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Cyberspace is a concept describing a widespread interconnected digital technology. "The expression dates back from the first decade of the diffusion of the internet. It refers to the online world as a world 'apart', as distinct from everyday reality. In cyberspace people can hide behind fake identities, as in the famous The New Yorker cartoon." (Delfanti, Arvidsson, 150) The term entered popular culture from science fiction and the arts but is now used by technology strategists, security professionals, government, military and industry leaders and entrepreneurs to describe the domain of the global technology environment, commonly defined as standing for the global network of interdependent information technology infrastructures,
telecommunications network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot") or a point of intersection (a Vertex (graph theory), vertex). Node may refer to: In mathematics *Vertex (graph theory), a vertex in a mathema ...
s and
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
processing systems. Others consider cyberspace to be just a notional environment in which communication over
computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wire ...
s occurs. The word became popular in the 1990s when the use of the Internet, networking, and digital communication were all growing dramatically; the term ''cyberspace'' was able to represent the many new ideas and phenomena that were emerging. As a social experience, individuals can interact, exchange ideas, share information, provide social support, conduct business, direct actions, create artistic media, play games, engage in political discussion, and so on, using this global network. They are sometimes referred to as ''cybernauts''. The term ''cyberspace'' has become a conventional means to describe anything associated with the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
and the diverse
Internet culture Internet culture, or cyberculture, is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, custom ...
. The United States government recognizes the interconnected information technology and the interdependent network of information technology infrastructures operating across this medium as part of the US national
critical infrastructure Critical infrastructure (or critical national infrastructure (CNI) in the UK) is a term used by governments to describe assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy – the infrastructure. Most commonly associated with ...
. Amongst individuals on cyberspace, there is believed to be a code of shared rules and ethics mutually beneficial for all to follow, referred to as
cyberethics Cyberethics is the philosophy, philosophic study of ethics pertaining to computers, encompassing user behavior and what computers are programmed to do, and how this affects individuals and society. For years, various governments have enacted regula ...
. Many view the
right to privacy The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and ...
as most important to a functional code of
cyberethics Cyberethics is the philosophy, philosophic study of ethics pertaining to computers, encompassing user behavior and what computers are programmed to do, and how this affects individuals and society. For years, various governments have enacted regula ...
.Richard A. Spinello
''"Cyberethics: Morality and Law in Cyberspace"''
/ref> Such moral responsibilities go hand in hand when working online with global networks, specifically, when opinions are involved with online social experiences.White House
''"The National Strategy To Secure Cyberspace"''
/ref> According to
Chip Morningstar Chip Morningstar is an American author, developer, software programmer and designer of software systems, mainly for online entertainment and communication. Morningstar held many jobs throughout his career in the research and development of technol ...
and F. Randall Farmer, cyberspace is defined more by the social interactions involved rather than its technical implementation. In their view, the computational medium in cyberspace is an augmentation of the communication channel between real people; the core characteristic of cyberspace is that it offers an environment that consists of many participants with the ability to affect and influence each other. They derive this concept from the observation that people seek richness, complexity, and depth within a virtual world.


Origins of the term

The term "cyberspace" first appeared in the visual arts in the late 1960s, when Danish artist
Susanne Ussing Susanne Ussing (November 29, 1940 – March 8, 1998) was a Denmark, Danish artist, architect and ceramicist. The feminine world fascinated her. A large portion of her works were created with organic materials. With her husband, Carsten Hoff, the ...
(1940-1998) and her partner architect Carsten Hoff (b. 1934) constituted themselves as Atelier Cyberspace. Under this name the two made a series of installations and images entitled "sensory spaces" that were based on the principle of open systems adaptable to various influences, such as human movement and the behaviour of new materials. Atelier Cyberspace worked at a time when the Internet did not exist and computers were more or less off-limit to artists and creative engagement. In a 2015-interview with Scandinavian art magazine Kunstkritikk, Carsten Hoff recollects, that although Atelier Cyberspace did try to implement computers, they had no interest in the virtual space as such: And in the same interview Hoff continues: The works of Atelier Cyberspace were originally shown at a number of Copenhagen venues and have later been exhibited at The National Gallery of Denmark in Copenhagen as part of the exhibition "What's Happening?" The term "cyberspace" first appeared in fiction in the 1980s in the work of
cyberpunk Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a dystopian Futurism, futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of low-life, lowlife and high tech", featuring futuristic technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial ...
science fiction author
William Gibson William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as ''cyberpunk''. Beginning his writing career in the late 1970s, his ea ...

William Gibson
, first in his 1982 short story "
Burning Chrome "Burning Chrome" is a science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination.'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is ...
" and later in his 1984 novel ''
Neuromancer ''Neuromancer'' is a 1984 science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and tech ...
''. In the next few years, the word became prominently identified with online computer networks. The portion of ''Neuromancer'' cited in this respect is usually the following: Now widely used, the term has since been criticized by Gibson, who commented on the origin of the term in the 2000 documentary ''
No Maps for These Territories ''No Maps for These Territories'' is an independent documentary film made by Mark Neale focusing on the speculative fiction author William Gibson. It features appearances by Jack Womack, Bruce Sterling, Bono, and The Edge and was released by Docuram ...
'':


Metaphorical

Don Slater uses a metaphor to define cyberspace, describing the "sense of a social setting that exists purely within a space of representation and communication ... it exists entirely within a computer space, distributed across increasingly complex and fluid networks." The term "Cyberspace" started to become a de facto synonym for the Internet, and later the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...
, during the 1990s, especially in academic circles and activist communities. Author
Bruce Sterling Michael Bruce Sterling (born April 14, 1954) is an American science fiction author known for his novels and short fiction and editorship of the '' Mirrorshades'' anthology. Sterling's first science fiction story, ''Man-Made Self'', was sold in 1 ...

Bruce Sterling
, who popularized this meaning, credits
John Perry Barlow John Perry Barlow (October 3, 1947February 7, 2018) was an American poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aest ...

John Perry Barlow
as the first to use it to refer to "the present-day nexus of computer and telecommunications networks". Barlow describes it thus in his essay to announce the formation of the
Electronic Frontier Foundation The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit group based in . The foundation was formed on 10 July 1990 by , and to promote . The EFF provides funds for legal defense in court, presents ' briefs, defends individual ...
(note the spatial metaphor) in June 1990: As Barlow, and the EFF continued public education efforts to promote the idea of "
digital rights Digital rights are those human rights Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 ...
", the term was increasingly used during the Internet boom of the late 1990s.


Virtual environments

Although the present-day, loose use of the term "cyberspace" no longer implies or suggests immersion in a virtual reality, current technology allows the integration of a number of capabilities (sensors, signals, connections, transmissions, processors, and controllers) sufficient to generate a virtual interactive experience that is accessible regardless of a geographic location. It is for these reasons cyberspace has been described as the ultimate
tax haven A tax haven is a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation for foreign investors ("headline" rates may be higher). In some traditional definitions, a tax haven also offers Bank secrecy, financial secrecy. However, while countries wi ...
. In 1989,
Autodesk Autodesk, Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
, an American multinational corporation that focuses on 2D and 3D design software, developed a virtual design system called Cyberspace.


Recent definitions of Cyberspace

Although several definitions of cyberspace can be found both in scientific literature and in official governmental sources, there is no fully agreed official definition yet. According to F. D. Kramer there are 28 different definitions of the term cyberspace. See in particular the following links: "Cyberpower and National Security: Policy Recommendations for a Strategic Framework," in Cyberpower and National Security, FD Kramer, S. Starr, L.K. Wentz (ed.), National Defense University Press, Washington (DC) 2009; see also Mayer, M., Chiarugi, I., De Scalzi, N., https://www.academia.edu/14336129/International_Politics_in_the_Digital_Age. The most recent draft definition is the following: The
Joint Chiefs of Staff The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is the body of the most senior uniformed leaders within the United States Department of Defense, that advises the president of the United States, the United States Secretary of Defense, secretary of defense, th ...
of the
United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity ...
define cyberspace as one of five interdependent domains, the remaining four being land, air, maritime, and space. ''See
United States Cyber Command United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) is one of the eleven unified combatant commands of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). It unifies the direction of cyberspace operations, strengthens DoD cyberspace capabilities, and integrat ...

United States Cyber Command
''


Cyberspace as an Internet metaphor

While cyberspace should not be confused with the Internet, the term is often used to refer to objects and identities that exist largely within the communication network itself, so that a
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hyperte ...

website
, for example, might be metaphorically said to "exist in cyberspace". According to this interpretation, events taking place on the Internet are not happening in the locations where participants or servers are physically located, but "in cyberspace". The philosopher
Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault (, ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philosopher, History of ideas, historian of ideas, writer, political activist, and Literary criticism, literary critic. Foucault's theories primarily address the relationship ...

Michel Foucault
used the term heterotopias, to describe such spaces which are simultaneously physical and mental. Firstly, cyberspace describes the flow of digital data through the network of interconnected computers: it is at once not "real", since one could not spatially locate it as a tangible object, and clearly "real" in its effects. There have been several attempts to create a concise model about how cyberspace works since it is not a physical thing that can be looked at. Secondly, cyberspace is the site of
computer-mediated communication Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applicatio ...
(CMC), in which online relationships and alternative forms of online identity were enacted, raising important questions about the social psychology of Internet use, the relationship between "online" and "offline" forms of life and interaction, and the relationship between the "real" and the virtual. Cyberspace draws attention to remediation of culture through
new media New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can p ...
technologies: it is not just a communication tool but a social destination and is culturally significant in its own right. Finally, cyberspace can be seen as providing new opportunities to reshape society and culture through "hidden" identities, or it can be seen as borderless communication and culture. The "space" in cyberspace has more in common with the abstract, mathematical meanings of the term (see
space Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Gre ...

space
) than physical space. It does not have the duality of positive and negative volume (while in physical space, for example, a room has the negative volume of usable space delineated by positive volume of walls, Internet users cannot enter the screen and explore the unknown part of the Internet as an extension of the space they are in), but spatial meaning can be attributed to the relationship between different
page Page most commonly refers to: * Page (paper) A page is one side of a leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. T ...

page
s (of books as well as
web server A web server is computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...
s), considering the unturned pages to be somewhere "out there." The concept of cyberspace, therefore, refers not to the content being presented to the surfer, but rather to the possibility of surfing among different sites, with between the user and the rest of the system creating the potential to always encounter something unknown or unexpected.
Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s differ from text-based communication in that on-screen images are meant to be figures that actually occupy a space and the animation shows the movement of those figures. Images are supposed to form the positive volume that delineates the empty space. A game adopts the cyberspace metaphor by engaging more players in the game, and then figuratively representing them on the screen as
avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", is the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to a ...
s. Games do not have to stop at the avatar-player level, but current implementations aiming for more immersive playing space (i.e.
Laser tag Laser tag is a recreational shooting sport Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive sport, competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in shooting — the art of us ...
) take the form of
augmented reality Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including ...
rather than cyberspace, fully immersive virtual realities remaining impractical. Although the more radical consequences of the global communication network predicted by some cyberspace proponents (i.e. the diminishing of state influence envisioned by John Perry Barlow) failed to materialize and the word lost some of its novelty appeal, it remains current . Some
virtual communities A virtual community is a social network A social network is a social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergence, emergent from and determinant of the Structu ...
explicitly refer to the concept of cyberspace, for example
Linden Lab Linden Research, Inc., doing business as Linden Lab, is an American technology company that is best known as the creator of ''Second Life''. The company's head office is in San Francisco, with additional offices in Boston, Seattle, Virginia an ...
calling their customers " Residents" of
Second Life ''Second Life'' is an on-line multimedia platform that allows people to create an avatar (computing), avatar for themselves and have a second life in an online virtual world. Developed and owned by the San Francisco-based firm Linden Lab an ...

Second Life
, while all such communities can be positioned "in cyberspace" for explanatory and comparative purposes (as did Sterling in ''The Hacker Crackdown'', followed by many journalists), integrating the metaphor into a wider cyber-culture. The metaphor has been useful in helping a new generation of thought leaders to reason through new military strategies around the world, led largely by the US Department of Defense (DoD). The use of cyberspace as a metaphor has had its limits, however, especially in areas where the metaphor becomes confused with physical infrastructure. It has also been critiqued as being unhelpful for falsely employing a spatial metaphor to describe what is inherently a network.


Alternate realities in philosophy and art


Predating computers

A forerunner of the modern ideas of cyberspace is the notion that people might be deceived by an evil demon that feeds them a false reality. This argument is the direct predecessor of modern ideas of a
brain in a vat In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, la ...

brain in a vat
and many popular conceptions of cyberspace take Descartes's ideas as their starting point.
Visual arts The visual arts are Art#Forms, genres, media, and styles, art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics (art), ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as p ...

Visual arts
have a tradition, stretching back to antiquity, of artifacts meant to and be mistaken for reality. This questioning of reality occasionally led some philosophers and especially theologians to distrust art as deceiving people into entering a world which was not real (see
Aniconism Aniconism is the absence of material representations of both the natural and worlds in various s, particularly in the . This prohibition of material representations may extend from only and deities to characters, all living beings, and everythi ...

Aniconism
). The artistic challenge was resurrected with increasing ambition as art became more and more realistic with the invention of photography, film (see ''''), and immersive computer simulations.


Influenced by computers


Philosophy

American
counterculture A counterculture is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilitie ...
exponents like
William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (; February 5, 1914 – August 2, 1997) was an American writer and visual artist, credited as a primary figure of the Beat Generation The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group ...
(whose literary influence on Gibson and cyberpunk in general is widely acknowledged) and
Timothy Leary Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer known for his strong advocacy of psychedelic drug Psychedelics are a class of hallucinogenic drugs A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agen ...
were among the first to extol the potential of computers and computer networks for individual empowerment. Some contemporary philosophers and scientists (e.g.
David Deutsch David Elieser Deutsch (; born 18 May 1953) is a British physicist at the University of Oxford. He is a Visiting Professor in the Department of Atomic and Laser Physics at the Centre for Quantum Computation (CQC) in the Clarendon Laboratory o ...

David Deutsch
in ''The Fabric of Reality'') employ virtual reality in various
thought experiment A thought experiment is a hypothetical situation in which a hypothesis A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can t ...
s. For example, Philip Zhai in ''Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality'' connects cyberspace to the Platonic tradition: Note that this brain-in-a-vat argument conflates cyberspace with
reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only imaginary Imaginary may refer to: * Imaginary (sociology), a concept in sociology * The Imaginary (psychoanalysis), a concept by ...

reality
, while the more common descriptions of cyberspace contrast it with the "real world".


Cyber-Geography

The “Geography of Notopia” (Papadimitriou, 2006) theorizes about the complex interplay of cyber-cultures and the geographical space. This interplay has several philosophical and psychological facets (Papadimitriou, 2009).


A New Communication Model

The
technological convergence Technological convergence, also known as digital convergence, is the tendency for technologies Technology ("science of craft", from Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , '' -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and mat ...
of the mass media is the result of a long adaptation process of their communicative resources to the evolutionary changes of each historical moment. Thus, the new media became (plurally) an extension of the traditional media in cyberspace, allowing to the public access information in a wide range of digital devices. In other words, it is a cultural virtualization of human reality as a result of the migration from physical to virtual space (mediated by the ICTs), ruled by codes, signs and particular social relationships. Forwards, arise instant ways of communication, interaction and possible quick access to information, in which we are no longer mere senders, but also producers, reproducers, co-workers and providers. New technologies also help to "connect" people from different cultures outside the virtual space, which was unthinkable fifty years ago. In this giant relationships web, we mutually absorb each other's beliefs, customs, values, laws and habits, cultural legacies perpetuated by a physical-virtual dynamics in constant metamorphosis (ibidem). In this sense, Professor Doctor Marcelo Mendonça Teixeira created, in 2013, a new model of communication to the virtual universe, based in Claude Elwood Shannon (1948) article "A Mathematical Theory of Communication".


Art

Having originated among writers, the concept of cyberspace remains most popular in literature and film. Although artists working with other media have expressed interest in the concept, such as
Roy Ascott Roy Ascott FRSA Fellowship of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (FRSA) is an award An award, sometimes called a distinction, is something given to a recipient as a token of recognition of excellen ...
, "cyberspace" in
digital art Digital art is an artistic work or practice that uses digital technology as part of the creative or presentation process. Since the 1960s, various names have been used to describe the process, including computer art Computer art is any art ...
is mostly used as a synonym for
immersive virtual reality Immersion into virtual reality (VR) is a perception of being physically Presence (telepresence), present in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of the VR system in images, sound or other Stimulation, stimuli tha ...
and remains more discussed than enacted.


Computer crime

Cyberspace also brings together every service and facility imaginable to expedite money laundering. One can purchase anonymous credit cards, bank accounts, encrypted global mobile telephones, and false passports. From there one can pay professional advisors to set up IBCs (International Business Corporations, or corporations with anonymous ownership) or similar structures in OFCs (Offshore Financial Centers). Such advisors are loath to ask any penetrating questions about the wealth and activities of their clients, since the average fees criminals pay them to launder their money can be as much as 20 percent.


5-level model

In 2010, a five-level model was designed in France. According to this model, cyberspace is composed of five layers based on information discoveries: 1) language, 2) writing, 3) printing, 4) Internet, 5) Etc., i.e. the rest, e.g. noosphere, artificial life, artificial intelligence, etc., etc. This original model links the world of information to telecommunication technologies.


See also

*
Augmented browsing A browser extension is a small software module for customizing a web browser. Browsers typically allow a variety of extensions, including user interface modifications, ad blocking, and HTTP cookie, cookie management. Browser plug-in (computing), pl ...
*
Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

Artificial intelligence
*
Autonomy In developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions ...

Autonomy
*
Computer security Computer security, cybersecurity, or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations ...
* Cyber-HUMINT *
Cyberwarfare Cyberwarfare is the use of digital attacks against an enemy State (polity), state, causing comparable harm to actual warfare and/or disrupting the vital computer systems. There is significant debate among experts regarding the definition of c ...
*
Cyber security standards Cybersecurity standards (also styled cyber security standards) are techniques generally set forth in published materials that attempt to protect the cyber environment of a user or organization. This environment includes users themselves, networks, ...
*
Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP9, are funding programmes created by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic uni ...
*
Wired glove A wired glove (also called a "dataglove" xford English Dictionaryor "cyberglove") is an input device for human–computer interaction worn like a glove. Various sensor technologies are used to capture physical data such as bending of fingers. O ...
*
Online magazine An online magazine is a magazine published on the Internet, through bulletin board systems and other forms of public computer networks. One of the first magazines to convert from a print magazine format to being online only was the computer maga ...
*
Cybersex Cybersex, also called computer sex, Internet sex, netsex and, colloquially, cyber or cybering, is a virtual sex encounter in which two or more people connected remotely via computer network A computer network is a group of computers that us ...
*
Crypto-anarchism Crypto-anarchism (or crypto-anarchy) is a political ideology focusing on protection of privacy Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. ...
*
Digital pet A digital pet (also known as a virtual pet, artificial pet, or pet-raising simulation) is a type of artificial human companion. They are usually kept for companionship or enjoyment. People may keep a digital pet in lieu of a real pet. Cyberpet an ...
*
Esports Esports (also known as electronic sports, e-sports, or eSports) is a form of competition using video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joy ...
*
Global commonsGlobal commons is a term typically used to describe international, supranational, and global resource A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced and that has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availa ...
*
Information superhighwayThe information superhighway or infobahn was a popular term used through the 1990s to refer to digital communication systems and the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected co ...
*
Infosphere Infosphere (''information'' + -''sphere''), analogous to a biosphere The biosphere (from Greek βίος ''bíos'' "life" and σφαῖρα ''sphaira'' "sphere"), also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος ''oîkos'' "environment" and ...
*
Internet artInternet art (also known as net art) is a form of new media art distributed via the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol ...
*
Legal aspects of computing Information technology law (also called "cyberlaw") concerns the law of information technology, including computing and the internet. It is related to legal informatics, and governs the Digital data, digital dissemination of both (digitized) informa ...
* Wikipedia:Link surfing *
Real life Real life is a phrase used originally in literature to distinguish between the real world and fictional or idealized worlds, and in acting to distinguish between performers and the characters they portray. More recently, it has become a popular t ...
*
Metaverse The Metaverse is a collective virtual shared space, created by the convergence of virtually enhanced physical reality and physically persistent virtual space, including the sum of all virtual worlds, augmented reality, and the Internet. The word " ...
*
Mixed reality Mixed reality (MR) is the merging of real Real may refer to: * Reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only Object of the mind, imaginary. The term is also used to r ...
*
Multi-agent system A multi-agent system (MAS or "self-organized system") is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agent In artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike t ...
*
Noosphere The noosphere (alternate spelling noösphere) is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or u ...
* Reality–virtuality continuum *
Simulated reality Simulated reality is the hypothesis A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, emp ...
*
Social software Social software, also known as social apps, include communication and interactive tools often based on the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that us ...
*
Computer program In imperative programming, a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language that a computer can execute or interpret. In declarative programming, a ''computer program'' is a Set (mathematics), set of instructions. A comp ...
*
Sentience Sentience is the capacity to experience feeling Feeling was originally used to describe the physical sensation of touch through either experience or perception. The word is also used to describe other experiences, such as "Emotion, a feeling of ...
*
Telepresence Telepresence refers to a set of technologies Technology ("science of craft", from Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , '' -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and materials, techniques, skills, Scientific method, method ...
*
Virtual world A virtual world (also called a virtual space) is a computer-simulated environment which may be populated by many users who can create a personal avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent ...
*
Virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality Virtual reality applications are applications that make use of virtual reality Virtual ...

Virtual reality
*
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...


Further reading

* Branch, J. (2020).
What's in a Name? Metaphors and Cybersecurity.
''International Organization.''


References


Sources

*Cyberculture, The key Concepts, edited by David Bell, Brian D.Loader, Nicholas Pleace and Douglas Schuler * Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "L’art à l’époque virtuel", in Frontières esthétiques de l’art, Arts 8, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2004 *
William Gibson William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as ''cyberpunk''. Beginning his writing career in the late 1970s, his ea ...

William Gibson
. ''Neuromancer:20th Anniversary Edition''. New York:Ace Books, 2004. *
Oliver GrauImage:Transmediale-2010-Opening-Oliver Grau.jpg, Grau in transmediale 2010. Oliver Grau (born 24 October 1965) is a German art historian and media theoretician with a focus on image science, modernity and media art as well as culture of the 19th cen ...

Oliver Grau
: ''Virtual Art. From Illusion to Immersion'', MIT-Press, Cambridge 2003. (4 Auflagen). *
David Koepsell David Richard Koepsell (born 1969) is an American author, philosopher, attorney, and educator whose recent research focuses on how ethics and public policy deal with emerging science and technology. He has been a practicing attorney, been employed a ...
, ''The Ontology of Cyberspace'', Chicago: Open Court, 2000. * *Irvine, Martin
"Postmodern Science Fiction and Cyberpunk"
retrieved 2006-07-19. *Slater, Don 2002, 'Social Relationships and Identity Online and Offline', in L.Lievrouw and S.Livingston (eds), The Handbook of New Media, Sage, London, pp533–46. * *Sterling, Bruce. ''The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder On the Electronic Frontier.'' Spectra Books, 1992. *Zhai, Philip. ''Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality''. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998. *Teixeira, Marcelo Mendonça (2012). Cyberculture: From Plato To The Virtual Universe. The Architecture of Collective Intelligence. Munich: Grin Verlag.


External links



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John Perry Barlow John Perry Barlow (October 3, 1947February 7, 2018) was an American poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aest ...

John Perry Barlow

A Critique of the word "Cyberspace" at ZeroGeography

Virtual Reality Photos, Austria
by Johann Steininger
Peculiarities of Cyberspace
by
Albert Benschop Albert Benschop (10 May 1949, Rijswijk Rijswijk ( , ), formerly known as Ryswick ( ) in English, is a town and municipality in the Western Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a country primarily ...

Sex, Religion and Cyberspace
by Richard Thieme
Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality
by Philip Zhai
Brains in a vat
philosophical argument against the idea that we could be in cyberspace and not know it by Hilary Putnam
Cyberspace as a Domain
In which the Air Force Flies and Fights, Speech by Secretary of the Air Force Michael Wynne
DOD - Cyberspace

DHS - National Cybersecurity Division
{{William Gibson Cyberspace, Cyberpunk themes History of the Internet Information Age Virtual reality William Gibson 1980s neologisms