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Delayed open-access journals are traditional subscription-based journals that provide free online access upon the expiry of an
embargo Economic sanctions are commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of v ...
period following the initial publication date.


Details

The embargo period before an article is made available for free can vary from a few months to two or more years. In a 2013 study, 77.8% of delayed open access journals analyzed had an embargo of 12 months or less. 85.4% had an embargo period of 24 months or less. A journal subscription or an individual article purchase fee would be required to access the materials before this embargo period ends. Some delayed access journals also deposit their publications in open repositories when the author is bound by a delayed open-access mandate. The rationale for the access delay is to provide eventual access to all would-be users while still requiring the
institutions Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior." Institutions can refer to social mechanism, mechanisms which govern the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community, and are id ...
of researchers who need immediate access to keep paying the subscriptions that cover the costs of publication. The marginal costs of distributing an electronic journal to additional users are trivial in comparison to distributing printed copies of the publication. Delayed access publishers spend little or no additional funds while marketing their publications to a broader population than those with personal subscriptions or those affiliated with institutions that have institutional subscriptions or other forms of institutional access. The assumptions underlying delayed access are that (1) active researchers have sufficient access through institutional subscriptions or licenses, that (2) researchers at institutions that cannot afford subscription access to a journal can use interlibrary loan or direct purchases to access the articles they need, and that (3) students and others affiliated with institutions that cannot afford subscription access to a given journal do not generally need to access articles as urgently as researchers do. It is not clear whether these assumptions are valid. As a remedy for the fact that in the online era immediate access to research continues to be denied to those who need it most—i.e., researchers—if their institutions cannot afford to pay for it, researchers do have the option of providing open access to their own published research immediately, by
self-archiving Self-archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programmi ...
it in their
institutional repositories An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.Van de Sompel, H & Lagoze, C. (2000. ''D-lib Magazine'', 6(2). ...
. A growing number of research institutions and research funders worldwide are now beginning to adopt open-access mandates to ensure that their researchers
self-archive Self-archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document World Wide Web, online in order to provide Open access (publishing), open access to it. The term usually refers to the self-archiving of peer review, peer- ...
.


Adoption

Many scholarly society journals have adopted the delayed access model. A 2013 study looked at more than 110,000 articles from 492 journals with delayed open access and found the
impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor#REDIRECT Impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly average number of citat ...
of articles in delayed open access journals was twice as high as traditional closed access journals (and three times as high as gold
open access journal Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. With open access strictly defined (according to the 2001 definition), or Gratis versu ...
s). Delayed access does increase access to scholarly research literature for many, but subscribing institutions continue to pay for immediate access during the embargo period. The wide range in embargo lengths – and the fact that
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open access
is both defined and intended as the state of ''immediate access'' – limits the meaningfulness of classifying journals as "delayed open-access" journals. For example, Molecular Biology of the Cell has a one-month embargo, whereas
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan ''Journal of the Physical Society of Japan'' (''JPSJ'') is a monthly, peer reviewed, scientific journal published by the Physical Society of Japan (JPS). It was first published in July 1946 (volume 1). The editor-in-chief is A. Kawabata, until Aug ...
has a 6-year embargo period. Hence delayed access journals are not included in the lists of
open-access journal Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. With open access strictly defined (according to the 2001 definition), or Gratis vers ...
s, such as the
Directory of Open Access Journals The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () ...

Directory of Open Access Journals
(DOAJ). In January 2017, the
Journal of Experimental Medicine ''Journal of Experimental Medicine'' is a monthly Peer review, peer-reviewed medical journal published by Rockefeller University Press that publishes research papers and commentaries on the physiological, pathological, and molecular mechanisms that ...
announced that it will now be charging
Article Processing Charges An article processing charge (APC), also known as a publication fee, is a fee which is sometimes charged to authors to make a work available open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research ...
for delayed open access.


See also

*
List of open-access journals This is a list of open-access journals by field. The list contains notable journals which have a policy of full open access. It does not include delayed open access journals, hybrid open access journals, or related collections or indexing service ...
*
Hybrid open-access journal A hybrid open-access journal is a subscription journal in which some of the articles are open access. This status typically requires the payment of a publication fee (also called an article processing charge or APC) to the publisher in order to p ...
*
Open-access journal Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. With open access strictly defined (according to the 2001 definition), or Gratis vers ...
*
Self-archiving Self-archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programmi ...


References

{{Open access navbox Publishing Delayed open access journals