HOME

TheInfoList




Dance is a
performing art The performing arts are arts such as music, dance, and drama which are performed for an audience. It is different from visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is ...
form Form is the shape A shape or figure is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external Surface (mathematics), surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, Surface texture, texture, or material type. A plane shape, ...

form
consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has
aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aesthetics). It examines subjective and ...

aesthetic
and often symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its
choreography Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequence In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order theory, order matters. Like a Set (mathematics), set, it contains Element (m ...

choreography
, by its repertoire of movements, or by its
historical period Periodized human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, advent of writing, from p ...
or
place of originIn Switzerland, the place of origin (german: Heimatort or Bürgerort, literally "home place" or "citizen place"; french: Lieu d'origine; it, Luogo d'origine) denotes where a Swiss citizen has their municipal citizenship. It is not to be confused wit ...
. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of
theatrical Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The pe ...
and
participatory Citizen Participation or Public Participation in social science refers to different mechanisms for the Public consultation, public to express opinions – and ideally exert influence – regarding political, economic, management or other social d ...
dance, although these two categories are not always completely separate; both may have special functions, whether
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
,
ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious ...

ceremonial
,
competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. The relationship itself may also be called "a riv ...
,
erotic Eroticism () is a quality that causes sexual feelings, as well as a philosophical contemplation concerning the aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), tas ...
,
martial Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...
, or
sacred Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of a deity; is considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspires awe or Reverence (emotion), reverence among believers. The property is often as ...
/
liturgical Liturgy is the customary public worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually directed towards a deity. For many, worship is not about an emotion, it is more about a recognition of a god. An act of worship ma ...
. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including
martial arts Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; combat sport, competition; physical, mental, and spiritual development; entertainment; an ...
,
gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit bet ...

gymnastics
,
cheerleading Cheerleading is an activity in which the participants (called cheerleaders) cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense physical activity Physical activity is defined as any voluntary bodily ...

cheerleading
,
figure skating Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform on figure skate Figure skates are a type of ice skate Ice skates are metal blades attached underfoot and used to propel the bearer across a sheet of ice while ice skat ...

figure skating
,
synchronized swimming Synchronised swimming (in Modern International English, synchronized swimming) or artistic swimming is a hybrid form of cheerleading Cheerleading is an activity in which the participants (called cheerleaders) cheer for their team as a form of ...
, marching bands, and many other forms of
athletics Athletics may refer to: Sports * Sport of athletics, a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking ** Track and field, a sub-category of the above sport * Athletics (physical culture), competitio ...
.


Performance and participation

Theatrical dance, also called performance or concert dance, is intended primarily as a spectacle, usually a
performance A performance is an act of staging or presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment. It is also defined as the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task, or function. Management science In the work place ...

performance
upon a
stage Stage or stages may refer to: Acting * Stage (theatre), a space for the performance of theatrical productions * Theatre, a branch of the performing arts, often referred to as "the stage" * ''The Stage'', a weekly British theatre newspaper * Stag ...
by
virtuoso A virtuoso (from Italian ''virtuoso'' or , "virtuous", Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of t ...
dancers. It often tells a
story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting * Story, or storey, a floor or level of a build ...

story
, perhaps using
mime #REDIRECT Mime artist A mime artist or just mime (from Greek , , "imitator, actor") is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed ...
,
costume Costume is the distinctive style of dress or cosmetic of an individual or group that reflects class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch. In short costume is a cultural visual of the people. The term also was tradition ...
and
scenery Modern-day rotating set for the play '' Noises Off''. Theatrical scenery is that which is used as a setting for a theatrical production. Scenery may be just about anything, from a single chair to an elaborately re-created street, no matter how l ...
, or else it may simply interpret the musical accompaniment, which is often specially composed and performed in a theatre setting but it is not a requirement. Examples are western
ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...

ballet
and
modern dance Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert dance, concert or theatrical dance which included dance styles such as ballet, folk, ethnic, religious, and social dancing; and primarily arose out of Europe and the United States in the late 19th ...
, Classical Indian dance such as
Bharatanatyam Bharatanatyam, also previously called Sadhir Attam, is a major form of Indian classical dance Indian classical dance is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be ...

Bharatanatyam
and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas such as
Dragon dance Dragon dance () is a form of traditional dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic va ...

Dragon dance
. Most classical forms are centered upon dance alone, but performance dance may also appear in
opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a s ...

opera
and other forms of
musical theatre Musical theatre is a form of theatrical Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience ...
. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a
folk dance A folk dance is a dance Dance is a consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has and often value. Dance can be categorized and described by its , by its repertoire of movements, ...

folk dance
, a
social dance Social dance is a category of dance Dance is a consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has and often value. Dance can be categorized and described by its , by its repertoire of ...
, a
group dance Group dances are danced by groups of people simultaneously, as opposed to individuals dancing alone or individually, and as opposed to couples dancing together but independently of others dancing at the same time, if any. The dances are ge ...
such as a
line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The Line'' (2009 film) * ''The Line'', a 2009 independent film by Nancy Schwartzman Lite ...
,
circle A circle is a shape A shape or figure is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface File:Water droplet lying on a damask.jpg, Water droplet lying on a damask. Surface tension is high enough to preven ...
,
chain A chain is a wikt:series#Noun, serial assembly of connected pieces, called links, typically made of metal, with an overall character similar to that of a rope in that it is flexible and curved in compression (physics), compression but line (g ...
or
square dance #REDIRECT Square dance #REDIRECT Square dance#REDIRECT Square dance A square dance is a dance for four couples (eight dancers in total) arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square. Square dances contain el ...
, or a
partner dance Partner dances are s whose basic choreography involves coordinated dancing of two partners, as opposed to dancing alone or individually in a non-coordinated manner, and as opposed to dancing simultaneously in a coordinated manner. United State ...
such as is common in
Western ballroom dancing
Western ballroom dancing
, is undertaken primarily for a common purpose, such as
social interaction In social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botan ...
or
exercise Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness Physical fitness is a state of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value ...

exercise
, or building flexibility of participants rather than to serve any benefit to onlookers. Such dance seldom has any narrative. A group dance and a ''
corps de ballet Image:Wiener Staatsoper Schwanensee Szene Akt4.jpg, 250px, In this scene from ''Swan Lake'', the ''corps de ballet'' is forming a "V" at the front of the stage. They are directing attention to the principal dancer in the spotlight. The dancers behin ...
'', a social partner dance and a ''
pas de deux #REDIRECT Pas de deux In ballet, a pas de deux (French language, French, literally "step of two") is a dance duet in which two dancers, typically a male and a female, perform ballet steps together. The pas de deux is characteristic of classical ...

pas de deux
'', differ profoundly. Even a
solo dance A solo dance is dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categori ...
may be undertaken solely for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers often all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the
rave culture A rave (from the verb A verb, from the Latin ''wikt:verbum#Latin, verbum'' meaning ''word'', is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''becom ...
of
electronic dance music Electronic dance music (EDM), also known as dance music, club music, or simply dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music Electronic music is music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of mel ...
, vast crowds may engage in
free dance Free dance is a 20th-century dance form that preceded modern dance. Rebelling against the rigid constraints of classical ballet, Loie Fuller, Isadora Duncan and Ruth St. Denis (with her work in theater) developed their own styles of free dance an ...
, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men, women and children may or must participate.


History

Archeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique h ...

Archeological
evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
at the
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site in central India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populo ...
, and
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...

Egyptian
tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC. It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next.Nathalie Comte. "Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World". Ed. Jonathan Dewald. Vol. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004. pp 94–108. The use of dance in
ecstatic Ecstasy (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods ...
trance states and healing rituals (as observed today in many contemporary "primitive" cultures, from the Brazilian
rainforest Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape), aboveground portion of grapevine Religi ...

rainforest
to the
Kalahari Desert The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland-grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the Canopy (forest), canopy does not close. The ope ...
) is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance.Guenther, Mathias Georg. 'The San Trance Dance: Ritual and Revitalization Among the Farm Bushmen of the Ghanzi District, Republic of Botswana.' Journal, South West Africa Scientific Society, v. 30, 1975–76. References to dance can be found in very early recorded history;
Greek dance Greek dance (''Choros (dance), horos'') is a very old tradition, being referred to by authors such as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch and Lucian. There are different styles and interpretations from all of the islands and surrounding mainland areas. Ea ...
('' horos'') is referred to by
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
,
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
,
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
and
Lucian Lucian of Samosata, '; la, Lucianus Samosatensis (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referre ...
. The
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
and
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...

Talmud
refer to many events related to dance, and contain over 30 different dance terms. In
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
pottery as early as the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, and the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the
oracle bones Oracle bones () are pieces of ox scapula In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀρ ...
. Dance is further described in the ''
Lüshi Chunqiu The ''Lüshi Chunqiu'', also known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which h ...
''. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with sorcery and shamanic rituals. During the first millennium
BCE Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.2 ...
in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life.
Bharata Muni Bharata Muni (भरत मुनि) was an ancient India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, t ...
's ''
Natyashastra The ''Nāṭya Śāstra'' (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Europ ...
'' (literally ''"the text of dramaturgy"'') is one of the earlier texts. It mainly deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture. It categorizes dance into four types--secular, ritual, abstract, and, interpretive--and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures (''
mudras A mudra (; sa, मुद्रा, , "seal", "mark", or "gesture"; ,) is a symbolic or ritual gesture or pose in Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, world's thir ...

mudras
'') and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, ritual, and, notably, the
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
entertainment industry. Many other
contemporary dance Contemporary dance is a genre of dance performance that developed during the mid-twentieth century and has since grown to become one of the dominant genres for formally trained dancers throughout the world, with particularly strong popularity in t ...
forms can likewise be traced back to
historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems ar ...
,
traditional A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes about the wo ...

traditional
,
ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious ...

ceremonial
, and
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously a ...
dance.


Music

Dance is generally, however not exclusively, performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed ''in
time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'' to such music. Some dance (such as
tap dance Tap dance is a type of dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be ...
) may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of (or in addition to) music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are frequently performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the
jig The jig ( ga, port, gd, port-cruinn) is a form of lively folk dance in Metre (music)#Compound metre, compound metre, as well as the accompanying dance tune (folk music), tune. It is most associated with Irish music and dance. It first gained ...
,
waltz The waltz ( ), meaning "to roll or revolve", is a ballroom dance, ballroom and folk dance, normally in 3/4 time, time, performed primarily in closed position. History There are many references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evol ...

waltz
,
tango .Blatter, Alfred (2007). ''Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice'', p.28. . Tango is a partner dance and social dance that originated in the 1880s along the Río de la Plata The Río de la Plata (, "river of silver"), called Rive ...
,
disco Disco is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally s ...

disco
, and salsa. Some
musical genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, although in practice these terms are somet ...
s have a parallel dance form such as
baroque music Baroque music ( or ) is a period or style of Western classical music Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both Religious music, liturgical (Religion, religious) and secular music, sec ...
and
baroque dance Baroque dance is dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categoriz ...
; other varieties of dance and music may share nomenclature but developed separately, such as
classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various s, s and , depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of , , and ...
and
classical ballet Classical ballet is any of the traditional, formal styles of ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France a ...
. The choreography and music go hand in hand, as they complement each other to express a story told by the choreographer and or dancers.


Rhythm

Rhythm Rhythm (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximatel ...
and dance are deeply linked in history and practice. The American dancer
Ted Shawn Ted Shawn (born Edwin Myers Shawn; 21 October 1891 – 9 January 1972) was one of the first notable male pioneers of American modern dance. Along with creating the Denishawn School with former wife Ruth St. Denis he was also responsible for the c ...
wrote; "The conception of rhythm which underlies all studies of the dance is something about which we could talk forever, and still not finish."Shawn, Ted, ''Dance We Must'', 1946, Dennis Dobson Ltd., London, p. 50 A musical rhythm requires two main elements; first, a regularly-repeating
pulse In medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge) ...

pulse
(also called the "beat" or "tactus") that establishes the
tempo In musical terminology This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes. Most of the terms are Italian (see also Italian musical terms used in English Many musical terms ...

tempo
and, second, a pattern of
accentsAccent may refer to: Speech and language * Accent (sociolinguistics), way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or group of speakers * Accent (phonetics), prominence given to a particular syllable in a word, or a word in a phrase ** Pitch accen ...
and rests that establishes the character of the metre or basic rhythmic pattern. The basic pulse is roughly equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances generally have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern. The tango, for example, is usually danced in time at approximately 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one measure. The basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so counted – "slow-slow" – while many additional figures are counted "slow – quick-quick. Just as musical rhythms are defined by a pattern of strong and weak beats, so repetitive body movements often depend on alternating "strong" and "weak" muscular movements.Lincoln Kirstein, ''Dance'', Dance Horizons Incorporated, New York, 1969, p. 4 Given this alternation of left-right, of forward-backward and rise-fall, along with the
bilateral symmetry Symmetry in biology refers to the symmetry observed in organisms, including plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. External symmetry can be easily seen by just looking at an organism. For example, take the face of a human being which has a pla ...
of the human body, it is natural that many dances and much music are in
duple and quadruple meter Duple metre (or Am. duple meter, also known as duple time) is a musical metre The metre (British English, Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American English, American spelling; American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, see spe ...
. Since some such movements require more time in one phase than the other – such as the longer time required to lift a hammer than to strike – some dance rhythms fall equally naturally into
triple metre Triple metre (or Am. triple meter, also known as triple time) is a musical metre The metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American spelling Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different ...
. Occasionally, as in the folk dances of the Balkans, dance traditions depend heavily on more complex rhythms. Further, complex dances composed of a fixed sequence of steps always require phrases and melodies of a certain fixed length to accompany that sequence. The very act of dancing, the steps themselves, generate an "initial skeleton of rhythmic beats" that must have preceded any separate musical accompaniment, while dance itself, as much as music, requires time-keeping just as utilitarian repetitive movements such as walking, hauling and digging take on, as they become refined, something of the quality of dance. Musical accompaniment, therefore, arose in the earliest dance, so that ancient Egyptians attributed the origin of the dance to the divine Athotus, who was said to have observed that music accompanying religious rituals caused participants to move rhythmically and to have brought these movements into proportional measure. The same idea, that dance arises from musical rhythm, is still found in
renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

renaissance
Europe in the works of the dancing master
Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro (c. 1420 – c. 1484) was a Jewish Italian dancer and dancing master at some of the most influential courts in Renaissance Italy, including Naples, Urbino, Milan, and Ferrara. His byname ''wikt:ebreo, Ebreo'' means simp ...
who speaks of dance as a physical movement that arises from and expresses inward, spiritual motion agreeing with the "measures and perfect concords of harmony" that fall upon the human ear, while, earlier,
Mechthild of Magdeburg Mechthild (or Mechtild, Matilda, Matelda) of Magdeburg (c. 1207 – c. 1282/1294), a Beguine, was a Christian medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, ...
, seizing upon dance as a symbol of the holy life foreshadowed in Jesus' saying "I have piped and ye have not danced", writes;
Thoinot Arbeau Thoinot Arbeau is the anagrammatic pen name of French cleric Jehan Tabourot (March 17, 1520 – July 23, 1595). Tabourot is most famous for his ''Orchésographie'', a study of late sixteenth-century French Renaissance social dance. He was born ...
's celebrated 16th-century dance-treatise ''Orchésographie'', indeed, begins with definitions of over eighty distinct drum-rhythms. As has been shown above, dance has been represented through the ages as having emerged as a response to music yet, as
Lincoln Kirstein Lincoln Edward Kirstein (May 4, 1907 – January 5, 1996) was an American writer, impresario, art connoisseur, philanthropist, and cultural figure in New York City, noted especially as co-founder of the New York City Ballet. He developed and susta ...
implied, it is at least as likely that primitive music arose from dance. Shawn concurs, stating that dance "was the first art of the human race, and the matrix out of which all other arts grew" and that even the "
metre The metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American spelling Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English ...
in our poetry today is a result of the accents necessitated by body movement, as the dancing and reciting was performed simultaneously" – an assertion somewhat supported by the common use of the term "foot" to describe the fundamental rhythmic units of poetry. Scholes, not a dancer but a musician, offers support for this view, stating that the steady measures of music, of two, three or four beats to the bar, its equal and balanced phrases, regular cadences, contrasts and repetitions, may all be attributed to the "incalculable" influence of dance upon music. Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, primarily a musician and teacher, relates how a study of the physical movements of pianists led him "to the discovery that musical sensations of a rhythmic nature call for the muscular and nervous response of the whole organism", to develop "a special training designed to regulate nervous reactions and effect a co-ordination of muscles and nerves" and ultimately to seek the connections between "the art of music and the art of dance", which he formulated into his system of
eurhythmics Dalcroze eurhythmics, also known as the Dalcroze method or simply eurhythmics, is one of several developmental approaches including the Kodály method, Orff Schulwerk and Suzuki Method used to teach music to students. Eurhythmics was developed ...
. He concluded that "musical rhythm is only the transposition into sound of movements and dynamisms spontaneously and involuntarily expressing emotion". Hence, though doubtless, as Shawn asserts, "it is quite possible to develop the dance without music and... music is perfectly capable of standing on its own feet without any assistance from the dance", nevertheless the "two arts will always be related and the relationship can be profitable both to the dance and to music", the precedence of one art over the other being a moot point. The common ballad measures of hymns and folk-songs takes their name from dance, as does the carol, originally a
circle dance Circle dance, or chain dance, is a style of social dance Social dance is a category of dance Dance is a consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has and often value. Dance ...
. Many purely musical pieces have been named "
waltz The waltz ( ), meaning "to roll or revolve", is a ballroom dance, ballroom and folk dance, normally in 3/4 time, time, performed primarily in closed position. History There are many references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evol ...

waltz
" or "
minuet A minuet (; also spelled menuet) is a social dance Social dance is a category of dances that have a social function and context. Social dances are intended for participation rather than Concert dance, performance and can be Lead and follow, l ...
", for example, while many
concert dance 300px, Ballet dancers executing ''grand jetes'' during a concert dance performance. Concert dance (also known as performance dance or theatre dance in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly know ...
s have been produced that are based upon abstract musical pieces, such as '' 2 and 3 Part Inventions, Adams Violin Concerto'' and ''Andantino (ballet), Andantino''. Similarly, poems are often structured and named after dances or musical works, while dance and music have both drawn their conception of "measure" or "metre" from poetry. Shawn quotes with approval the statement of Dalcroze that, while the art of musical rhythm consists in differentiating and combining time durations, pauses and accents "according to physiological law", that of "plastic rhythm" (i.e. dance) "is to designate movement in space, to interpret long time-values by slow movements and short ones by quick movements, regulate pauses by their divers successions and express sound accentuations in their multiple nuances by additions of bodily weight, by means of muscular innervations". Shawn nevertheless points out that the system of musical time is a "man-made, artificial thing.... a manufactured tool, whereas rhythm is something that has always existed and depends on man not at all", being "the continuous flowing time which our human minds cut up into convenient units", suggesting that music might be revivified by a return to the values and the time-perception of dancing. The early-20th-century American dancer Helen Moller stated simply that "it is rhythm and form more than harmony and color which, from the beginning, has bound music, poetry and dancing together in a union that is indissoluble."


Approaches


Theatrical

Concert dance, like
opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a s ...

opera
, generally depends for its large-scale form upon a narrative dramatic structure. The movements and gestures of the
choreography Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequence In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order theory, order matters. Like a Set (mathematics), set, it contains Element (m ...

choreography
are primarily intended to mime the personality and aims of the characters and their part in the plot. Such theatrical requirements tend towards longer, freer movements than those usual in non-narrative dance styles. On the other hand, the ''ballet blanc'', developed in the 19th century, allows interludes of rhythmic dance that developed into entirely "plotless" ballets in the 20th century and that allowed fast, rhythmic dance-steps such as those of the ''petit allegro''. A well-known example is ''Danse des petits cygnes, The Cygnets' Dance'' in act two of ''Swan Lake''. The
ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...

ballet
developed out of courtly dramatic productions of 16th- and 17th-century France and Italy and for some time dancers performed dances developed from those familiar from the musical suite, all of which were defined by definite rhythms closely identified with each dance. These appeared as character dances in the era of romantic nationalism. Ballet reached widespread vogue in the romantic era, accompanied by a larger orchestra and grander musical conceptions that did not lend themselves easily to rhythmic clarity and by dance that emphasised dramatic mime. A broader concept of rhythm was needed, that which Rudolf Laban terms the "rhythm and shape" of movement that communicates character, emotion and intention, while only certain scenes required the exact synchronisation of step and music essential to other dance styles, so that, to Laban, modern Europeans seemed totally unable to grasp the meaning of "primitive rhythmic movements", a situation that began to change in the 20th century with such productions as Igor Stravinsky's ''The Rite of Spring'' with its new rhythmic language evoking primal feelings of a primitive past. Indian classical dance styles, like ballet, are often in dramatic form, so that there is a similar complementarity between narrative expression and "pure" dance. In this case, the two are separately defined, though not always separately performed. The rhythmic elements, which are abstract and technical, are known as ''nritta''. Both this and expressive dance ''(nritya)'', though, are closely tied to the rhythmic system (''Tala (music), tala''). Teachers have adapted the spoken rhythmic mnemonic system called ''Bol (music), bol'' to the needs of dancers. Japanese classical dance-theatre styles such as Kabuki and Noh, like Indian dance-drama, distinguish between narrative and abstract dance productions. The three main categories of kabuki are ''jidaimono'' (historical), ''sewamono'' (domestic) and ''shosagoto'' (dance pieces). Somewhat similarly, Noh distinguishes between ''Geki Noh'', based around the advancement of plot and the narration of action, and ''Furyū Noh'', dance pieces involving acrobatics, stage properties, multiple characters and elaborate stage action.


Participatory and social

Social dances, those intended for participation rather than for an audience, may include various forms of mime and narrative, but are typically set much more closely to the rhythmic pattern of music, so that terms like
waltz The waltz ( ), meaning "to roll or revolve", is a ballroom dance, ballroom and folk dance, normally in 3/4 time, time, performed primarily in closed position. History There are many references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evol ...

waltz
and polka refer as much to musical pieces as to the dance itself. The rhythm of the dancers' feet may even form an essential part of the music, as in
tap dance Tap dance is a type of dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be ...
. African dance, for example, is rooted in fixed basic steps, but may also allow a high degree of rhythmic interpretation: the feet or the trunk mark the basic pulse while cross-rhythms are picked up by shoulders, knees, or head, with the best dancers simultaneously giving plastic expression to all the elements of the polyrhythmic pattern.


Cultural traditions


Africa

Dance in Africa is deeply integrated into society and major events in a community are frequently reflected in dances: dances are performed for births and funerals, weddings and wars. Traditional dances impart cultural morals, including religious traditions and sexual standards; give vent to repressed emotions, such as grief; motivate community members to cooperate, whether fighting wars or grinding grain; enact spiritual rituals; and contribute to structural cohesion, social cohesiveness. Thousands of dances are performed around the continent. These may be divided into traditional, neotraditional, and classical styles: folklore, folkloric dances of a particular society, dances created more recently in imitation of traditional styles, and dances transmitted more formally in schools or private lessons. African dance has been altered by many forces, such as European missionaries and colonialist governments, who often suppressed local dance traditions as licentious or distracting. Dance in contemporary African cultures still serves its traditional functions in new contexts; dance may celebrate the inauguration of a hospital, build community for rural migrants in unfamiliar cities, and be incorporated into Christian church ceremonies.


Asia

All Classical Indian dance, Indian classical dances are to varying degrees rooted in the ''
Natyashastra The ''Nāṭya Śāstra'' (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Europ ...
'' and therefore share common features: for example, the ''mudra''s (hand positions), some body positions, leg movement and the inclusion of dramatic or expressive acting or abhinaya. Indian classical music provides accompaniment and dancers of nearly all the styles wear bells around their ankles to counterpoint and complement the percussion. There are now many regional varieties of Indian classical dance. Dances like ''"Odra Magadhi"'', which after decades-long debate, has been traced to present day Mithila, Odisha region's dance form of Odissi (Orissi), indicate influence of dances in cultural interactions between different regions. The Punjab region, Punjab area overlapping India and Pakistan is the place of origin of Bhangra (dance), Bhangra. It is widely known both as a style of music and a dance. It is mostly related to ancient harvest celebrations, love, patriotism or social issues. Its music is coordinated by a musical instrument called the 'Dhol'. Bhangra is not just music but a dance, a celebration of the harvest where people beat the dhol (drum), sing Boliyaan (lyrics) and dance. It developed further with the Vaisakhi festival of the Sikhs. The dances of Sri Lanka include the devil dances (''yakun natima''), a carefully crafted ritual reaching far back into Sri Lanka's pre-Buddhist past that combines ancient "Ayurvedic" concepts of disease causation with psychological manipulation and combines many aspects including Sinhalese cosmology. Their influence can be seen on the classical dances of Sri Lanka. Dances in Indonesia, Indonesian dances reflect the richness and diversity of Indonesian ethnic groups and Culture of Indonesia, cultures. There are more than 1,300 ethnic groups in Indonesia, it can be seen from the cultural roots of the Austronesian people, Austronesian and Melanesian peoples, and various cultural influences from Asia and the west. Dances in Indonesia originate from ritual movements and religious ceremonies, this kind of dance usually begins with rituals, such as war dances, shaman dances to cure or ward off disease, dances to call rain and other types of dances. With the acceptance of dharma religion in the 1st century in Indonesia, Hinduism and Buddhist rituals were celebrated in various artistic performances. Hindu epics such as the Ramayana, Mahabharata and also the Panji tales, Panji became the inspiration to be shown in a dance-drama called "Sendratari" resembling "Ramayana Ballet, ballet" in the western tradition. An elaborate and highly stylized dance method was invented and has survived to this day, especially on the islands of Java and Bali. The Javanese Wayang wong dance takes footage from the Ramayana or Mahabharata episodes, but this dance is very different from the Indian version, indonesian dances do not pay as much attention to the "mudras" as Indian dances: even more to show local forms. The sacred Javanese people, Javanese ritual dance Bedhaya is believed to date back to the Majapahit period in the 14th century or even earlier, this dance originated from ritual dances performed by virgin girls to worship Hindu Gods such as Shiva, Brahma, and Vishnu. In Bali, dance has become an integral part of the sacred Hindu Dharma rituals. Some experts believe that Balinese dance comes from an older dance tradition from Java. Reliefs from temples in East Java from the 14th century feature crowns and headdresses similar to the headdresses used in Balinese dance today. Islam began to spread to the Indonesian archipelago when indigenous dances and dharma dances were still popular. Artists and dancers still use styles from the previous era, replacing stories with more Islamic interpretations and clothing that is more closed according to Islamic teachings. The Middle Eastern dance, dances of the Middle East are usually the traditional forms of circle dance, circle dancing which are modernized to an extent. They would include dabke, tamzara, Assyrian folk dance, Kurdish dance, Armenian dance and Turkish dance, among others.Badley, Bill and Zein al Jundi. "Europe Meets Asia". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp. 391–395. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. All these forms of dances would usually involve participants engaging each other by holding hands or arms (depending on the style of the dance). They would make rhythmic moves with their legs and shoulders as they curve around the dance floor. The head of the dance would generally hold a Walking stick, cane or handkerchief.


Europe and North America

Folk dances vary across Europe and may date back hundreds or thousands of years, but many have features in common such as group dance, group participation led by a Caller (dancing), caller, hand-holding or arm-linking between participants, and fixed musical forms known as caroles. Some, such as the maypole dance are common to many nations, while others such as the céilidh and the polka are deeply-rooted in a single culture. Some European folk dances such as the
square dance #REDIRECT Square dance #REDIRECT Square dance#REDIRECT Square dance A square dance is a dance for four couples (eight dancers in total) arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square. Square dances contain el ...
were brought to the New World and subsequently became part of American culture. Ballet developed first in Italy and then in France from lavish court spectacles that combined music, drama, poetry, song, costumes and dance. Members of the court nobility took part as performers. During the reign of Louis XIV, himself a dancer, dance became more codified. Professional dancers began to take the place of court amateurs, and ballet masters were licensed by the French government. The first ballet dance academy was the Académie Royale de Danse (Royal Dance Academy), opened in Paris in 1661. Shortly thereafter, the first institutionalized ballet troupe, associated with the Academy, was formed; this troupe began as an all-male ensemble but by 1681 opened to include women as well. 20th century concert dance brought an explosion of innovation in dance style characterized by an exploration of freer technique. Early pioneers of what became known as
modern dance Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert dance, concert or theatrical dance which included dance styles such as ballet, folk, ethnic, religious, and social dancing; and primarily arose out of Europe and the United States in the late 19th ...
include Loie Fuller, Isadora Duncan, Mary Wigman and Ruth St. Denis. The relationship of music to dance serves as the basis for Eurhythmics, devised by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, which was influential to the development of Modern dance and modern ballet through artists such as Marie Rambert. Eurythmy, developed by Rudolf Steiner and Marie Steiner-von Sivers, combines formal elements reminiscent of traditional dance with the new freer style, and introduced a complex new vocabulary to dance. In the 1920s, important founders of the new style such as Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey began their work. Since this time, a wide variety of dance styles have been developed; see Modern dance. African American dance developed in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. Tap dance,
disco Disco is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally s ...

disco
, jazz dance, swing dance, hip hop dance, the lindy hop with its relationship to rock and roll, rock and roll music and rock and roll (dance), rock and roll dance have had a global influence. Dance styles fusing classical ballet technique with African-American dance have also appeared in the 21st century, including Hiplet (dance style), Hiplet.


Latin America

Dance is central to Latin American social life and culture. Brazilian Samba (Brazilian dance), Samba, Argentinian tango, and Cuban salsa (dance), salsa are internationally popular partner dances, and other national dances—merengue (dance), merengue, cueca, plena, jarabe, joropo, marinera, cumbia, Bachata (dance), bachata and others—are important components of their respective countries' cultures. Traditional Carnival festivals incorporate these and other dances in enormous celebrations. Dance has played an important role in forging a collective identity among the many cultural and ethnic groups of Latin America. Dance served to unite the many African, European, and indigenous peoples of the region. Certain dance genres, such as capoeira, and body movements, especially the characteristic ''quebrada (dance), quebradas'' or pelvis swings, have been variously banned and celebrated throughout Latin American history.


Education

Dance studies are offered through the arts and humanities programs of many higher education institutions. Some universities offer Bachelor of Arts and higher academic degrees in Dance. A dance study curriculum may encompass a diverse range of courses and topics, including dance practice and performance, choreography, ethnochoreology, kinesiology, dance notation, and dance therapy. Most recently, dance and movement therapy has been integrated in some schools into math lessons for students with learning disabilities, emotional/behavioral disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


Occupations


Dancers

Professional dancers are usually employed on contract or for particular performances or productions. The professional life of a dancer is generally one of constantly changing work situations, strong competitive pressure and low pay. Consequently, professional dancers often must supplement their incomes to achieve financial stability. In the U.S. many professional dancers belong to unions (such as the American Guild of Musical Artists, Screen Actors Guild and Actors' Equity Association) that establish working conditions and minimum salaries for their members. Professional dancers must possess large amounts of athleticism. To lead a successful career, it is advantageous to be versatile in many styles of dance, have a strong technical background and to utilize other forms of physical training to remain fit and healthy. A study focused on dance participation and attendance in Denmark found that dancers typically attend more dance performances and have a lower income than non-dancers. The study also found that dancers consume books and video games significantly more, while not using the internet to the same degree as non-dancers.


Teachers

Dance teachers typically focus on teaching dance performance, or coaching competitive dancers, or both. They typically have performance experience in the types of dance they teach or coach. For example, dancesport teachers and coaches are often tournament dancers or former dancesport performers. Dance teachers may be self-employed, or employed by dance schools or general education institutions with dance programs. Some work for university programs or other schools that are associated with professional classical dance (e.g., ballet) or modern dance companies. Others are employed by smaller, privately owned dance schools that offer dance training and performance coaching for various types of dance.


Choreographers

Choreography (dance), Choreographers are the ones that design the dancing movements within a dance, they are often university trained and are typically employed for particular projects or, more rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a specific dance company.


Competitions

A dance competition is an organized event in which contestants perform dances before a judge or judges for awards, and in some cases, monetary prizes. There are several major types of dance competitions, distinguished primarily by the style or styles of dances performed. Major types of dance competitions include: * Dancesport, which is focused exclusively on ballroom dance, ballroom and latin dance. * Competitive dance, in which a variety of theater dance styles, such as acro dance, acro,
ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...

ballet
, jazz dance, jazz, hip-hop, lyrical dance, lyrical, and tap dance, tap, are permitted. * Single-style competitions, such as; Scottish highland dance, highland dance, dance squad, dance team, and Irish dance, that only permit a single dance style. * Open competitions, that permit a wide variety of dance styles. An example of this is the TV program ''So You Think You Can Dance''. *Olympic, Dance has been trying to be part of the Olympic sport since 1930s. In addition, there are numerous dance competitions shows Dance on television, presented on television and other mass media.


Gallery

File:Irish dancers in team costume, Davis Academy, USA.jpg, Folk dance – a trio of Irish Stepdancers performing in competition File:TÜRKA Vanemuise suures majas -- tants Kodukotus.JPG, Folk dance in Estonia File:NwFusionAngelaLeap.jpg, A contemporary dancer performs a stag split leap. File:NWFusion7.jpg, Dance partnering – a male dancer assists a female dancer in performing an arabesque (ballet position), arabesque, as part of a classical
pas de deux #REDIRECT Pas de deux In ballet, a pas de deux (French language, French, literally "step of two") is a dance duet in which two dancers, typically a male and a female, perform ballet steps together. The pas de deux is characteristic of classical ...

pas de deux
. File:FrontAerial.gif, Acrobatic dance – an acro dancer performs a front aerial. File:ToeRise.jpg, A dancer performs a "toe rise", in which she rises from a kneeling position to a standing position on the tops of her feet. File:Jitterbug Wolcott FSA.jpg, Social dance – dancers at a juke joint dance the Jitterbug, an early 20th century dance that would go on to influence Swing dance, swing, jive (dance), jive, and jazz dance. File:Tanzturnier_28.JPG, Latin Ballroom dancers perform the Tango. File:Bootsa.jpg, Gumboot dance evolved from the stomping signals used as coded communication between labourers in South African mines. File:Harlekin Columbine Tivoli Denmark.jpg, Harlequin and Columbina from the mime theater in Copenhagen, Denmark File:Popping dancer.gif, A hip-hop dancer demonstrates popping (dance), popping. File:Striptease pole dancing in Belovskaya, Belgorodskaya Oblast, Russia.jpg, Erotic dance – a pole dancer performs a routine. File:Spark Fire Dance in Art on Ice 2014-3.jpg, Prop dance – a fire dancer performance File:Imdt01.jpg, Modern dance – a female dancer performs a splits, leg split while balanced on the back of her partner. File:Belogolovtsev Abderahman.jpg, Stage dance – a professional dancer at the Bolshoi Theatre File:La bailaora Josefa Vargas (1840).jpg, A nineteenth century artist's representation of a Flamenco dancer File:Պար_Գառնում.jpg, Ritual dance – Armenian folk dancers celebrate a neo-pagan new year. File:Samba Atlason Jakobsdottir 0509.JPG, A latin ballroom couple perform a Samba (ballroom dance), Samba routine at a dancesport event. File:Polonezkoy_08859_nevit.jpg, Folk dance – some dance traditions travel with immigrant communities, as with this festival dance performed by a Polish community in Turkey. File:Fuori asse alla seconda.jpg, A ballet dancer performs a standing Splits, side split. File:Breakdancer - Faneuil Hall cropped.jpg, Street dance – a Breakdancer performs a handstand trick. File:Odissi Performance DS.jpg, Indian classical dancer File:Ballet Class 3 (237261875).jpeg, Ballet class of young girls wearing leotards and skirts in 2017 File:Tari Kebagh, 2017.jpg, ''Kebagh'' dance from Pagar Alam, Indonesia File:50 tahun LKB Saraswati, Jakarta.jpg, Balinese people, Balinese dance


See also

* Art * Outline of performing arts * Outline of dance * Index of dance articles * List of dance awards *Human body


Notes


References


Further reading

* Abra, Allison. "Going to the palais: a social and cultural history of dancing and dance halls in Britain, 1918–1960." ''Contemporary British History'' (Sep 2016) 30#3 pp. 432–433. * Blogg, Martin. ''Dance and the Christian Faith: A Form of Knowing'', The Lutterworth Press (2011), * Carter, A. (1998) ''The Routledge Dance Studies Reader''. Routledge. . * Cohen, S, J. (1992) ''Dance As a Theatre Art: Source Readings in Dance History from 1581 to the Present''. Princeton Book Co. . * Daly, A. (2002) ''Critical Gestures: Writings on Dance and Culture''. Wesleyan University Press. . * Miller, James, L. (1986) ''Measures of Wisdom: The Cosmic Dance in Classical and Christian Antiquity'', University of Toronto Press. .


External links

*
Historic illustrations of dancing from 3300 BC to 1911 AD
from Project Gutenberg
United States National Museum of Dance and Hall of Fame
{{Authority control Dance, Entertainment occupations Theatrical occupations Articles containing video clips Performing arts