'' leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 1954 until 1989 as ...
(1989) *
Manuel Noriega Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (; February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017) was a Panamanian politician and military officer who was the ''de facto In law and government, ''de facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality ...
(1989) *
Nicolae Ceaușescu Nicolae Ceaușescu ( , ;  – 25 December 1989) was a Romania, Romanian communism, communist politician and dictator. He was the Romanian Communist Party#General Secretaries (1921–1989), general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party ...

Nicolae Ceaușescu
(1989) *
Hissène Habré Hissène Habré (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael ...
(1990) *
Mengistu Haile Mariam Mengistu Haile Mariam ( am, መንግሥቱ ኀይለ ማሪያም, pronunciation: ; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian former army officer and politician who was the head of state of from 1977 to 1991 and of the from 1984 to 1991. He was th ...
(1991) *
Jean-Bertrand Aristide Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born 15 July 1953) is a Haitian former Salesians of Don Bosco, Salesian priest and politician who became Haiti's first Election, democratically elected president. A proponent of liberation theology, Aristide was appointed ...

Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1991, 2004) *
Fernando Collor de Mello Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello (; born 12 August 1949) is a Brazilian politician who served as the 32nd president of Brazil from 1990 to 1992, when he resigned in a failed attempt to stop his impeachment trial by the Brazilian Senate. Collor ...
(1992) *
Carlos Andrés Pérez Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez (27 October 1922 – 25 December 2010) also known as CAP and often referred to as '' El Gocho'' (due to his Andean origins), was a Venezuelan politician and President of Venezuela The president of Venezuel ...

Carlos Andrés Pérez
(1993) *
Nawaz Sharif Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif ( ur, , born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani businessman and politician who served as the prime minister of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms. Sharif is the longest-serving prime minister of Pakistan having ...

Nawaz Sharif
(1993, 1999) *
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia, president of Republic o ...
(2000) *
Gustavo Noboa
Gustavo Noboa
(2003) *
Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a lis ...

Saddam Hussein
(2003) * Charles Taylor (2003) *
Lucio Gutiérrez
Lucio Gutiérrez
(2005) *
Thaksin Shinawatra Thaksin Shinawatra ( th, ทักษิณ ชินวัตร; ; ; Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of co ...
(2006) *
Manuel Zelaya José Manuel Zelaya Rosales (born 20 September 1952)Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spok ...
(2009) *
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Zine El Abidine Ben Ali ( ar, زين العابدين بن علي, '; 3 September 1936 – 19 September 2019), commonly known as Ben Ali ( ar, بن علي) or Ezzine ( ar, الزين), was a Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthogra ...

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
(2011) *
Hosni Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the ...
(2011) *
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Ling ...
(2011) *
Mohamed Morsi Mohamed Mohamed Morsi Eissa Al-AyyatThe spellings of his first and last names vary. survey of 14 news organizations plus Wikipedia in July 2012
(2013) *
Viktor Yanukovych Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych ( uk, Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич, ; ; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who served as the fourth President of Ukraine from 2010 until he was removed from office in the 2014 Ukr ...

Viktor Yanukovych
(2014) *
Dilma Rousseff Dilma Vana Rousseff (; bg, Дилма Вана Русеф; born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th president of Brazil President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president ...
(2016) *
Park Geun-hye Park Geun-hye (; ; often in English ; born 2 February 1952) is a former South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea from 2013 until 2017 when she was impeached and later convicted on related corruption charges. Park was the fi ...

Park Geun-hye
(2017) *
Robert Mugabe Robert Gabriel Mugabe (; ; 21 February 1924 – 6 September 2019) was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe The prime minister of Zimbabwe was a political office in the government of Zimbab ...

Robert Mugabe
(2017) *
Abdelaziz Bouteflika Abdelaziz Bouteflika (; ar, عبد العزيز بوتفليقة, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Būtaflīqa ; born 2 March 1937) is an Algerian politician who served as President of Algeria for almost 20 years, from 1999 to his resignation in 2019. As Presi ...

Abdelaziz Bouteflika
(2019) * Omar al-Bashir (2019)


Notable deposed monarchs

* Aethelred "the Unready" of England (1013) * Diarmait Mac Murchada of Leinster (1167) *
Sancho II of Portugal Sancho II (), nicknamed the Pious ( pt, o Piedoso) and the Caped or the Capuched (Portuguese: ''o Capelo''), King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the d ...
(1248) * Adolf of Nassau (1298) *
Edward II of England Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. A ...

Edward II of England
(1327) *
Richard II of England Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was List of deposed politicians, deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, Edward, Prince of ...

Richard II of England
(1399) *
Wenceslaus, King of the Romans Wenceslaus IV (also ''Wenceslas''; cs, Václav; german: Wenzel, nicknamed "the Idle"; 26 February 136116 August 1419) was King of Bohemia from 1363 until his death and King of Germany from 1376 until he was deposed in 1400. He belonged to the ...
(1400) *
Henry VI of England Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and English claims to the French throne#Kings of France (1422), disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry ...

Henry VI of England
(1461) *
Edward IV of England Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from about 8 ...
(1470) *
Edward V of England Edward V (2 November 1470)R. F. Walker, "Princes in the Tower", in S. H. Steinberg et al, ''A New Dictionary of British History'', St. Martin's Press, New York, 1963, p. 286. was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begin ...
(1483) *
Mary, Queen of Scots Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart, was List of Scottish monarchs, Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication in 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King ...

Mary, Queen of Scots
(1567) *
Gwanghaegun of Joseon Gwanghae-gun or Prince Gwanghae (4 June 1575 – 7 August 1641; reigned 1608–1623) was the fifteenth king of the Joseon dynasty. His personal name was ''Yi Hon''. As he was deposed in a coup d'état, the Joseon court did not give him a templ ...
(1623) *
Philip III of Portugal Philip IV ( es, Felipe, pt, Filipe; 8 April 160517 September 1665), called the Great, was King of Spain from 1621 to his death and (as Philip III) King of Portugal from 1621 to 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, includin ...

Philip III of Portugal
(1640) *
James II and VII James II and VII (14 October 1633Old Style and New Style dates, O.S.16 September 1701) was King of England and King of Ireland as James II, and King of Scotland as James VII from the death of his elder brother, Charles II of England, Charles II ...
(
1688 Events January–June * March March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in O ...
) *
Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; ; 23 August 175421 January 1793) was the last King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) w ...

Louis XVI of France
(
1792 Events January–March * January 9 Events Pre-1600 * 681 – Twelfth Council of ToledoThe Twelfth Council of Toledo was initiated on 9 January 681 by the new King Erwig. One of its first actions was to release the popula ...
) * (1858) *
Isabel II of Spain Isabella II ( es, Isabel II; 10 October 1830 – 9 April 1904), also known as the Queen of Sad Mischance and the Traditional Queen, was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. Shortly before her birth, the King issued a Pragmatic Sanction to ...

Isabel II of Spain
(1868) *
Pedro II of Brazil Dom PedroII (2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous" ( pt, O Magnânimo), was the second and last monarch of the Empire of Brazil The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territorie ...
(
1889 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modi ...
) *
Frederick William Koko Mingi VIII of Nembe King Frederick William Koko, Mingi VIII of Nembe (1853–1898), known as King Koko and King William Koko, was an African ruler of the Nembe Kingdom (also known as Nembe-Brass) in the Niger Delta, now part of southern Nigeria. A Christian when chos ...
(1898) * Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire (1908) *
Manuel II of Portugal '' Dom'' Manuel II (15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932), "the Patriot" ( pt, "o Patriota") or "the Unfortunate" (), was the last King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal ...

Manuel II of Portugal
(1910) * Aisin-Gioro Puyi of the Qing Dynasty (1912) * Mehmed VI of the Ottoman Empire (1922) *
Alfonso XIII of Spain Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image ...
(1931) *
Farouk of Egypt Farouk I (; ar, فاروق الأول ''Fārūq al-Awwal''; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936. ...
(1952) *
Constantine II of Greece Constantine II ( el, Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, ''Konstantínos II'', ; born 2 June 1940) is the former King of the Hellenes who reigned from 6 March 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy on 1 June 1973. He acceded as king following the ...

Constantine II of Greece
(1967) *
Idris of Libya Idris ( ar, إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983) was a Demographics of Libya, Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as ...
(1969) *
Mohammed Zahir Shah Mohammed Zahir Shah (15 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given ...
(1973) *
Haile Selassie I Haile Selassie I ( gez, ቀዳማዊ ኀይለ ሥላሴ, Qädamawi Häylä Səllasé, ; born Tafari Makonnen; 23 July 189227 August 1975) was Emperor of Ethiopia The Emperor of Ethiopia ( gez, ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, " ...
(1974) * Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (1979) * Muhammadu Sanusi II (2020)


Notable deposed bishops

*
Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria ( grc, Κύριλλος Ἀλεξανδρείας; cop, Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲩ ⲁ̅ also ⲡⲓ̀ⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲕⲓⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲥ;  376 – 444) was the Patriarch of Alexandria The Patriarch ...

Cyril of Alexandria
*
Cyril Lucaris Cyril Lucaris or Loukaris ( el, Κύριλλος Λούκαρις, 13 November 1572 – 27 June 1638), born Constantine Lucaris, was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ) ...
*
John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (; gr, Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; 14 September 407) was an important Early Church Father The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential ...
*
Nestorius Nestorius (; in grc, Νεστόριος; 386 – 450) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 to August 431. A Christian theologian, several of his teachings in the fields of Christo ...
*
Photios I of Constantinople Photios I ( el, Φώτιος, ''Phōtios''; c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr. Justin Taylor, essay "Canon Law in the Age of the Fathers" (published in Jordan Hite, T.O.R., & Daniel J. Ward, O.S.B., "Readings, Cases, Materia ...
*
Antipope Benedict XIII Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor (25 November 1328 – 23 May 1423), known as in Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish ...

Antipope Benedict XIII
*
Antipope John XXIII Baldassarre Cossa (c. 1370 – 22 December 1419) was Pisan Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repu ...

Antipope John XXIII
* The Nine Bishops of the Nonjuring Schism * Robert Duncan, VII Bishop of Pittsburgh * Mark Lawrence, XIV Bishop of South Carolina * John-David Schofield, Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin, IV Bishop of San Joaquin


See also

*Coup d'état *Defrock *Motion of no confidence


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Deposition (Politics) Changes in political power Rulers deposed as children