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Culinary arts, in which '' culinary'' means "related to
cooking
cooking
", are the
cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the Earth, world, from grill ...

cuisine
arts of
food preparation Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology ...
, cooking, and presentation of food, usually in the form of
meal A meal is an eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any indivi ...

meal
s. People working in this field – especially in establishments such as
restaurant A restaurant is a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered i ...

restaurant
s – are commonly called "
chef Image:Chef préparant une truffe.jpg, An Italian chef preparing a truffle for diners A chef is a trained professional Cook (profession), cook and tradesman who is proficient in all aspects of outline of food preparation, food preparation, ofte ...

chef
s" or " cooks", although, at its most general, the terms "culinary artist" and "culinarian" are also used.
Table manners Table manners are the rules used while eating, which may also include the use of Cutlery, utensils. Different cultures observe different rules for table manners. Each family or group sets its own standards for how strictly these rules are to ...
("the table arts") are sometimes referred to as a culinary art. Expert
chef Image:Chef préparant une truffe.jpg, An Italian chef preparing a truffle for diners A chef is a trained professional Cook (profession), cook and tradesman who is proficient in all aspects of outline of food preparation, food preparation, ofte ...

chef
s are required to have knowledge of
food science Food science is the basic science and applied science Applied science is the use of the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of ...
,
nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, pr ...
and
diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition) In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for #Health, health or #Weight management, weight-mana ...
and are responsible for preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as they are to the
palate The palate () is the roof of the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ...

palate
. After restaurants, their primary places of work include
delicatessen Traditionally, a delicatessen or "deli" is a retail establishment that sells a selection of fine, exotic, or foreign prepared foods. Delicatessen originated in Germany (original: ''Delikatessen'') during the 18th century and spread to the United ...
s and relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.


History

The origins of culinary arts began with primitive humans roughly 2 million years ago. There are various theories as to how early humans used fire to cook meat. According to
anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology study the norm ...

anthropologist
Richard Wrangham Richard Walter Wrangham (born 1948) is an English anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, c ...

Richard Wrangham
, author of ''Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human'', primitive humans simply tossed a raw hunk of meat into the flames and watched it sizzle. Another theory claims humans may first have savoured roasted meat by chance when the flesh of a beast killed in a forest fire was found to be more appetizing and easier to chew and digest than the conventional raw meat. Culinary techniques improved with the introduction of earthenware and stoneware, the domestication of livestock, and advancements in
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, domesticated species created food ...

agriculture
. In early civilizations, the primary employers of professional chefs were kings, aristocrats, or priests. The divide between professional chefs cooking for the wealthy and peasants cooking for their families engendered the development of many cuisines. A great deal of the study of culinary arts in Europe was organized by
Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (; 1 April 1755, Belley, Ain – 2 February 1826, Paris) was a French people, French lawyer and politician, who, as the author of ''The Physiology of Taste'' (''Physiologie du Goût''), gained fame as an Epicureanis ...

Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin
, a man famous for his quote "Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are", which has since been mistranslated and oversimplified into "You are what you eat". Other people helped to parse out the different parts of food science and gastronomy. Over time, increasingly deeper and more detailed studies into foods and the culinary arts has led to a greater wealth of knowledge. In Asia, a similar path led to a separate study of the culinary arts, which later essentially merged with the Western counterpart. In the modern international marketplace, there is no longer a distinct divide between Western and Eastern foods. Culinary arts students today, generally speaking, are introduced to the different cuisines of many different cultures from around the world. The culinary arts, in the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
, as a craft and later as a field of study, began to evolve at the end of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
period. Prior to this, chefs worked in castles, cooking for kings and queens, as well as their families, guests, and other workers of the castle. As Monarchical rule became phased out as a modality, the chefs took their craft to
inns and hotels
inns and hotels
. From here, the craft evolved into a field of study. Before cooking institutions, professional cooks were mentors for individual students who apprenticed under them. In 1879, the first cooking school was founded in the United States: the Boston Cooking School. This school standardized cooking practices and recipes, and laid the groundwork for the culinary arts schools that would follow.


Tools and techniques

An integral part of the culinary arts are the tools, known as cooking or
kitchen utensil 250px, Various kitchen utensils on a kitchen hook strip. From left: – Pastry blender and potato masher – Spatula and (hidden) serving fork – Skimmer (utensil), Skimmer and chef's knife (small cleaver) – Whisk and slotted spoon – Spaghet ...

kitchen utensil
s, that are used by both professional chefs and home cooks alike. Professionals in the culinary arts often call these utensils by the French term "batterie de cuisine". These tools vary in materials and use. Cooking implements are made with anything from wood, glass, various types of metals, to the newer silicone and plastic that can be seen in many kitchens today. Within the realm of the culinary arts, there is a wide array of different cooking techniques that originate from various cultures and continue to develop over time as these techniques are shared between cultures and progress with new technology. Different cooking techniques require the use of certain tools, foods and heat sources in order to produce a specific desired result. The professional kitchen may utilize certain techniques that a home cook might not, such as the use of an expensive professional grill but, cooking methods of various kinds can be found in any kitchen at virtually any point in modern human history.Symons, Michael. "Cooking". ''Encyclopedia of Food and Culture'', edited by Solomon H. Katz, vol. 1, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003, pp. 458-462. ''Gale eBooks''. Accessed 27 Oct. 2019.


Professional study

Modern culinary arts students study many different aspects of food. Specific areas of study include
butchery A butcher is a person who may slaughter animals, dress their flesh, sell their meat, or participate within any combination of these three tasks. They may prepare standard cuts of meat and poultry for sale in retail or wholesale food establishmen ...

butchery
,
chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and i ...

chemistry
and
thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these quantities is governed by ...

thermodynamics
, visual presentation,
food safety Food safety (or food hygiene) is used as a scientific method/discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as ...
, human
nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, pr ...
and
physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, B ...
, international history, the manufacture of food items (such as the milling of wheat into flour or the refining of cane plants into
crystalline sucrose
crystalline sucrose
), and many others. Training in culinary arts is possible in most countries around the world usually at tertiary level (university) with institutions government funded, privately funded or commercial.


See also


References


Bibliography

* "Cooking Schools 101". Cooking Schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 September 2013 * "History". Of Culinary Archives & Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 September 2013 * "History of Culinary". Culinary Arts information RSS. N.p., nd. web.17 September 2013 * "History of Culinary Arts". Culinary Arts Information RSS. N.p,. web. 17 September 2013 * "The Culinary Timeline". The Culinary Timeline. N.p,.web. 17 September 2013 *


Further reading

* Beal, Eileen. ''Choosing a career in the restaurant industry''. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 1997. * Institute for Research. ''Careers and jobs in the restaurant business: jobs, management, ownership''. Chicago: The Institute, 1977.


External links


U.S. Department of Labor – Food Service Manager
Information.



Information. {{DEFAULTSORT:Culinary Art Cooking Arts by type