A demilitarized zone, DMZ or DZ is an area in which treaties or agreements between nations, military powers or contending groups forbid military installations, activities or personnel. A DMZ often lies along an established frontier or boundary between two or more military powers or alliances. A DMZ may sometimes form a ''de facto'' international border, such as the 38th parallel between North and South Korea
. Other examples of demilitarized zones are a area between Iraq and Kuwait
(preserved for scientific exploration and study) and outer space
(space more than from the earth's surface).
Many demilitarized zones are considered neutral territory
because neither side is allowed to control it, even for non-combat administration. Some zones remain demilitarized after an agreement has awarded control to a state which (under the DMZ terms) had originally ceded its right to maintain military forces in the disputed territory. It is also possible for powers to agree on the demilitarization of a zone without formally settling their respective territorial claims, enabling the dispute to be resolved by peaceful means such as diplomatic dialogue or an international court.
Several demilitarized zones have also unintentionally become wildlife preserve
s because their land is unsafe for construction or less exposed to human disturbances (including hunting). Examples include the Korean Demilitarized Zone
, the Cypriot Demilitarized Zone
(The Green Line
), and the former Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone
which divided Vietnam into two countries (North Vietnam
and South Vietnam
) from 21 July 1954 to 2 July 1976.
Current demilitarized zones
* Åland Islands
– The Åland Convention of 1921
, which was concluded following a decision of the League of Nations
in response to the Åland crisis
, mandates that the Finnish
government maintain the territory as a demilitarized area.
– The Antarctic Treaty
forbids military activity in Antarctica, such as "the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military manoeuvres, as well as the testing of any type of weapon". The Treaty does however provide for the "use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purpose".
* Ceuta border fence
and Melilla border fence
– A ''de facto'' demilitarized zone exists between the Spanish territories of Ceuta
. Perimeter fences around both cities have been constructed by Spanish and Moroccan authorities, creating a demilitarized zone between the Spanish and Moroccan fences.
* Dniester Valley Security Zone
– Created by the cease-fire agreement ending the War of Transnistria
, the Joint Control Commission
peacekeeping mission monitors a demilitarized zone roughly outlining the Dnister
* Ground Safety Zone
– A demilitarized area between Serbia
was created under the Kumanovo Agreement
following the Kosovo War
* Idlib demilitarization agreement zone
– A demilitarized zone, created by agreement between Russia
n and Turkish
government, splitting the last major stronghold of the Syrian rebels
from the Syrian government
controlled area amidst the Syrian Civil War
* Korean Demilitarized Zone
– The Korean Armistice Agreement
created a 4 km (2.5 mi)-wide demilitarized zone between North Korea
and South Korea
following the Korean War
. It is currently one of the most heavily militarized area in the world despite the name.
* Kuwait–Iraq barrier
– The United Nations Security Council
approved the creation of a demilitarized zone between Iraq
in Resolution 689
after the Persian Gulf War
. Although the demilitarized zone is no longer mandated by the council, it continues to exist.
* Preah Vihear Temple
– The International Court of Justice
had ordered the creation of a "provisional demilitarized zone" around the Temple whose ownership is claimed
by both Cambodia
* Sinai Peninsula
– The Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty
sets a limit to the amount of forces Egypt
can place in the Sinai Peninsula. Parts of the peninsula are demilitarized to various degrees, especially within of Israel
. Israel also agreed to limit its forces within of the Egyptian border.
[Camp David Accords – Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs]
The areas are monitored by the Multinational Force and Observers
[10 Tactical Air Group: ''Canadian Contingent Multinational Force and Observers Handbook'' (unclassified), page A-1. DND, Ottawa, 1986.]
Because of the Sinai insurgency
all sides agreed and encouraged Egypt to send large amounts of military forces into the area, including tanks and helicopters, to fight Islamist groups.
– The Svalbard Treaty
of 1920, which recognized Norwegian
sovereignty over the territory, designated the area as demilitarized.
[Original Spitsbergen Treaty]
* Sudan – A demilitarized zone along the Sudan – South Sudan border.
* United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus – The United Nations Security Council created a buffer zone separating the self-proclaimed, internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus from the Republic of Cyprus. It was authorized by Resolution 186 and is patrolled by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus.
* United Nations Disengagement Observer Force Zone – The United Nations Security Council approved the creation of a demilitarized zone in a portion of the Israeli-occupied territory of the Golan Heights in Syria in Resolution 350 after the Yom Kippur War. The zone is monitored by the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force.
* United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon – Created by the United Nations with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded in 1978, to restore international peace and security, and help the Government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.
Former demilitarized zones
* A neutral territory was established between the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar and Spain after the end of the 1727 siege. A strip of land 600 toises (about ) long, more than two cannon shots' distance between the British and Spanish guns, was called "the neutral ground" and shown as such on older maps. In 1908, the British built a fence in a portion claimed to be the British half of the neutral territory. Spain does not recognize British sovereignty over the isthmus (including the border), asserting it is Spanish soil. Although both the United Kingdom and Spain used to be part of the European Union (before the United Kingdom's exit), the border was a ''de facto'' international frontier with customs and immigration checks; Spain does not formally recognize it as a "frontier", referring to it as a "fence". Whatever its name, Gibraltar opted out of the European Union Customs Union and is not part of the Schengen Area; the border is open 24 hours a day, with customs duties payable on designated goods entering Spain or Gibraltar.
*Rhineland – The Treaty of Versailles designated the Rhineland as a demilitarized zone after World War I, prohibiting the Weimar Republic from deploying its military there. It was re-occupied and re-militarized in 1936 by Nazi Germany in violation of international treaties.
*Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone – The Uqair Protocol established a demilitarized zone between the Sultanate of Nejd and the Kingdom of Iraq, which at the time was a League of Nations mandate administered by the British Empire. Nejd was later incorporated into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The zone was partitioned in 1981 but the treaty was not filed with the United Nations. The zone was finally officially abolished during the Persian Gulf War, when Iraq and Saudi Arabia cancelled all international agreements with each other.
*Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone – The Uqair Protocol established a neutral zone between the Sultanate of Nejd and the British protectorate of Kuwait in 1922. It was partitioned by mutual agreement in 1970.
*Israel and Egypt:
**Following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, a DMZ (the El Auja Zone) was created by the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Egypt.
*Israel and Jordan:
**The Israeli enclave and Jordanian area on Mt. Scopus was designated as a DMZ.
**The area around the Latrun salient.
*Israel and Syria: Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, three DMZs were created by the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Syria.
*China – The Imperial Japanese Army conquered Manchuria between September 1931 and February 1932, when they proclaimed the region the state of Manchukuo. In May 1933, the Tanggu Truce between China and Japan was concluded, establishing a demilitarized zone between Manchukuo and China. In 1937 Japan violated this truce with an invasion of the remainder of China. In 1945, after the fall of the Japanese empire at the end of the Asia-Pacific theater of World War II, Manchuria was re-incorporated into China.
*Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone – The demilitarized zone between North Vietnam and South Vietnam was established in July 1954 as a result of the Geneva Conference ending the war between the Viet Minh and France. The DMZ in Vietnam officially lay at the 17th parallel and ended in 1976; in reality, it extended about on either side of the Bến Hải River and west to east from the Lao border to the South China Sea.
*Norway and Sweden established a demilitarized zone of 1 km (1,100 yards) on each side of their border after the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905. The zone was abolished by mutual agreement in 1993.
*El Caguán DMZ – A demilitarized zone was established in southern Colombia between 1999 and 2002, during the failed peace process that involved the Government of President Andrés Pastrana and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
*Northern Syria Buffer Zone – A demilitarized zone in northern Syria straddling portions of the Syria–Turkey border. It was established between Turkey and the United States, both NATO allies, during the Syrian Civil War to prevent clashes between Kurdish and Turkish forces. The DMZ collapsed in October 2019, after Turkey dismissed the agreement and the United States ordered a withdrawal of US forces from northern Syria, allowing the 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria to go ahead.
* Buffer Zone
*List of established military terms
*Safe Zone (Syria)
* United Nations Safe Areas