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Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the
social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) is the Action (philosophy), actions and mannerisms made by individu ...
and
norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy), a standard in normative ethics that is prescriptive rather than a descriptive or explanato ...
found in
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They are the only Extant taxon, ...

human
societies A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals. Social relations derived from individual agenc ...

societies
, as well as the
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to exp ...
,
belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscio ...
s,
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and i ...
s,
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, ...
s,
customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses ...
, capabilities, and
habit A habit (or wont as a humorous and formal term) is a routine of behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) is the Action (philosop ...

habit
s of the individuals in these groups.Tylor, Edward. (1871). Primitive Culture. Vol 1. New York: J.P. Putnam's Son Humans acquire culture through the
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machine learning, machines; t ...

learning
processes of
enculturation Enculturation is the process by which people learn the dynamics of their surrounding culture and acquire values and norms appropriate or necessary to that culture and its worldviews.Grusec, Joan E.; Hastings, Paul D. ''Handbook of Socialization: T ...
and
socialization In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empirical method, em ...
, which is shown by the diversity of cultures across societies. A
cultural norm Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in ...
codifies acceptable conduct in society; it serves as a guideline for behavior, dress, language, and demeanor in a situation, which serves as a template for expectations in a social group. Accepting only a
monoculture In agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, domesticated spe ...
in a social group can bear risks, just as a single species can wither in the face of environmental change, for lack of functional responses to the change. Thus in military culture,
valor Valor, valour, or valorous may mean: * Courage, a similar meaning * Virtue ethics, roughly "courage in defense of a noble cause" * Valor (DC Comics), a DC Comics superhero * Valor (EC Comics), ''Valor'' (EC Comics), an EC Comics title * Valor Commu ...
is counted a typical behavior for an individual and duty, honor, and loyalty to the social group are counted as virtues or functional responses in the
continuum of conflict A conflict continuum is a model or concept various social science researchers use when modeling conflict on a continuum from low to high-intensity, such as from aggression to irritation to explosiveness. The mathematical model of game theory ...
. In the practice of religion, analogous attributes can be identified in a social group.


Description

polyphonic Polyphony_is_a_type_of_musical__texture_consisting_of_two_or_more_simultaneous_lines_of_independent_melody,_as_opposed_to_a_musical_texture_with_just_one_voice,_monophony "_is_monophonic_as_long_as_it_is_performed_without_chord_(music),_chordal_a_...
_well_before_their_discovery_by_non-African_explorers_of_the_ polyphonic Polyphony_is_a_type_of_musical__texture_consisting_of_two_or_more_simultaneous_lines_of_independent_melody,_as_opposed_to_a_musical_texture_with_just_one_voice,_monophony "_is_monophonic_as_long_as_it_is_performed_without_chord_(music),_chordal_a_...
_well_before_their_discovery_by_non-African_explorers_of_the_Baka_people_(Cameroon_and_Gabon)">Baka,_
polyphonic Polyphony_is_a_type_of_musical__texture_consisting_of_two_or_more_simultaneous_lines_of_independent_melody,_as_opposed_to_a_musical_texture_with_just_one_voice,_monophony "_is_monophonic_as_long_as_it_is_performed_without_chord_(music),_chordal_a_...
_well_before_their_discovery_by_non-African_explorers_of_the_Baka_people_(Cameroon_and_Gabon)">Baka,_Aka_people">Aka,_Efé_people.html" "title="Aka_people.html" ;"title="Baka_people_(Cameroon_and_Gabon).html" ;"title="polyphonic_music.html" "title="Pygmy music has been polyphonic music">polyphonic Polyphony is a type of musical texture consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony " is monophonic as long as it is performed without chord (music), chordal a ...
well before their discovery by non-African explorers of the Baka_people_(Cameroon_and_Gabon)">Baka, Aka people">Aka, Efé people">Efe Agencia EFE, S.A. () is a Spanish international news agency A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodica ...
, and other foragers of the Central African forests, in the 1200s, which is at least 200 years before polyphony developed in Europe. Note the multiple lines of singers and dancers. The motifs are independent, with theme and variation interweaving. Michael Obert (2013) Song from the Forest This type of music is thought to be the first expression of polyphony in world music. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machine learning, machines; t ...

learning
in human
societies A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals. Social relations derived from individual agenc ...

societies
.
Cultural universals A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal) is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all known human culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior ...
are found in all human societies. These include expressive forms like
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and i ...
,
music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common elements such as pit ...

music
,
dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its ...
,
ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meanin ...

ritual
,
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
, and
technologies Technology ("science of craft", from Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , '' -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and materials, techniques, skills, Scientific method, methods, and Business process, processes used in the ...

technologies
like
tool usage
tool usage
,
cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the Earth, world, from grilling food over an open fire to using e ...
,
shelter Shelter often refers to: * Shelter (building), a basic architectural structure or building that provides cover * Animal shelter, a facility that houses homeless, lost, or abandoned animals; mostly dogs and cats * Homeless shelter, a temporary resid ...
, and
clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over t ...
. The concept of
material culture Material culture is the aspect of social reality Social reality is distinct from biological reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only Object of the mind, imaginar ...

material culture
covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of
social organization In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The te ...
(including practices of
political organization A political organization is any organization that involves itself in the political process, including political parties, non-governmental organizations, advocacy groups and special interest groups. Political organizations are those engaged ...
and social
institutions Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to social mechanism, mechanisms which govern the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community, and are ide ...

institutions
),
mythology Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as gods, demigods, and other supernatural figures. ...

mythology
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such ques ...

philosophy
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expand ...

literature
(both
written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups through the use of sufficien ...

written
and
oral The word oral may refer to: Relating to the mouth * Relating to the mouth, the first portion of the alimentary canal that primarily receives food and liquid **Oral administration of medicines ** Oral examination (also known as an oral exam or oral ...
), and
science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the u ...

science
comprise the
intangible cultural heritage An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage. Buildings, historic places, monuments, and artifacts are physical intellectual ...
of a society. In the
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in
the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
, sciences,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion a ...
, or manners. The level of cultural sophistication has also sometimes been used to distinguish
civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a complex society A complex society is a concept that is shared by a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, history and sociology to describe a stage of social formation. The concept ...

civilization
s from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are also found in class-based distinctions between a
high culture High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname)High is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Jason High (born 1981), American mixed martial artist *Martha High (born 1945), American singer *Monique Raphel High (born 1949), ...
of the social
elite In Political philosophy, political and sociology, sociological theory, the elite (French ''élite'', from Latin ''eligere'', to select or to sort out) are a small group of powerful people who hold a economic inequality, disproportionate amount of ...
and a
low culture Low or LOW or lows, may refer to: People * Low (surname), listing people surnamed Low Places * Low, Quebec, Canada * Low, Utah, United States * Lo Wu station (MTR code LOW), Hong Kong; a rail station * Salzburg Airport (ICAO airport code: LOWS ...
,
popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the cultural practice, practices, beliefs, and cultural objects, objects that are dominant or prevalent in a society at a given ...
, or
folk culture Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include mat ...
of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to
cultural capital In the field of sociology, cultural capital comprises the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech, style of dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a Social stratification, stratified society. Cultural capital functio ...
. In common parlance, culture is often used to refer specifically to the symbolic markers used by
ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation ...

ethnic groups
to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as
body modification Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance. It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious symbol, religious beliefs, to display group membe ...
,
clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over t ...
or
jewelry Jewellery or jewelry consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes. From a western perspecti ...

jewelry
. Mass culture refers to the
mass-produced Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technic ...
and
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for ...
ted forms of
consumer culture In cultural studies, media culture refers to the current Western world, Western capitalist society that emerged and developed from the 20th century, under the influence of mass media. The term alludes to the overall impact and intellectual guidance ...
that emerged in the 20th century. Some schools of philosophy, such as
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a Economic materialism, materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand Social class, class relations and social conflict as well ...
and critical theory, have argued that culture is often used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the
proletariat The proletariat ( from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...

proletariat
and create a
false consciousness False consciousness is a term used by some to describe ways in which material, ideological An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world ...
. Such perspectives are common in the discipline of
cultural studies#REDIRECT Cultural studies Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, con ...
. In the wider
social sciences Social science is the branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central tru ...

social sciences
, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, and that the basis of culture is found in
evolved biological
evolved biological
dispositions. When used as a
count noun In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
, a "culture" is the set of customs,
tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes about the wo ...

tradition
s, and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time. In this sense,
multiculturalism The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. ...

multiculturalism
values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is also used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a
subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, c ...
(e.g. "
bro culture Bro culture is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, belief ...
"), or a
counterculture A counterculture is a culture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, sometimes diametrically opposed to mainstream cultural mores.Eric Donald Hirsch. ''The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy''. Houg ...
. Within
cultural anthropology Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and past, including Homo, past hu ...
, the ideology and analytical stance of
cultural relativism Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, and not be judged against the criteria of another. It was established as axiom An axiom, postulate or assum ...
hold that cultures cannot easily be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is necessarily situated within the value system of a given culture.


Etymology

The modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the
ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic c ...
orator
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold republican principles during crisis of th ...

Cicero
in his ''
Tusculanae Disputationes The ''Tusculanae Disputationes'' (also ''Tusculanae Quaestiones''; English: ''Tusculan Disputations'') is a series of five books written by Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Ro ...
'', where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or ''"cultura animi,"'' using an
agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generat ...
metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development.
Samuel Pufendorf Samuel Freiherr (; male, abbreviated as ), (; his wife, abbreviated as , literally "free lord" or "free lady") and (, his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as title of nobility, titles of nobility in the German-speak ...
took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection. His use, and that of many writers after him, "''refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original
barbarism Barbarism, barbarity, or barbarous may refer to: * Barbarism (linguistics), a non-standard word, expression, or pronunciation ** Hybrid words, formerly called "barbarisms" * Any society construed as barbarian ** Barbarian invasions, a period of mi ...
, and through artifice, become fully human."'' In 1986, philosopher Edward S. Casey wrote, "The very word ''culture'' meant 'place tilled' in Middle English, and the same word goes back to Latin ''colere'', 'to inhabit, care for, till, worship' and ''cultus'', 'A cult, especially a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensely to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by
Richard Velkley Richard L. Velkley (born March 17, 1949) is an American philosopher and Celia Scott Weatherhead Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Me ...
:
... originally meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its later modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing
Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, , ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, sco ...

Rousseau
's criticism of "
modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...

modern
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...

liberalism
and
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
." Thus a contrast between "culture" and "
civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a complex society A complex society is a concept that is shared by a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, history and sociology to describe a stage of social formation. The concept ...

civilization
" is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such.
In the words of anthropologist
E.B. Tylor
E.B. Tylor
, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses and material expressions, which, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common. The ''
Cambridge English Dictionary Image: CALD 3rdEd CDROM.png, ''Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary'' 3rd Edition CD-ROM The ''Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary'' (unofficially ''Cambridge English Dictionary'' or ''Cambridge Dictionary'', abbreviated ''CALD'') was fi ...
'' states that culture is "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time."
Terror management theory Terror management theory (TMT) is both a social and evolutionary psychology theory originally proposed by Jeff Greenberg, Sheldon Solomon, and Tom Pyszczynski and codified in their book ''The Worm at the Core: On the Role of Death in Life'' (2 ...
posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the merely physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that ''Homo sapiens'' became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with
symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meanin ...

symbol
s and to act imaginatively and creatively. This ability arose with the evolution of
behavioral modernity Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current ''Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thum ...
in humans around 50,000 years ago and is often thought to be unique to humans. However, some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complicated, abilities for social learning. It is also used to denote the complex networks of practices and accumulated knowledge and ideas that are transmitted through social
interaction Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect. Closely related terms are interact ...

interaction
and exist in specific human groups, or cultures, using the plural form.


Change

It has been estimated from archaeological data that the human capacity for cumulative culture emerged somewhere between 500,000–170,000 years ago.
Raimon Panikkar Raimon Panikkar Alemany, also known as Raimundo Panikkar and Raymond Panikkar (November 2, 1918 – August 26, 2010), was a Spanish Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civili ...

Raimon Panikkar
identified 29 ways in which
cultural changeCulture change is a term used in public policy making that emphasizes the influence of cultural capital on individual and community behavior. It has been sometimes called repositioning of culture, which means the reconstruction of the cultural concep ...
can be brought about, including growth, development, evolution,
involution Involution may refer to: * Involute, a construction in the differential geometry of curves * ''Agricultural Involution: The Processes of Ecological Change in Indonesia'', a 1963 study of intensification of production through increased labour inputs ...
, renovation, reconception, reform,
innovation 190px, Thomas Edison with phonograph. Edison was one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding List of Edison patents, 1,093 U.S. patents in his name. Innovation is the practical implementation of ideas that result in the introduction ...
, revivalism,
revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...

revolution
,
mutation A red tulip exhibiting a partially yellow petal due to a mutation in its genes In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processe ...
,
progress upright=1.14, alt=Painting depicting a woman draped in white robes flying westward across the land with settlers and following her on foot, John Gast, ''American Progress'', Progress is the movement towards a refined, improved, or otherwise de ...
,
diffusion File:DiffusionMicroMacro.gif, 250px, Diffusion from a microscopic and macroscopic point of view. Initially, there are solute molecules on the left side of a barrier (purple line) and none on the right. The barrier is removed, and the solute diff ...

diffusion
,
osmosis Osmosis (, ) is the spontaneous net movement or diffusion File:DiffusionMicroMacro.gif, 250px, Diffusion from a microscopic and macroscopic point of view. Initially, there are solute molecules on the left side of a barrier (purple line) and ...
, borrowing,
eclecticism and the Grand Boulevard in Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the List of cities and towns of Hungary, most populous city of Hungary, and the Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits, ninth-largest city in ...
,
syncretism Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or ou ...
, modernization,
indigenization Indigenization is the act of making something more native; transformation of some service, idea, etc. to suit a local culture, especially through the use of more indigenous people in administration Administration may refer to: Management of org ...
, and transformation. In this context, modernization could be viewed as adoption of Enlightenment era beliefs and practices, such as science, rationalism, industry, commerce, democracy, and the notion of progress.
Rein Raud Rein Raud (born 21 December 1961) is an Estonian scholar and author. Early life He was born in 1961 in the family of Eno Raud and Aino Pervik, both children's authors. He is the eldest of three children. His younger brother Mihkel Raud is a pl ...
, building on the work of
Umberto Eco Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian medievalist, philosopher, semiotician, cultural critic, political and social commentator, and novelist. In English, he is best known for his popular 1980 novel '' The Name of ...
,
Pierre Bourdieu Pierre Bourdieu (; 1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, so ...
and Jeffrey C. Alexander, has proposed a model of cultural change based on claims and bids, which are judged by their
cognitive adequacyCognitive adequacy is a term proposed by Rein Raud as a standard of judging cultural phenomena.{{Cite book, title=Meaning in Action: Outline of an Integral Theory of Culture, last=Raud, first=Rein, publisher=Polity Books, year=2016, isbn=9781509511 ...
and endorsed or not endorsed by the symbolic authority of the cultural community in question.
Cultural inventionA cultural invention is any innovation developed by people. Cultural inventions include sets of behaviour adopted by Group dynamics, groups of people. They are perpetuated by being passed on to others within the group or outside it. They are also pas ...
has come to mean any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior but which does not exist as a physical object. Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period," driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the
human population Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species ...

human population
explosion, among other factors.
Culture repositioning Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in ...
means the reconstruction of the cultural concept of a society. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change. These forces are related to both
social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same ...
s and natural events, and are involved in the perpetuation of cultural ideas and practices within current structures, which themselves are subject to change. Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action. These social shifts may accompany
ideological An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes abo ...
shifts and other types of cultural change. For example, the U.S.
feminist movement The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaign A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making progress within a specific gr ...
involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may also enter as factors. For example, after tropical forests returned at the end of the last
ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and ...

ice age
, plants suitable for domestication were available, leading to the invention of
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, domesticated species created food ...
, which in turn brought about many cultural innovations and shifts in social dynamics. Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may also produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practices. War or competition over resources may impact technological development or social dynamics. Additionally, cultural ideas may transfer from one society to another, through diffusion or acculturation. In
diffusion File:DiffusionMicroMacro.gif, 250px, Diffusion from a microscopic and macroscopic point of view. Initially, there are solute molecules on the left side of a barrier (purple line) and none on the right. The barrier is removed, and the solute diff ...
, the form of something (though not necessarily its meaning) moves from one culture to another. For example, Western restaurant chains and culinary brands sparked curiosity and fascination to the Chinese as China opened its economy to international trade in the late 20th-century. "Stimulus diffusion" (the sharing of ideas) refers to an element of one culture leading to an invention or propagation in another. "Direct borrowing," on the other hand, tends to refer to technological or tangible diffusion from one culture to another.
Diffusion of innovations Diffusion of innovations is a theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such proce ...
theory presents a research-based model of why and when individuals and cultures adopt new ideas, practices, and products.Stephen Wolfram (May 16, 2017) A New Kind of Science: A 15-Year View
As applied to the computational universe
Acculturation The four essential (paradigm) forms of acculturation Acculturation is a process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from the balancing of two cultures while adapting to the prevailing culture of the society. Acculturation is ...
has different meanings. Still, in this context, it refers to the replacement of traits of one culture with another, such as what happened to certain
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
tribes and many indigenous peoples across the globe during the process of
colonization Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their or their ancestors' former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such links ...
. Related processes on an individual level include assimilation (adoption of a different culture by an individual) and
transculturation Transculturation is a term coined by Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz in 1940 (from the article Our America by José Martí José Julián Martí Pérez (; January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban poet A poet is a person who crea ...
. The transnational flow of culture has played a major role in merging different cultures and sharing thoughts, ideas, and beliefs.


Early modern discourses


German Romanticism

Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German Philosophy, philosopher and one of the central Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment thinkers. Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemology, metaphysics, ethic ...

Immanuel Kant
(1724–1804) formulated an individualist definition of "enlightenment" similar to the concept of ''
bildung ''Bildung'' (, '' "education, formation, etc."'') refers to the German tradition of self-cultivation (as related to the German for: creation, image, shape), wherein philosophy and education are linked in a manner that refers to a process of both pe ...
'': "Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity." He argued that this immaturity comes not from a lack of understanding, but from a lack of courage to think independently. Against this intellectual cowardice, Kant urged: ''Sapere Aude'', "Dare to be wise!" In reaction to Kant, German scholars such as
Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (; ; 25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment, ''Sturm und Drang'', and Weimar Classic ...

Johann Gottfried Herder
(1744–1803) argued that human creativity, which necessarily takes unpredictable and highly diverse forms, is as important as human rationality. Moreover, Herder proposed a collective form of ''Bildung'': "For Herder, Bildung was the totality of experiences that provide a coherent identity, and sense of common destiny, to a people." In 1795, the Prussian linguist and philosopher
Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (, also , ; ; 22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after h ...

Wilhelm von Humboldt
(1767–1835) called for an anthropology that would synthesize Kant's and Herder's interests. During the
Romantic era Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1 ...
, scholars in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
, especially those concerned with
nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
movements—such as the nationalist struggle to create a "Germany" out of diverse principalities, and the nationalist struggles by ethnic minorities against the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a writte ...
—developed a more inclusive notion of culture as "
worldview upright=1.8, Religious practices will tie closely to a religion's worldview. A worldview or world-view is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and ...
" (''Weltanschauung''). According to this school of thought, each ethnic group has a distinct worldview that is incommensurable with the worldviews of other groups. Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and "primitive" or "tribal" cultures. In 1860,
Adolf Bastian Adolf Philipp Wilhelm Bastian (26 June 18262 February 1905) was a 19th-century polymath best remembered for his contributions to the development of ethnography Ethnography (from Greek language, Greek ''ethnos'' "folk, people, nation" and '' ...

Adolf Bastian
(1826–1905) argued for "the psychic unity of mankind." He proposed that a scientific comparison of all human societies would reveal that distinct worldviews consisted of the same basic elements. According to Bastian, all human societies share a set of "elementary ideas" (''Elementargedanken''); different cultures, or different "folk ideas" (''Völkergedanken''), are local modifications of the elementary ideas. This view paved the way for the modern understanding of culture.
Franz Boas Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942) was a German-born American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, culture ...
(1858–1942) was trained in this tradition, and he brought it with him when he left Germany for the United States.


English Romanticism

In the 19th century,
humanists Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or some ...

humanists
such as
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
poet and essayist
Matthew Arnold Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the celebrated headmaster of Rugby School, and brother to both Tom Arnold (acade ...

Matthew Arnold
(1822–1888) used the word "culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in the world." This concept of culture is also comparable to the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
concept of ''bildung'': "...culture being a pursuit of our total
perfection Perfection is a state, variously, of completeness, flawlessness, or supreme excellence. The term is used to designate a range of diverse, if often kindred, concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the ...

perfection
by means of getting to know, on all the matters which most concern us, the best which has been thought and said in the world." In practice, ''culture'' referred to an
elite In Political philosophy, political and sociology, sociological theory, the elite (French ''élite'', from Latin ''eligere'', to select or to sort out) are a small group of powerful people who hold a economic inequality, disproportionate amount of ...
ideal and was associated with such activities as
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and i ...
,
classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consis ...
, and
haute cuisine ''Haute cuisine'' (; ) or ''grande cuisine'' is the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels. ''Haute cuisine '' is characterized by the meticulous preparation and careful presentation of food at a high price ...
. As these forms were associated with urban life, "culture" was identified with "civilization" (from lat. ''civitas'', city). Another facet of the
Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** Romanticism in science, of that er ...
movement was an interest in
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition ab ...

folklore
, which led to identifying a "culture" among non-elites. This distinction is often characterized as that between
high culture High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname)High is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Jason High (born 1981), American mixed martial artist *Martha High (born 1945), American singer *Monique Raphel High (born 1949), ...
, namely that of the ruling
social group In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. Regardless, social groups come in a myriad of sizes and varieties. ...
, and
low culture Low or LOW or lows, may refer to: People * Low (surname), listing people surnamed Low Places * Low, Quebec, Canada * Low, Utah, United States * Lo Wu station (MTR code LOW), Hong Kong; a rail station * Salzburg Airport (ICAO airport code: LOWS ...
. In other words, the idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries reflected inequalities within European societies. Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with
anarchy Anarchy is the state of a society being freely constituted without authorities or a governing body. It may also refer to a society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interacti ...
; other Europeans, following
philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, ...

philosophers
Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes ( ; sometimes known as Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spo ...
and
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, , ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment throughout Europe, as w ...

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
, contrasted "culture" with "the state of nature." According to Hobbes and Rousseau, the
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
who were being conquered by Europeans from the 16th centuries on were living in a state of nature; this opposition was expressed through the contrast between "civilized" and "uncivilized." According to this way of thinking, one could classify some countries and nations as more civilized than others and some people as more cultured than others. This contrast led to
Herbert Spencer Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and pres ...

Herbert Spencer
's theory of
Social Darwinism Social Darwinism refers to various theories that emerged in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), ...
and
Lewis Henry Morgan Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was a pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist who worked as a railroad lawyer. He is best known for his work on kinship and social structure, his theories of social evolu ...
's theory of
cultural evolution Cultural evolution is an evolutionary theory Evolutionary thought, the recognition that species change over time and the perceived understanding of how such processes work, has roots in antiquity—in the ideas of the Ancient Greece, ancient Gr ...

cultural evolution
. Just as some critics have argued that the distinction between high and low cultures is an expression of the conflict between European elites and non-elites, other critics have argued that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people is an expression of the conflict between European colonial powers and their colonial subjects. Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau, have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and
sophistication Sophistication has come to mean a few things, but its original definition was "to denature, or simplify". Today it is common as a measure of refinement—displaying good taste"Good Taste" is a science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space ...
of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature. These critics considered
folk music Folk music includes #Traditional folk music, traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several wa ...

folk music
(as produced by "the folk," i.e., rural, illiterate, peasants) to honestly express a natural way of life, while classical music seemed superficial and decadent. Equally, this view often portrayed
indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ''indigenous'' was first, in its modern contex ...
as "
noble savage#REDIRECT Noble savage A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an " other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any comple ...
s" living
authentic Authenticity or authentic may refer to: * Authentication, the act of confirming the truth of an attribute Arts and entertainment * Authenticity in art, ways in which a work of art or an artistic performance may be considered authentic Music * Au ...
and unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly stratified capitalism, capitalist systems of Western culture, the West. In 1870 the anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor, Edward Tylor (1832–1917) applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to propose a theory of the evolution of religion. According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms. In the process, he redefined culture as a diverse set of activities characteristic of all human societies. This view paved the way for the modern understanding of religion.


Anthropology

Although anthropologists worldwide refer to Tylor's definition of culture, in the 20th century "culture" emerged as the central and unifying concept of American anthropology, where it most commonly refers to the universal human capacity to classify and encode human experiences
symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meanin ...

symbol
ically, and to communicate symbolically encoded experiences socially. American anthropology is organized into four fields, each of which plays an important role in research on culture: biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology,
cultural anthropology Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and past, including Homo, past hu ...
, and in the United States and Canada, archaeology. The term ''Kulturbrille'', or "culture glasses," coined by German American anthropologist
Franz Boas Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942) was a German-born American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, culture ...
, refers to the "lenses" through which we see our own countries. Martin Lindstrom asserts that ''Kulturbrille'', which allow us to make sense of the culture we inhabit, also "can blind us to things outsiders pick up immediately."


Sociology

The sociology of culture concerns culture as manifested in society. For sociologist Georg Simmel (1858–1918), culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history." As such, culture in the sociology, sociological field can be defined as the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together shape a people's way of life. Culture can be any of two types, non-material culture or
material culture Material culture is the aspect of social reality Social reality is distinct from biological reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only Object of the mind, imaginar ...

material culture
. Non-material culture refers to the non-physical ideas that individuals have about their culture, including values, belief systems, rules, norms, morals, language, organizations, and institutions, while material culture is the physical evidence of a culture in the objects and architecture they make or have made. The term tends to be relevant only in archeological and anthropological studies, but it specifically means all material evidence which can be attributed to culture, past or present. Cultural sociology first emerged in Weimar Republic, Weimar Germany (1918–1933), where sociologists such as Alfred Weber used the term ''Kultursoziologie'' (cultural sociology). Cultural sociology was then "reinvented" in the English-speaking world as a product of the "cultural turn" of the 1960s, which ushered in structuralism (sociology), structuralist and postmodern philosophy, postmodern approaches to social science. This type of cultural sociology may be loosely regarded as an approach incorporating cultural analysis and critical theory. Cultural sociologists tend to reject scientific methods, instead Hermeneutics, hermeneutically focusing on words, artifacts and symbols. "Culture" has since become an important concept across many branches of sociology, including resolutely scientific fields like social stratification and social network, social network analysis. As a result, there has been a recent influx of quantitative sociologists to the field. Thus, there is now a growing group of sociologists of culture who are, confusingly, not cultural sociologists. These scholars reject the abstracted postmodern aspects of cultural sociology, and instead, look for a theoretical backing in the more scientific vein of social psychology and cognitive science.


Early researchers and development of cultural sociology

The sociology of culture grew from the intersection between sociology (as shaped by early theorists like Karl Marx, Marx, Émile Durkheim, Durkheim, and Max Weber, Weber) with the growing discipline of anthropology, wherein researchers pioneered ethnographic strategies for describing and analyzing a variety of cultures around the world. Part of the legacy of the early development of the field lingers in the methods (much of cultural, sociological research is qualitative), in the theories (a variety of critical approaches to sociology are central to current research communities), and in the substantive focus of the field. For instance, relationships between
popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the cultural practice, practices, beliefs, and cultural objects, objects that are dominant or prevalent in a society at a given ...
, political control, and social class were early and lasting concerns in the field.


Cultural studies

In the United Kingdom, sociologists and other scholars influenced by
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a Economic materialism, materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand Social class, class relations and social conflict as well ...
such as Stuart Hall (cultural theorist), Stuart Hall (1932–2014) and Raymond Williams (1921–1988) developed
cultural studies#REDIRECT Cultural studies Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, con ...
. Following nineteenth-century Romantics, they identified "culture" with consumption goods and leisure activities (such as art, music, film, food, sports, and clothing). They saw patterns of consumption and leisure as determined by relations of production, which led them to focus on class relations and the organization of production. In the United Kingdom, cultural studies focuses largely on the study of
popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the cultural practice, practices, beliefs, and cultural objects, objects that are dominant or prevalent in a society at a given ...
; that is, on the social meanings of mass-produced consumer and leisure goods. Richard Hoggart coined the term in 1964 when he founded the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies or CCCS. It has since become strongly associated with Stuart Hall (cultural theorist), Stuart Hall, who succeeded Hoggart as Director. Cultural studies in this sense, then, can be viewed as a limited concentration scoped on the intricacies of consumerism, which belongs to a wider culture sometimes referred to as "Western culture, Western civilization" or "globalism." From the 1970s onward, Stuart Hall's pioneering work, along with that of his colleagues Paul Willis (cultural theorist), Paul Willis, Dick Hebdige, Tony Jefferson, and Angela McRobbie, created an international intellectual movement. As the field developed, it began to combine political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, Media influence, media theory, film theory, film/video studies,
cultural anthropology Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and past, including Homo, past hu ...
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such ques ...

philosophy
, museum studies, and art history to study cultural phenomena or cultural texts. In this field researchers often concentrate on how particular phenomena relate to matters of ideology, nationality, ethnicity, social class, and/or gender. Cultural studies is concerned with the Value (personal and cultural), meaning and practices of everyday life. These practices comprise the ways people do particular things (such as watching television or eating out) in a given culture. It also studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various objects and practices. Specifically, culture involves those meanings and practices held independently of reason. Watching television to view a public perspective on a historical event should not be thought of as culture unless referring to the medium of television itself, which may have been selected culturally; however, schoolchildren watching television after school with their friends to "fit in" certainly qualifies since there is no grounded reason for one's participation in this practice. In the context of cultural studies, the idea of a ''text'' includes not only written language, but also films, photography, photographs, fashion or hairstyles: the texts of cultural studies comprise all the meaningful artifacts of culture. Similarly, the discipline widens the concept of "culture." "Culture" for a cultural-studies researcher not only includes traditional
high culture High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname)High is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Jason High (born 1981), American mixed martial artist *Martha High (born 1945), American singer *Monique Raphel High (born 1949), ...
(the culture of ruling
social group In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. Regardless, social groups come in a myriad of sizes and varieties. ...
s) and
popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the cultural practice, practices, beliefs, and cultural objects, objects that are dominant or prevalent in a society at a given ...
, but also everyday meanings and practices. The last two, in fact, have become the main focus of cultural studies. A further and recent approach is comparative cultural studies, based on the disciplines of comparative literature and cultural studies. Scholars in the United Kingdom and the United States developed somewhat different versions of cultural studies after the late 1970s. The British version of cultural studies had originated in the 1950s and 1960s, mainly under the influence of Richard Hoggart, E.P. Thompson, and Raymond Williams, and later that of Stuart Hall and others at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham. This included overtly political, Left-wing politics, left-wing views, and criticisms of
popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the cultural practice, practices, beliefs, and cultural objects, objects that are dominant or prevalent in a society at a given ...
as "capitalist" mass culture; it absorbed some of the ideas of the Frankfurt School critique of the "culture industry" (i.e. mass culture). This emerges in the writings of early British cultural-studies scholars and their influences: see the work of (for example) Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall, Paul Willis, and Paul Gilroy. In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, "Cultural studies [were] grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition." The American version of cultural studies initially concerned itself more with understanding the subjective and appropriative side of audience reactions to, and uses of, mass culture; for example, American cultural-studies advocates wrote about the liberatory aspects of fandom. The distinction between American and British strands, however, has faded. Some researchers, especially in early British cultural studies, apply a Marxist model to the field. This strain of thinking has some influence from the Frankfurt School, but especially from the structuralism, structuralist Marxism of Louis Althusser and others. The main focus of an orthodox Marxist approach concentrates on the ''production'' of Value (personal and cultural), meaning. This model assumes a mass production of culture and identifies power (social and political), power as residing with those producing cultural artifacts. In a Marxist view, the mode of production, mode and relations of production form the economic base of society, which constantly interacts and influences base and superstructure, superstructures, such as culture. Other approaches to cultural studies, such as feminist cultural studies and later American developments of the field, distance themselves from this view. They criticize the Marxist assumption of a single, dominant meaning, shared by all, for any cultural product. The non-Marxist approaches suggest that different ways of consuming cultural artifacts affect the meaning of the product. This view comes through in the book ''Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman'' (by Paul du Gay ''et al.''), which seeks to challenge the notion that those who produce commodities control the meanings that people attribute to them. Feminist cultural analyst, theorist, and art historian Griselda Pollock contributed to cultural studies from viewpoints of art history and psychoanalysis. The writer Julia Kristeva is among influential voices at the turn of the century, contributing to cultural studies from the field of art and psychoanalytical French feminism. Petrakis and Kostis (2013) divide cultural background variables into two main groups: # The first group covers the variables that represent the "efficiency orientation" of the societies: performance orientation, future orientation, assertiveness, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. # The second covers the variables that represent the "social orientation" of societies, i.e., the attitudes and lifestyles of their members. These variables include gender egalitarianism, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, and human orientation. In 2016, a new approach to culture was suggested by
Rein Raud Rein Raud (born 21 December 1961) is an Estonian scholar and author. Early life He was born in 1961 in the family of Eno Raud and Aino Pervik, both children's authors. He is the eldest of three children. His younger brother Mihkel Raud is a pl ...
, who defines culture as the sum of resources available to human beings for making sense of their world and proposes a two-tiered approach, combining the study of texts (all reified meanings in circulation) and cultural practices (all repeatable actions that involve the production, dissemination or transmission of purposes), thus making it possible to re-link anthropological and sociological study of culture with the tradition of textual theory.


Psychology

Starting in the 1990s, psychological research on culture influence began to grow and challenge the universality assumed in general psychology. Culture psychologists began to try to explore the relationship between emotions and culture, and answer whether the human mind is independent from culture. For example, people from collectivistic cultures, such as the Japanese, suppress their positive emotions more than their American counterparts. Culture may affect the way that people experience and express emotions. On the other hand, some researchers try to look for differences between people's Big Five personality traits and culture, personalities across cultures. As different cultures dictate distinctive Norms (sociology), norms, culture shock is also studied to understand how people react when they are confronted with other cultures. Cognitive tools may not be accessible or they may function differently cross culture. For example, people who are raised in a culture with an abacus are trained with distinctive reasoning style. Cultural lenses may also make people view the same outcome of events differently. Westerners are more motivated by their successes than their failures, while East Asians are better motivated by the avoidance of failure. Culture is important for psychologists to consider when understanding the human mental operation.


Protection of culture

There are a number of international agreements and national laws relating to the protection of culture and cultural heritage. UNESCO and its partner organizations such as Blue Shield International coordinate international protection and local implementation. Basically, the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Cultural Diversity deal with the protection of culture. Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights deals with cultural heritage in two ways: it gives people the right to participate in cultural life on the one hand and the right to the protection of their contributions to cultural life on the other. The protection of culture and cultural goods is increasingly taking up a large area nationally and internationally. Under international law, the UN and UNESCO try to set up and enforce rules for this. The aim is not to protect a person's property, but rather to preserve the cultural heritage of humanity, especially in the event of war and armed conflict. According to Karl von Habsburg, President of Blue Shield International, the destruction of cultural assets is also part of psychological warfare. The target of the attack is the identity of the opponent, which is why symbolic cultural assets become a main target. It is also intended to affect the particularly sensitive cultural memory, the growing cultural diversity and the economic basis (such as tourism) of a state, region or municipality. Another important issue today is the impact of tourism on the various forms of culture. On the one hand, this can be physical impact on individual objects or the destruction caused by increasing environmental pollution and, on the other hand, socio-cultural effects on society.Jaafar, Mastura; Rasoolimanesh, S Mostafa; Ismail, Safura (2017). "Perceived sociocultural impacts of tourism and community participation: A case study of Langkawi Island". Tourism and Hospitality Research. 17 (2): 123–134.


See also

* Animal culture * Anthropology * Cultural area * Cultural studies * Cultural tourism * Culture 21 – United Nations plan of action * * Outline of culture * Recombinant culture * Semiotics of culture


References


Further reading


Books

* * * * * * * * * "Adolf Bastian"
Encyclopædia Britannica Online
January 27, 2009 * * Arnold, Matthew. 1869

New York City, New York: Macmillan Publishers (United States), Macmillan. Third edition, 1882, available online. Retrieved: 2006-06-28. * Bakhtin, M.M. (1981)
The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays
'. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Press. . * Barzilai, Gad. 2003. ''Communities and Law: Politics and Cultures of Legal Identities'' University of Michigan Press. * * Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. ''Outline of a Theory of Practice.'' Cambridge University Press. * Michael C. Carhart, ''The Science of Culture in Enlightenment Germany'', Cambridge, Harvard University Press, Harvard University press, 2007. * Cohen, Anthony P. 1985. ''The Symbolic Construction of Community.'' Routledge: New York, * Dawkins, R. 1982. ''The Extended Phenotype, The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene.'' Paperback ed., 1999. Oxford Paperbacks. * Findley & Rothney. ''Twentieth-Century World'' (Houghton Mifflin, 1986) * Geertz, Clifford. 1973. ''The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays''. New York. . * * Goodall, J. 1986. ''The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. * Hoult, T.F., ed. 1969. ''Dictionary of Modern Sociology''. Totowa, New Jersey, United States: Littlefield, Adams & Co. * Jary, D. and J. Jary. 1991. ''The HarperCollins Dictionary of Sociology.'' New York: HarperCollins. * Keiser, R. Lincoln 1969. ''The Vice Lords: Warriors of the Streets''. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. . * Kroeber, A.L. and C. Kluckhohn, 1952. ''Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum * Kim, Uichol (2001). "Culture, science and indigenous psychologies: An integrated analysis." In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), ''Handbook of culture and psychology.'' Oxford: Oxford University Press * McClenon, James. "Tylor, Edward B(urnett)". ''Encyclopedia of Religion and Society''. Ed. William Swatos and Peter Kivisto. Walnut Creek: AltaMira, 1998. 528–29. * Middleton, R. 1990. ''Studying Popular Music''. Philadelphia: Open University Press. . * O'Neil, D. 2006
Cultural Anthropology Tutorials
Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marco, California. Retrieved: 2006-07-10. * Ronald Reagan, Reagan, Ronald
"Final Radio Address to the Nation"
January 14, 1989. Retrieved June 3, 2006. * Reese, W.L. 1980. ''Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought.'' New Jersey U.S., Sussex, U.K: Humanities Press. * * UNESCO. 2002
Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity
issued on International Mother Language Day, February 21, 2002. Retrieved: 2006-06-23. * White, L. 1949. ''The Science of Culture: A study of man and civilization.'' New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. * Wilson, Edward O. (1998). ''Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge.'' Vintage: New York. . * Wolfram, Stephen. 2002
A New Kind of Science
'' Wolfram Media, Inc. .


Articles


The Meaning of "Culture"
(2014-12-27), Joshua Rothman, ''The New Yorker''


External links


''Cultura: International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology''


{{Authority control Culture, Social concepts Social constructionism Main topic articles