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Denial and deception (D&D) is a Western theoretical framework for conceiving and analyzing military intelligence techniques pertaining to
secrecy Secrecy is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals. That which is kept hidden is known as the secret. Secrecy is often controve ...
and
deception Deception or falsehood is an act or statement which misleads, hides the truth, or promotes a belief, concept, or idea that is not true. It is often done for personal gain or advantage. Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda and sleight ...
. Originating in the 1980s, it is roughly based on the more pragmatic Soviet practices of '' maskirovka'' (which preceded the D&D conceptualization by decades) but it has a more theoretical approach compared to the latter.Hutchinson, William. (2004) "The Influence of Maskirovka on Contemporary Western Deception Theory and Practice." Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Information Warfare and Security. .


Description

In the D&D framework, denial and deception are seen as distinct but complementary endeavors. Denial most often involves
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...

security
and concealment to prevent foreign agents, photographic
surveillance Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, many activities, or information for the purpose of information gathering, influencing, managing Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or org ...

surveillance
,
electronic monitoring Electronic tagging is a form of surveillance that uses an electronic device affixed to a person. In some jurisdictions, an electronic tag fitted above the ankle is used for people as part of their bail or probation conditions. It is also used in ...
, or even the media from revealing secretive diplomatic or military matters. Deception is the construction of a false reality for the adversary through intentionally " leaked" false information, false stories implanted in the media, dummy or decoy structures or military formations, or numerous other measure. For example, in the Japanese information warfare campaign that preceded the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor The Attack on Pearl HarborAlso known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike In the United States Armed Forces, military of the United States, strikes and raids are a group of military operations that, alongside quite ...

attack on Pearl Harbor
, the D&D approach identifies as a denial measure the twice-repeated change in naval
call signs In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign (also known as a call name or call letters—and historically as a call signal—or abbreviated as a call) is a Identifier, unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of ...
effected by the Imperial Navy between 1 November and 1 December, but identifies as a deception measure the Japanese Foreign Office announcement that a large Japanese liner would sail to California on 2 December to evacuate Japanese citizens.


Coordinated plan

A denial and deception campaign is most effective when numerous denial and deceptive efforts are coherently coordinated to advance a specific plan; however, the most effective such operations are very complex, involving numerous persons or organizations, and this can prove exceedingly difficult. A single failed denial measure or deception can easily jeopardize an entire operation.Abram Shulsky, "Elements of Strategic Denial and Deception," in ''Strategic Denial and Deception: The Twenty-First Century Challenge'', ed. Roy Godson and James J. Wirtz (Piscataway: Transaction Publishers, 2002), 15-17; Roy Godson and James J. Wirtz, "Strategic Denial and Deception," ''International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence'' 13 (2000): 425-426.


Mearsheimer

According to political scientist John J. Mearsheimer ('' Why Leaders Lie''), during peaceful times, inter-state deceptions have little traction as the level of trust between states is usually already very low and therefore being caught in a lie would be ruinous. On the other hand, leaders in democracies move up the ranks largely by employing political deception and thus are not only familiar with deceiving the public for personal gain but also have considerable
political capital Political capital is a metaphor used in political theory to conceptualize the accumulation of resources and power built through relationships, trust, goodwill, and influence between politicians or parties and other stakeholders, such as constituen ...
and
public trust The Public Trust of New Zealand was a government-appointed corporation sole A corporation sole is a Legal person, legal entity consisting of a single ("sole") incorporated office, occupied by a single ("sole") natural person.fearmongering Fearmongering or scaremongering is a form of manipulation which causes fear by using exaggerated rumors of impending danger. Theory Humans have a strong impulse to pay attention to danger, according to evolutionary psychology Evolutionary p ...
. Following this successful deception, the two democratic leaders were effective in launching the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
with little opposition.


Shulsky

According to Abram Shulsky,
democracies Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polit ...
, like the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, had difficulty employing denial and deception campaigns. This is largely due to the open media of most such societies which frequently expose any major operations undertaken militarily or diplomatically. Also, legal restrictions tend to hamper governments and particularly intelligence services in democratic societies. The exception to these restrictions occurs in wartime, when some measure of
martial law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an occupied te ...
is imposed and legal impediments are relaxed.
Authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
systems of government, however, frequently employ denial and deception campaigns both domestically and abroad to manipulate domestic opposition and foreign governments. These operations are unhampered by legal restrictions or an open media. Non-state actors, such as terrorist organizations, frequently use denial and deception to influence governments and the public opinion of target societies. Other authors illustrate the D&D topic with
Operation Fortitude Operation Fortitude was the code name for a World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the v ...
and consider it one of the most successful such examples in history. Article previously published in ''Air Power History'', vol. 37, no. 3, Fall 1990, pp. 15-22 According to Donald C.F. Daniel, democratic societies have more qualms with deception than they have with denial (in the technical sense used in this article); Daniel contrasts the little public controversy that surrounded the secretive way in which Nixon's rapprochement with China was negotiated (as example of secrecy/denial that did not cause a public outrage) with the uproar caused by the 2001 announcement of the
Office of Strategic Influence The Office of Strategic Influence, or OSI, was a department created by the United States Department of Defense on October 30, 2001, to support the War on Terrorism through psychological operations in targeted countries, which did not include the Un ...
(an institution that had among its stated goals the planting of false stories in the foreign press).


United States Department of Defense

According to
United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity ...
definitions,
military deception Military deception (MILDEC) is an attempt by a military unit to gain an advantage during warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mo ...
includes both denial and deception (as defined in the D&D framework).Johnson, Mark, and Jessica Meyeraan.
Military deception: Hiding the real-showing the fake
. Joint Forces Staff College, Joint and Combined Warfighting School, p. 4
Canadian
OPSEC Operations security (OPSEC) is a process that identifies critical information to determine if friendly actions can be observed by enemy intelligence, determines if information obtained by adversaries could be interpreted to be useful to them, a ...
officer John M. Roach notes that "Deception used as a broad, general term includes the elements of both denial and deception, each having distinct actions that are either active or passive." D&D is not the only terminology used to make this distinction; according to Roach "passive deception" is another technical term for denial.John M. Roach
DECEPTION: Can information superiority be achieved with or without it?
Newsletter of the OPSEC Professionals Society, July 2012, Volume 3, Issue 2, p. 7. Also published i
The Canadian Army Journal Vol. 10.3 Fall 2007
p. 117-120
Western writers see the Soviet (and post-Soviet) maskirovka practices as not drawing a sharp or significant distinction between the two components of denial and deception. The Islamic concepts of
kitman In Islam, ''Taqiya'' or ''Taqiyya'' ( ar, تقیة ', literally "prudence, fear")R. STROTHMANN, MOKTAR DJEBLI. Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed, Brill. "TAKIYYA", vol. 10, p. 134. Quote: "TAKIYYA "prudence, fear" ..denotes dispensing with th ...
and
taqiyya In Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the firs ...
, or at least the
jihadist Jihadism is a neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that ...
interpretations thereof, have been seen by Westerners as the equivalents of the two components of denial and (respectively) deception. Since taqiyya is a word with
Shiite Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life a ...
connotations,
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
militants sometimes prefer to use the word iham instead, roughly with the meaning "deception of unbelievers". Although the Chinese deception theory literature is vast and uses rather different terminology (relative to Western works), some recent surveys have identified that "
seduction Seduction has multiple meanings. Platonically, it can mean "to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty", or "to lead astray, usually by persuasion or false promises". Strategies of seduction include conversation and sexual scripts, paralingual fe ...
"—understood as convincing the enemy to make fatal mistakes—is considered the highest form of deception while confusing or denying information to the enemy are considered lesser forms.


See also

*
Defense in depth Defense or defence may refer to: Tactical, martial, and political acts or groups * Defense (military) A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is ...
*
Disinformation Disinformation is false or misleading information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. The c ...
*
False flag A false flag operation is an act committed with the intent of disguising the actual source of responsibility and pinning blame on another party. The term "false flag" originated in the 16th century as a purely figurative expression to mean " ...
*
Plausible deniability Plausible deniability is the ability of people, typically senior officials in a formal or informal chain of command A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others' authority In the fields of sociology Soci ...


References

{{Military deception Military deception Denialism Disinformation Diversionary tactics Psychological warfare techniques