''Phoenix dactylifera'', commonly known as date or date palm,
is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae
, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, the Middle East and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. ''P. dactylifera'' is the type species
of genus ''Phoenix
'', which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production.
Date trees typically reach about in height,
growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. Date fruits (dates) are oval-cylindrical, long, and about in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Containing 61–68 percent sugar
by mass when dried, dates are a very sweet fruit.
Dates have been a staple food
of the Middle East and the Indus Valley
for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons
, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.
The species name ''dactylifera'' "date-bearing" comes from the Greek
words ''daktylos'' (δάκτυλος), which means "date" (also "finger"), and ''fero'' (φέρω), which means "I bear". The fruit
is known as a date. The fruit's English name (through Old French), as well as the Latin both come from the Greek word for "finger", δάκτυλος, because of the fruit's elongated shape.
The exact place of origin of date palm is uncertain because of long cultivation, according to some sources it probably originated from the Fertile Crescent
region straddling Egypt and Mesopotamia
while others state that they are native to the Persian Gulf area or even western India.
Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years.
Dates have been a staple food
of the Middle East
and the Indus Valley
for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh
around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan
and in eastern Arabia
between 5530 and 5320 calBC
. and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia
to prehistoric Egypt
. The ancient Egypt
ians used the fruits to make date wine
, and ate them at harvest. Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout later civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappa
n period of 2600 to 1900 BCE.
The ancient Hebrews
made the fruit into wine, vinegar, bread, and cakes, also using the fruit stones to fatten livestock and the wood to make utensils.
In Ancient Rome
the palm fronds used in triumphal
processions to symbolize victory were most likely those of ''Phoenix dactylifera''. The date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle
gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy. It is recognizable in frescoes from Pompeii
and elsewhere in Italy, including a garden scene from the House of the Wedding of Alexander.
In later times, traders spread dates around South West Asia
, northern Africa
, and Spain
. Dates were introduced into Mexico
by the Spaniards in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio
A date palm cultivar
, probably what used to be called Judean date palm
, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed
, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years. The upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown.
A genomic study from New York University Abu Dhabi Center for Genomics and Systems Biology showed that domesticated date palm varieties from North Africa, including well-known varieties such as Medjool
and Deglet Nour
, are a hybrid between Middle East date palms and the Cretan wild palm P. theophrasti. Date palms appear in the archaeological record in North Africa about 2,800 years ago, suggesting that the hybrid was spread by the Minoans or Phoenicians.
Date trees typically reach about in height,
growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are long, with spines on the petiole
, and pinnate
, with about 150 leaflets. The leaflets are long and wide. The full span of the crown ranges from .
The date palm is dioecious
, having separate male and female plants. They can be easily grown from seed, but only 50% of seedlings will be female and hence fruit bearing, and dates from seedling plants are often smaller and of poorer quality. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings
of heavily cropping cultivars. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants.
Dates are naturally wind pollinated
, but in both traditional oasis horticulture
and in the modern commercial orchards they are entirely pollinated manually
. Natural pollination occurs with about an equal number of male and female plants. However, with assistance, one male can pollinate
up to 100 females. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit-producing female plants. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants, as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. Manual pollination is done by skilled labourers on ladder
s, or by use of a wind machine. In some areas such as Iraq the pollinator climbs the tree using a special climbing tool that wraps around the tree trunk and the climber's back (called تبلية in Arabic) to keep him attached to the trunk while climbing.
Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, long, and diameter, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Dates contain a single stone
about long and thick. Three main cultivar group
s of date exist: soft (e.g. 'Barhee', 'Halawy', 'Khadrawy', 'Medjool
'); semi-dry (e.g. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Nour
', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. 'Thoory'). The type of fruit depends on the glucose
, and sucrose
In 2009, a team of researchers at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar
published a draft version of the date palm genome (Khalas variety). The draft genome sequence was improved in 2019 with the release of a more complete genome sequence using small molecule real-time sequencing technology by a team from the New York University Abu Dhabi Center for Genomics and Systems Biology and the UAE University Khalifa Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in the United Arab Emirates. With the release of this improved genome assembly, the UAE researchers were able to map genes for fruit color and sugar content. The NYU Abu Dhabi researchers had also re-sequenced the genomes of several date varieties to develop the first single nucleotide polymorphism map of the date palm genome in 2015.
Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq
, and north Africa west to Morocco
. Dates (especially Medjool
and Deglet Nour
) are also cultivated in America in southern California, Arizona
, southern Texas
, and southern Florida
in the United States, and in Sonora
, and Baja California
Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and start producing viable yields for commercial harvest between 7 and 10 years. Mature date palms can produce of dates per harvest season. They do not all ripen at the same time so several harvests are required. To obtain fruit of marketable quality, the bunches of dates must be thinned and bagged or covered before ripening so that the remaining fruits grow larger and are protected from weather and animals, such as birds, that also like to eat them.
Date palms require well-drained deep sandy loam soils with a pH of 8-11 (i.e., alkali). The soil should have the ability to hold the moisture. The soil should also be free from calcium carbonate.
An article on Date palm tree cultivation is brought down in Ibn al-'Awwam
's 12th-century agricultural work, ''Book on Agriculture''.
in Kuwait City
A large number of date cultivars are grown. The most important are:
* ''Aabel'' – common in Libya.
* ''Ajwah'' – from the town of Medina
in Saudi Arabia, it is the subject of a Hadith
* ''Al-Khunaizi'' – from the town of Qatif
in Saudi Arabia.
* ''Amir Hajj'' or ''Amer Hajj'' – from Iraq, these are soft with a thin skin and thick flesh, sometimes called "the visitor's date" because it is a delicacy served to guests.
*''Aseel'' (Urdu أصيل )- dates from Pakistan
that are pitted and diced.
* ''Abid Rahim''
() – from Sudan. In Nigeria it is called ''Dabino''.
() – from Sudan.
* ''Barhee'' or ''barhi'' () – these are nearly spherical, light amber to dark brown when ripe; soft, with thick flesh and rich flavour. One of the few varieties that are good in the ''khalal'' stage when they are yellow (like a fresh grape, as opposed to dry, like a raisin).
() – from Sudan.
* ''Dabbas'' – from United Arab Emirates
'' – in Turkey
* ''Deglet Noor
'' Algerian cultivar originated from the zibane region in the north eastern Algerian desert (the oases of Tolga, Biskra) — so named because the centre appears light or golden when held up to the sun. This is a leading date in Libya, Algeria, the United States, and Tunisia.
* ''Derrie'' or ''Dayri'' (the "Monastery" date) – from southern Iraq – these are long, slender, nearly black, and soft.
* ''Empress'' – developed by the DaVall family in Indio, California
, United States, from a seedling of ''Thoory''. It is large, and is softer and sweeter than Thoory. It generally has a light tan top half and brown bottom half.
* ''Fardh'' or ''Fard'' – common in Oman, deep dark brown, tender skin, sweet flavor, small seed. Keeps well when well packed.
* ''Ftimi'' or ''Alligue'' – these are grown in inland oases of Tunisia.
* ''Holwah'' (''Halawi'') () – these are soft, and extremely sweet, small to medium in size.
* ''Haleema'' – in Hoon, Libya (Haleema is a woman's name).
* ''Hayany'' (''Hayani'') – from Egypt ("Hayany" is a man's name) – these dates are dark-red to nearly black and soft.
* ''Iteema'' – common in Algeria.
* ''Kenta'' – common in Tunisia.
* ''Khadrawi'' or ''Khadrawy'' (Arabic: 'green') – a cultivar favoured by many Arabs, it is a soft, very dark date.
* ''Khalasah'' () – one of the major palm cultivars in Saudi Arabia. Its fruit is called ''Khlas''. Notably produced in Hofuf
(Al-Ahsa) and Qatif
in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia
* ''Khastawi'' (''Khusatawi'', ''Kustawy'') – this is the leading soft date in Iraq; it is syrupy and small in size, prized for dessert.
* ''Khenaizi'' – from United Arab Emirates
* ''Lulu'' – from United Arab Emirates
* ''Maktoom'' () – this is a large, red-brown, thick-skinned, soft, medium-sweet date.
* ''Manakbir'' – a large fruit that ripens early.
'' - from Iran
'' or (''Majdool'') () – from Morocco, also grown in the United States, Israel, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Jordan, and United Arab Emirates; a large, sweet and succulent date.
* ''Migraf'' (''Mejraf'') – very popular in Southern Yemen, these are large, golden-amber dates.
* ''Mgmaget Ayuob'' – from Hun, Libya.
* ''Mishriq'' ( "east") – from Sudan and Saudi Arabia.
* ''Mazafati'' or ''Mozafati'' ( fa|مضافتی, "Suburban/Peripheral") – It is a dark, fleshy and sweet date of medium size with a relatively high moisture content and is suited for fresh consumption, i.e. not dried. At a temperature of −5 degrees Celsius (23 °F) it can be kept for up to 2 years. It is grown in Iran, in particular in Kerman province, and often named "''Bam'' date", after the city of Bam in that province.
* ''Nabtat-seyf'' – in Saudi Arabia.
* ''Piarom'' – A large, thin skin, black-brown semi-dry date - from Iran.
* ''Rotab'' (Arabic: رطب) – from Iraq, they are dark and soft.
* ''Safawi'' - mainly grown in Saudi Arabia in the Al-Madina region. Soft, semi-dried date variety; distinctive deep black colour, length and medium size. Share similarities with Ajwa dates such as taste.
* ''Sag‘ai'' – from Saudi Arabia.
* ''Saidy'' (Saidi) – soft, very sweet, these are popular in Libya.
* ''Sayer'' (Sayir) () – these dates are dark orange-brown, of medium size, soft and syrupy.
* ''Sukkary'' – (Arabic: سكري, "Sugar" or "Sweet one") Yellow skinned; faintly resilient and extremely sweet, often referred to as ‘royal dates’. It's cultivated primarily in Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia. It's arguably the most expensive and premium variety.
* ''Sellaj'' – () in Saudi Arabia.
* - ( si|ඉඳ) in Sri Lanka.
* ''Tagyat'' – common in Libya.
* ''Tamej'' – in Libya.
* ''Thoory'' (''Thuri'') – popular in Algeria, this dry date is brown-red when cured with a bluish bloom and very wrinkled skin. Its flesh is sometimes hard and brittle but the flavour described as sweet and nutty.
* ''Umeljwary'' – in Libya.
* ''Umelkhashab'' – Brilliant red skin; bittersweet, hard white flesh (Saudi Arabia).
* ''Zahidi'' () – these medium size, cylindrical, light golden-brown semi-dry dates are very sugary, and sold as soft, medium-hard and hard.
* ''Zaghloul'' ( ar|زغلول|links=no) – Dark red skin, long, and very crunchy when fresh (when they are typically served); extremely sweet, with sugar content creating a sense of desiccation in the mouth when eaten. The variety is essentially exclusive to Egypt, where it is subject to an element of nationalist sentiment on account of sharing a name with national hero Saad Zaghloul.
The Gaza Strip, especially Deir al-Balah ("Village of Dates"), is known for its exceptionally sweet red dates.
Diseases and pests
A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (''Rhynchophorus ferrugineus'') currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world.
In the 1920s, eleven healthy Medjool palms were transferred from Morocco to the United States where they were tended by members of the Chemehuevi tribe in a remote region of Nevada. Nine of these survived and in 1935, cultivars were transferred to the "U.S. Date Garden" in Indio, California. Eventually this stock was reintroduced to Africa and led to the U.S. production of dates in Yuma, Arizona, and Bard, California.
Not all cities and countries have benefited with the date palms resilience and ease of growth. It has made the invasive species list in some parts of the United States, Canada and Australia but these references are to the related but inedible Canary Island Date Palm (''Phoenix canariensis'').
Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as ''stoned dates''. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ''ka'ak'' (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called '''ajwa'', spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or ''rub'' in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Vinegar made from dates was a traditional product of the Middle East. Recent innovations include chocolate-covered dates and products such as sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan. When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first.
Reflecting the maritime trading heritage of Britain, imported chopped dates are added to, or form the main basis of a variety of traditional dessert recipes including sticky toffee pudding, Christmas pudding and date and walnut loaf. They are particularly available to eat whole at Christmas time. Dates are one of the ingredients of HP Sauce, a popular British condiment.
Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed.
In Southeast Spain (where a large date plantation exists including UNESCO-protected Palmeral of Elche) dates (usually pitted with fried almond) are served wrapped in bacon and shallow fried, served with ranch dressing.
In Israel date syrup, termed ''silan'', is used while cooking chicken and also for sweets and desserts, and as a honey substitute.
Dates are one of the ingredients of ''jallab'', a Middle-Eastern fruit syrup.
In Pakistan, a viscous, thick syrup made from the ripe fruits is used as a coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking.
Antique date forks in rack
In the past, sticky dates were served using specialized small forks having two metal tines, called ''daddelgaffel'' in Scandinavia. Some designs were patented. These have generally been replaced by an inexpensive pale-colored knobbled plastic fork that resembles a date branch
, which is traditionally included with numerous brands of prepackaged trays of dates
, though this practice has declined in response to increased use of resealable packaging and calls for fewer single-use plastics.
Dates provide a wide range of essential nutrients, and are a very good source of dietary potassium. The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc. The glycemic index for three different varieties of dates are 35.5 (khalas), 49.7 (barhi), and 30.5 (bo ma'an).
The caffeic acid glycoside 3-''O''-caffeoylshikimic acid (also known as dactylifric acid) and its isomers, are enzymic browning substrates found in dates.
Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. Their oil is suitable for use in cosmetics and dermatological applications. The oil contains lauric acid (36%) and oleic acid (41%). Date palm seeds contain 0.56–5.4% lauric acid. They can also be processed chemically as a source of oxalic acid. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an additive to coffee.
Experimental studies have shown that feeding mice with the aqueous extract of date pits exhibit anti-genotoxic and reduce DNA damage induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea.
Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. Recently the floral stalks have been found to be of ornamental value in households.
Apart from ''P. dactylifera'', wild date palms such as ''Phoenix sylvestris'' and ''Phoenix reclinata'', depending on the region, can be also tapped for sap.
Date palm leaves are used for Palm Sunday in the Christian religion. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. Mature leaves are also made into mats, screens, baskets and fans. Processed leaves can be used for insulating board. Dried leaf petioles are a source of cellulose pulp, used for walking sticks, brooms, fishing floats and fuel. Leaf sheaths are prized for their scent, and fibre from them is also used for rope, coarse cloth, and large hats. The leaves are used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. They are also commonly used as the s'chach in the construction of a sukkah.
Young date leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, as is the terminal bud or heart, though its removal kills the palm. The finely ground seeds are mixed with flour to make bread in times of scarcity. The flowers of the date palm are also edible. Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh . The flower buds are used in salad or ground with dried fish to make a condiment for bread.
Date palm fruits are one of the fruits reported to have good potentials in diabetes treatment due to its presence of polyphenols exerting strong antioxidant activities.
Dates are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an.
Many Jewish scholars believe that the "honey" reference in the Bible to "a land flowing with milk and honey" (Exodus chapter 3) is actually a reference to date "honey", and not honey from bees.
In Islamic culture, dates and yogurt or milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan.
Date palms holds great significance in Abrahamic religions. The tree was heavily cultivated as a food source in ancient Israel where Judaism and subsequently Christianity developed.
In the Quran, Allah instructs ''Maryām'' (the Virgin Mary) to eat dates during labour pains when she gives birth to Isa (Jesus); and, similarly, they are recommended to pregnant women.
In the Torah, palm trees are referenced as symbols of prosperity and triumph. In Psalm 92:12 "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree". Palm branches occurred as iconography in sculpture ornamenting the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, on Jewish coins, and in the sculpture of synagogues. They are also used as ornamentation in the Feast of the Tabernacles. Date palms are one of the seven species of native Israeli plants revered in Judaism. The date palm has historically been considered a symbol of Judea the Jewish people.
In Christianity, Palm branches were said to be scattered before Jesus as he entered Jerusalem on Palm Sunday.
File:Aseel variety dates.jpg|Aseel
File:Tn Dates Angou.JPG|Angou
File:1 Dattes Bejjou.JPG|Bejjou
File:Dattes Hamraya branche.JPG|Branch of Hamraya dates
File:Date farming and processing is a developing industry in the country and Pakistan is the 5th largest producer of dates in the world. (7702795624).jpg|Date farming and processing in Pakistan
File:Dates Tozerzait.JPG|Touzerzayet from Tunisia
File:Tn Dattes Trounja.JPG|Trounja
File:Date palm with fruits.jpg|Date palm with fruits at the Abdul Aziz Date Farm in Medina
File:Ripe and dry dates fruit bunches.jpg|Ripe and dry dates fruit bunches at the Khurram Abdullah Bajwa Date Farm in Medina.
File:NRCSAZ02021 - Arizona (325)(NRCS Photo Gallery).jpg|Dates growing in Yuma, Arizona
File:Les palmiers et les arbres bleus de elche - panoramio.jpg|Palmeral de Elche in Southern Spain
File:Dates 2005-07-17 Algarve.jpg|Dates from Algarve, Portugal
File:درخت خرمای کبکاب بهبهان.jpg|alt=Date Palms in Behbahan, Iran|Date palms in Behbahan, Iran
File:نخل در روستای متروکه پشکر بهبهان.jpg|alt=Date Palms in Behbahan, Iran|Date palms in a deserted village in Behbahan, Iran
File:درختان خرما، بهبهان.jpg|alt=Date palms in Behbahan, Iran|Date Palms in Behbahan
File:Date Palm, Wheat Fields, Mountains, Clouds, Balochistan, Pakistan.jpg|Date palm trees in Balochistan, Pakistan
File:The King's Mosque & Dates.jpg|Dates on palm tree outside Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan
File:Date palm in Bhopal.jpg|Date palm in Bhopal
INC, International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation
Date Palm Cultivation
(Food and Agriculture Organization)
Date Palm Products
(additional information from the FAO)
entry in Encyclopaedia Iranica
Category:Garden plants of Africa
Category:Garden plants of Asia
Category:Trees of Africa
Category:Plants in the Bible