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A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an
autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...

autonomous
association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned
enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and economics Brands and enterprises * Enterprise GP Holdings Enterprise GP Holdings was a midstream energy holding company based in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is ...
".Statement on the Cooperative Identity.
''
International Cooperative Alliance The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental co-operative federation or, more precisely, a co-operative union Co-operatives UK is a British co-operative federation described as "the central membership organisation for ...
.''
Cooperatives are democratically owned by their members, with each member having one vote in electing the board of directors. Cooperatives may include: *
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
es owned and managed by the people who use their services (a
consumer cooperative Raunds Co-operative Society Limited was a consumer co-operative society based in Raunds, Northamptonshire, founded in 1891 A consumers' co-operative is an enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and e ...
) * organizations managed by the people who work there (
worker cooperative A worker cooperative is a cooperative Workers' self-management, owned and self-managed by its workers. This control may mean a firm where every worker-owner participates in decision-making in a democratic fashion, or it may refer to one in which m ...
s) * multi-stakeholder or hybrid cooperatives that share ownership between different stakeholder groups. For example, care cooperatives where ownership is shared between both care-givers and receivers. Stakeholders might also include non-profits or investors. * second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperatives *
platform cooperative A platform cooperative, or platform co-op, is a cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to bor ...
s that use a cooperatively owned and governed website, mobile app or a protocol to facilitate the sale of goods and services. Research published by the
Worldwatch Institute The Worldwatch Institute was a globally focused environmental research organization based in Washington, D.C., founded by Lester R. Brown. Worldwatch was named as one of the top ten sustainable development research organizations by Globescan Surve ...
found that in 2012 approximately one billion people in 96 countries had become members of at least one cooperative. The turnover of the largest three hundred cooperatives in the world reached $2.2
trillion A trillion is a number with two distinct definitions: * 1,000,000,000,000, i.e. one million million, or (ten to the twelfth power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted ...
. Cooperative businesses are typically more productive and economically
resilient Resilience, resilient, resiliency, or ''variation'', may refer to: Science Ecology * Ecological resilience In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering ...
than many other forms of enterprise, with twice the number of co-operatives (80%) surviving their first five years compared with other business
ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law Anglo-Saxon law (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germ ...
models (41%) according to data from United Kingdom. The largest worker owned cooperative in the world, the
Mondragon Corporation The Mondragon Corporation is a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law ...
(founded by Catholic priest
José María Arizmendiarrieta Father José María Arizmendiarrieta Madariaga (22 April 1915 – 29 November 1976) was a Basque Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, ...
), has been in continuous operation since 1956. Cooperatives frequently have social goals, which they aim to accomplish by investing a proportion of trading profits back into their communities. As an example of this, in 2013,
retail co-operative Raunds Co-operative Society Limited was a consumer co-operative society based in Raunds, Northamptonshire, founded in 1891 A consumers' co-operative is an enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and e ...
s in the
UK
UK
invested 6.9% of their pre-tax profits in the communities in which they trade as compared with 2.4% for other rival
supermarkets A supermarket is a self-service Self-service is the practice of serving oneself, usually when making purchases. Aside from Automatic Teller Machines, which are not limited to banks, and customer-operated supermarket check-out, labor-saving ...

supermarkets
. Since 2002, cooperatives have been distinguishable on the Internet through the use of a .coop domain. In 2014, the
International Co-operative Alliance The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental co-operative federationA co-operative federation or secondary co-operative is a cooperative, co-operative in which all members are, in turn, co-operatives. Historically, co-operat ...
(ICA) introduced the Cooperative Marque, meaning ICA cooperatives and WOCCU credit unions can also be identified through a coop
ethical consumerism Ethical consumerism (alternatively called ethical consumption, ethical purchasing, moral purchasing, ethical sourcing, or ethical shopping and also associated with sustainable and green consumerism) is a type of consumer activism ''See also Brand ...
label.


Origins and history

Cooperation dates back as far as human beings have been organizing for mutual benefits. Tribes were organized as cooperative structures, allocating jobs and resources among each other, only trading with the external communities. In alpine environments, trade could only be maintained in organized cooperatives to achieve a useful condition of artificial roads such as
Viamala Viamala or Via Mala ( Romansh: literally, "bad path") is a narrow gorge A canyon (; archaic British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germ ...
in 1472. Pre-industrial Europe is home to the first cooperatives from an industrial context. The roots of the cooperative movement can be traced to multiple influences and extend worldwide. In the
English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
, post-
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society ...
forms of cooperation between workers and owners that are expressed today as "
profit sharing Profit sharing refers to various incentive plans introduced by businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to employees that depend on company's profitability in addition to employees' regular salary and Performance-related pay, bonuses. In ...
" and "surplus sharing" arrangements existed as far back as 1795. The key ideological influence on the Anglosphere branch of the cooperative movement, however, was a ''rejection'' of the
charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being * Charity (practice), the practice of being benevolent, giving and sharing * Charity (virtu ...
principles that underpinned
welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet Basic needs, basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or ref ...
reforms when the
British government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
radically revised its
Poor Laws In English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World langu ...
in 1834. As both state and church institutions began to routinely distinguish between the 'deserving' and 'undeserving' poor, a movement of friendly societies grew throughout the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
based on the principle of mutuality, committed to self-help in the welfare of working people. In 1761, the
Fenwick Weavers' SocietyThe Fenwick Weavers' Society was a professional association created in the village of Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland in 1761. In 1769, the society formed a consumer co-operative for the benefit of members. The original purpose of the society ...
was formed in
Fenwick, East Ayrshire Fenwick is a village in East Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kingdom, UK. In 2019, its population was estimated to be 989. Fenwick is the terminus of the M77 motorway, M77 following its extension which was opened in April 2005, at the beginning of th ...
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
to sell
discounted Discounting is a financial mechanism in which a debtor obtains the right to delay payments to a creditor A creditor or lender is a party (e.g., person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party. ...
oatmeal Oatmeal refers to a Rolled oats, preparation of oats that have been dehusked, Steaming, steamed and flattened, or else a coarse flour made of hulled oat grains (Groat (grain), groats) that have either been mill (grinding), milled (ground) or steel ...

oatmeal
to local workers. Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans, emigration and education. In 1810,
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popul ...
er
Robert Owen Robert Owen (; 14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a textile manufacturer, philanthropist and social reformer, and a founder of and the movement. He strove to improve factory working conditions, promoted experimental socialistic communitie ...
, from Newtown in mid-
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
, and his partners purchased the
New Lanark New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Albums and EPs * ''New'' (album), by Paul McCartney, 2013 * ''New'' (EP), by Regurgitator, ...

New Lanark
mill from Owen's father-in-law,
David Dale David Dale (6 January 1739–7 March 1806) was a leading Scottish industrialist, merchant and philanthropist during the Scottish Enlightenment period at the end of the 18th century. He was a successful entrepreneur in a number of areas, mo ...
, and proceeded to introduce better labour standards, including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees. Owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of cooperative organization and develop coop ideas through writing and lecture. Cooperative communities were set up in
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
,
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
and
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain mod ...

Hampshire
, although ultimately unsuccessful. In 1828,
William KingWilliam King may refer to: Arts *Willie King (1943–2009), blues guitarist and singer *William King (author) (born 1959), British science fiction author and game designer, also known as Bill King *William King (artist) (1925–2015), American scul ...
set up a newspaper, ''The Cooperator'', to promote Owen's thinking, having already set up a cooperative store in Brighton. Also in 1810, Rev. Henry Duncan of the
Ruthwell Ruthwell is a village and parish on the Solway Firth The Solway Firth ( gd, Tràchd Romhra) is a firth on the west coast of Great Britain, in the Irish Sea The Irish Sea ( ga, Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, links=http://www.teanglann ...
Presbyterian Church Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
in
Dumfriesshire Dumfriesshire or the County of Dumfries (''Siorrachd Dhùn Phris'' in Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic) is a Counties of Scotland, historic county, registration county and Lieutenancy areas of Scotland, lieutenancy area of southern Scotland. It borders K ...

Dumfriesshire
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
founded a
friendly society A friendly society (sometimes called a benefit society A benefit society, fraternal benefit society, fraternal benefit order, or mutual aid society is a society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent S ...
to create a
cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...
depository institution Colloquially, a depository institution is a financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by th ...
at which his poorest parishioners could hold
savings account A savings account is a at a . Common features include a limited number of withdrawals, a lack of cheque and linked facilities, limited transfer options, and the inability to be overdrawn. Traditionally, transactions on savings accounts were w ...
s accruing
interest In and , interest is payment from a or deposit-taking financial institution to a or depositor of an amount above repayment of the (that is, the amount borrowed), at a particular rate. It is distinct from a which the borrower may pay the len ...

interest
for sickness and old-age, which was the first established
savings bank A savings bank is a financial institution whose primary purpose is accepting savings deposits and paying interest Interest, in finance and economics, is payment from a debtor, borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or d ...
that would be merged into the
Trustee Savings Bank The Trustee Savings Bank (TSB) was a British financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by ...

Trustee Savings Bank
between 1970 and 1985. The
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, was an early consumer co-operative Raunds Co-operative Society Limited was a consumer co-operative society based in Raunds, Northamptonshire, founded in 1891 A consumers' co-operative is ...
, founded in 1844, is usually considered the first successful cooperative enterprise, used as a model for modern coops, following the '
Rochdale Principles The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. They were first set out in 1844 by the Rochdale Pioneers, Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers in Rochdale, England and have formed the basis for the principles on ...
'. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in
Rochdale Rochdale is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines in the dale (landform), dale on the River Roch, northwest of Oldham and northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropo ...
, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. Within ten years there were over a thousand cooperative societies in the United Kingdom. "Spolok Gazdovský" (''The Association of Administrators'' or ''The Association of Farmers'') founded in 1845 by Samuel Jurkovič, was the first cooperative in Europe (
Credit union A credit union, a type of financial institution similar to a commercial bank, is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on a not-for-profit basis. Credit unions generally provide services to members simila ...
). The cooperative provided a cheap loan from funds generated by regular savings for members of the cooperative. Members of cooperative had to commit to a moral life and had to plant two trees in a public place every year. Despite the short duration of its existence, until 1851, it thus formed the basis of the cooperative movement in Slovakia. Slovak national thinker
Ľudovít Štúr Ľudovít Velislav Štúr (; hu, Stur Lajos; 28 October 1815 – 12 January 1856), known in his era as Ludevít Štúr, was a Slovakian revolutionary politician and writer. As a leader of the Slovak national revival in the 19th century, and th ...

Ľudovít Štúr
said about the association: "''We would very much like such excellent constitutions to be established throughout our region. They would help to rescue people from evil and misery. A beautiful, great idea, a beautiful excellent constitution!''" Other events such as the founding of a
friendly society A friendly society (sometimes called a benefit society A benefit society, fraternal benefit society, fraternal benefit order, or mutual aid society is a society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent S ...
by the
Tolpuddle Martyrs The Tolpuddle Martyrs were six agricultural labourers from the village of Tolpuddle in Dorset, England, who, in 1834, were convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. They were arrested on c ...
in 1832 were key occasions in the creation of organized labor and consumer movements. Friendly Societies established forums through which
one member, one voteIn the Parliamentary system, parliamentary politics of the United Kingdom and Canada, one member, one vote (OMOV) is a method of selecting party leaders by a direct vote of the members of a political party. Traditionally, these objectives have been a ...
was practiced in organisation decision-making. The principles challenged the idea that a person should be an owner of
property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to consume, alter, share, r ...
before being granted a political voice. Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century (and then repeatedly every twenty years or so) there was a surge in the number of cooperative organisations, both in commercial practice and civil society, operating to advance
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
and
universal suffrage Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (a ...
as a political principle. Friendly Societies and consumer cooperatives became the dominant form of organization amongst working people in Anglosphere
industrial societies In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empirical method, emp ...
prior to the rise of
trade unions A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply referred to as a union, is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards ...
and industrial factories. Weinbren reports that by the end of the 19th century, over 80% of British working age men and 90% of Australian working age men were members of one or more Friendly Society.Weinbren, D. & James, B. (2005) "Getting a Grip: the Roles of Friendly Societies in Australia and Britain Reappraised", Labour History, Vol. 88
.
From the mid-nineteenth century,
mutual organisation A mutual, mutual organization, or mutual society is an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comprisin ...
s embraced these ideas in economic enterprises, firstly amongst tradespeople, and later in cooperative stores, educational institutes, financial institutions and industrial enterprises. The common thread (enacted in different ways, and subject to the constraints of various systems of national law) is the principle that an enterprise or association should be owned and controlled by the people it serves, and share any surpluses on the basis of each member's cooperative contribution (as a producer, labourer or consumer) rather than their capacity to invest financial capital. The
International Co-operative Alliance The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental co-operative federationA co-operative federation or secondary co-operative is a cooperative, co-operative in which all members are, in turn, co-operatives. Historically, co-operat ...
was the first international association formed (1895) by the cooperative movement. It includes the
World Council of Credit Unions The World Council of Credit Unions (World Council or WOCCU) is the leading international trade association and development agency for credit unions and cooperative financial institutions. World Council promotes the self-sustainable development of ...
. The International Cooperative Alliance was founded in London, England on 19 August 1895 during the 1st Cooperative Congress. In attendance were delegates from cooperatives from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, England, Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, India, Italy, Switzerland, Serbia, and the US. A second organization formed later in Germany: the International Union. In the United States, the
National Cooperative Business Association Founded in 1916 as the Cooperative League of the United States of America, the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA) is a United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or Amer ...
(NCBA CLUSA; the abbreviation of the organization retains the initials of its former name, Cooperative League of the USA) serves as the sector's oldest national membership association. It is dedicated to ensuring that cooperative businesses have the same opportunities as other businesses operating in the country and that consumers have access to cooperatives in the marketplace. In 1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen received the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MD ...
for his invention of the AIV silage. This invention improved milk production and created a method of preserving butter, the AIV salt, which led to increased Finnish butter exports. He had started his career in chemistry in
Valio The Valio head office in Helsinki.html"_;"title="Pitäjänmäki,_Helsinki">Pitäjänmäki,_Helsinki_ Valio_Ltd_(_fi.html" ;"title="Helsinki_.html" ;"title="Helsinki.html" ;"title="Pitäjänmäki, Pitäjänmäki,_Helsinki_">Helsinki.html"_;"title ...
, a cooperative of dairy farmers in which he headed the research department for 50 years and where all his major inventions were first put to practice. Cooperative banks were first to adopt online banking. Stanford Federal Credit Union was the first
financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entit ...
to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994. In 1996
OP Financial Group OP Financial Group is one of the largest financial companies in Finland. It consists of 180 Cooperative banking, cooperative banks and their central organization. “OP” stands for “osuuspankki” in Finnish, literally meaning “cooperative ba ...

OP Financial Group
, also a
cooperative bank Cooperative banking is retail and commercial banking organized on a cooperative basis. Cooperative banking institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—us ...
, became the second online bank in the world and the first in Europe. By 2004 a new association focused on worker co-ops was founded, the United States Federation of Worker Cooperatives. The cooperative movement has been fueled globally by ideas of
economic democracy Economic democracy is a socioeconomic philosophy that proposes to shift decision-making power from corporate managers and corporate shareholders to a larger group of public stakeholders that includes workers, customers, suppliers, neighbours ...
. Economic democracy is a socioeconomic philosophy that suggests an expansion of decision-making power from a small minority of corporate shareholders to a larger majority of public stakeholders. There are many different approaches to thinking about and building economic democracy. Anarchists are committed to
libertarian socialism Libertarian socialism, also referred to as anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism, free socialism, stateless socialism, socialist anarchism and socialist libertarianism,Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. '' ...
and have focused on local organization, including locally managed cooperatives, linked through confederations of unions, cooperatives and communities. Marxists, who as socialists have likewise held and worked for the goal of democratizing productive and reproductive relationships, often placed a greater strategic emphasis on confronting the larger scales of human organization. As they viewed the capitalist class to be politically, militarily and culturally mobilized for the purpose of maintaining an exploitable
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar colorCo ...
, they fought in the early 20th century to appropriate from the capitalist class the society's collective political capacity in the form of the state. Though they regard the state as an unnecessarily oppressive institution, Marxists considered appropriating national and international-scale capitalist institutions and resources (such as the state) to be an important first pillar in creating conditions favorable to solidaristic economies. With the declining influence of the USSR after the 1960s, socialist strategies pluralized, though economic democratizers have not as yet established a fundamental challenge to the
hegemony Hegemony (, , ) is the political, economic, and military predominance of one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (new ...
of global .


Meaning


Identity


Co-op principles and values

Many cooperatives follow the seven
Rochdale Principles The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. They were first set out in 1844 by the Rochdale Pioneers, Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers in Rochdale, England and have formed the basis for the principles on ...
: #Voluntary and open membership #Democratic member control, with each member having one vote. #Economic participation by members #Autonomy and independence #Education, training and information #Cooperation among cooperatives #Concern for community


Co-op Marque and domain

Since 2002, ICA cooperatives and WOCCU
credit union A credit union, a type of financial institution similar to a commercial bank, is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on a not-for-profit basis. Credit unions generally provide services to members simila ...
s could be distinguished by use of a .coop domain. In 2014, ICA introduced the Global Cooperative Marque for use by ICAs Cooperative members and by WOCCU's Credit Union members so they can be further identified by their coop
ethical consumerism Ethical consumerism (alternatively called ethical consumption, ethical purchasing, moral purchasing, ethical sourcing, or ethical shopping and also associated with sustainable and green consumerism) is a type of consumer activism ''See also Brand ...
label. The marque is used today by thousands of cooperatives in more than a hundred countries. The .coop domain and Co-operative Marque were designed as a new symbol of the global cooperative movement and its collective identity in the digital age. The Co-operative Marque and domain is reserved just for co-operatives, credit unions and organisations that support co-operatives; is distinguished by its ethical badge that subscribes to the seven ICA Cooperative Principles and Co-op Values. Co-ops can be identified on the Internet through the use of the .coop suffix of internet addresses. Organizations using .coop domain names must adhere to the basic co-op values.


Cooperatives as legal entities

A cooperative is a
legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by it ...
owned and democratically controlled by its members. Members often have a close association with the enterprise as producers or consumers of its products or services, or as its employees. The legal entities have a range of social characteristics. Membership is open, meaning that anyone who satisfies certain non-discriminatory conditions may join. Economic benefits are distributed proportionally to each member's level of participation in the cooperative, for instance, by a dividend on sales or purchases, rather than according to
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
invested.International Cooperative Alliance
Statement on the Cooperative Identity
Cooperatives may be classified as either ''worker'', ''consumer'', ''producer'', ''purchasing'' or ''housing'' cooperatives. They are distinguished from other forms of incorporation in that profit-making or economic stability are balanced by the interests of the community. There are specific forms of incorporation for cooperatives in some countries, e.g.
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. Cooperatives may take the form of companies limited by shares or by guarantee, partnerships or unincorporated associations. In the UK they may also use the
industrial and provident society Community benefit societies were historically known as industrial and provident societies (IPS) which are legal entities for a trading business or voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, and New Zealand. The name i ...
structure. In the US, cooperatives are often organized as non-capital stock corporations under state-specific cooperative laws. Cooperatives often share their earnings with the membership as
dividend A dividend is a distribution of profit Profit may refer to: Business and law * Profit (accounting), the difference between the purchase price and the costs of bringing to market * Profit (economics), normal profit and economic profit * Profit ...

dividend
s, which are divided among the members according to their participation in the enterprise, such as patronage, instead of according to the value of their capital shareholdings (as is done by a
joint stock company A joint-stock company is a business entity In law, a legal person is any person or 'thing' (less ambiguously, any legal entity) that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as enter into contracts, lawsuit, sue ...
).


Cooperative share capital

The cooperative share capital or co-operative share capital (in short ''cooperative capital'' or ''co-operative capital'') is the form of capital that the cooperative accumulates from the paid participation shares of its members. The total amount of participation shares the paid to the cooperative constitutes the cooperative capital. The co-operative share capital is usually non-withdrawable and indivisible to the cooperative members.


Economic stability

'' Capital and the Debt Trap'' reports that "cooperatives tend to have a longer life than other types of enterprise, and thus a higher level of entrepreneurial sustainability". This
resilience Resilience, resilient, resiliency, or ''variation'', may refer to: Science Ecology * Ecological resilience In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering ...
has been attributed to how cooperatives share risks and rewards between members, how they harness the ideas of many and how members have a tangible ownership stake in the business. Additionally, "cooperative banks build up counter-cyclical buffers that function well in case of a crisis," and are less likely to lead members and clients towards a
debt trap Debt is an obligation that requires one party, the debtor, to pay money or other agreed-upon value to another party, the creditor. Debt is a deferred payment, or series of payments, which differentiates it from an immediate purchase. The deb ...
(p. 216). This is explained by their more democratic governance that reduces
perverse incentive A perverse incentive is an incentive that has an unintended and undesirable result that is contrary to the intentions of its designers. The cobra effect is the most direct kind of perverse incentive, typically because the incentive unintentionally r ...
s and subsequent contributions to
economic bubble An economic bubble is a situation in which asset prices are much higher than the underlying fundamentals can reasonably justify. Bubbles are sometimes caused by unlikely and overly optimistic projections about the future. It could also be describ ...
s.


In Europe

A 2013 report by
ILO The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations a ...

ILO
concluded that cooperative banks outperformed their competitors during the
financial crisis of 2007–2008 The financial crisis of 2007–2008, or global financial crisis (GFC), was a severe worldwide economic crisis An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and t ...
. The cooperative banking sector had 20% market share of the European banking sector, but accounted for only 7 per cent of all the write-downs and losses between the third quarter of 2007 and first quarter of 2011. Cooperative banks were also over-represented in lending to small and medium-sized businesses in all of the 10 countries included in the report. A 2013 report published by the UK Office for National Statistics showed that in the UK the rate of survival of cooperatives after five years was 80 percent compared with only 41 percent for all other enterprises. A further study found that after ten years 44 percent of cooperatives were still in operation, compared with only 20 percent for all enterprises. A 2012 report published by The European Confederation of cooperatives and worker-owned enterprises active in industry and services showed that in France and Spain, worker cooperatives and social cooperatives "have been more resilient than conventional enterprises during the economic crisis".


In North America


In the United States of America

In a 2007 study by the World Council of Credit Unions, the five-year survival rate of cooperatives in the United States was found to be 90% in comparison to 3-5% for traditional businesses.
Credit union A credit union, a type of financial institution similar to a commercial bank, is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on a not-for-profit basis. Credit unions generally provide services to members simila ...
s, a type of cooperative bank, had five times lower failure rate than other banks during the financial crisis and more than doubled lending to small businesses between 2008 and 2016, from $30 billion to $60 billion, while lending to small businesses overall during the same period declined by around $100 billion. Public trust in credit unions stands at 60%, compared to 30% for big banks and small businesses are five times less likely to be dissatisfied with a credit union than with a big bank.


In Canada

A 2010 report by the Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export in Québec found that the five-year survival rate and ten-year survival rate of cooperatives in Québec to be 62% and 44% respectively compared to 35% and 20% for conventional firms. Another report by the BC-Alberta Social economy Research Alliance found that the three-year survival rate of cooperatives in Alberta to be 81.5% in comparison to 48% for traditional firms. Another report by the aforementioned Research Alliance found that in British Columbia, the five-year survival rates for cooperatives between 2000 and 2010 to be 66.6% in comparison to conventional businesses that had 43% and 39% in the years 1984 and 1993 respectively


Types of cooperatives

The top 300 largest cooperatives were listed in 2007 by the
International Co-operative Alliance The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental co-operative federationA co-operative federation or secondary co-operative is a cooperative, co-operative in which all members are, in turn, co-operatives. Historically, co-operat ...
. 80% were involved in either
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...
,
finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corn ...
, or
retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption ( ...

retail
and more than half were in the United States, Italy, or France.


Consumers' cooperative

A consumers' cooperative is a business owned by its customers. Members vote on major decisions and elect the board of directors from among their own number. The first of these was set up in 1844 in the North-West of England by 28 weavers who wanted to sell food at a lower price than the local shops.


Retail cooperative

Retail cooperatives are retailers, such as grocery stores, owned by their customers. They should not be confused with retailers' cooperatives, whose members are retailers rather than consumers. In Denmark, Singapore, Italy, and Finland the company with the largest market share in the grocery store sector is a consumer owned cooperative. In Switzerland both the largest and the second largest retailer are consumer owned cooperatives.


Housing cooperative

A
housing cooperative A housing cooperative, or housing co-op, is a legal entity, usually a or a , which owns , consisting of one or more residential buildings; it is one type of . Housing cooperatives are a distinctive form of home ownership that have many charac ...
is a legal mechanism for ownership of housing where residents either own
shares In financial markets A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives at low transaction costs. Some of the securities include stocks and bonds, raw materials and precious metals, which are known ...
(share capital co-op) reflecting their equity in the cooperative's real estate or have membership and occupancy rights in a
not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that op ...
cooperative (non-share capital co-op), and they underwrite their housing through paying subscriptions or rent. Housing cooperatives come in three basic equity structures *In market-rate housing cooperatives, members may sell their shares in the cooperative whenever they like for whatever price the market will bear, much like any other residential property. Market-rate co-ops are very common in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. *Limited equity housing cooperatives, which are often used by
affordable housing Affordable housing is housing which is deemed affordable to those with a household income at or below the median household income, median as rated by the Government, national government or a local government by a recognized housing affordability in ...

affordable housing
developers, allow members to own some equity in their home, but limit the sale price of their membership share to that which they paid. *Group equity or zero-equity housing cooperatives do not allow members to own equity in their residences and often have rental agreements well below market rates. Members of a building cooperative (in Britain known as a self-build housing cooperative) pool resources to build housing, normally using a high proportion of their own labor. When the building is finished, each member is the sole owner of a homestead, and the cooperative may be dissolved. This collective effort was at the origin of many of Britain's
building societies A building society is a financial institution owned by its members as a mutual organization. Building societies offer banking and related financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the fi ...
, which however, developed into "permanent" mutual
savings and loan Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic entity. It is anything (ta ...
organisations, a term which persisted in some of their names (such as the former ''Leeds Permanent''). Nowadays such self-building may be financed using a step-by-step
mortgage A mortgage loan or simply mortgage () is a loan In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient (i.e., the borrower) incurs a ...
which is released in stages as the building is completed. The term may also refer to worker cooperatives in the building trade.


Utility cooperative

A utility cooperative is a type of
consumers' cooperative Raunds Co-operative Society Limited was a consumer co-operative society based in Raunds, Northamptonshire, founded in 1891 A consumers' co-operative is an enterprise owned by consumers and managed democratically which aims at fulfilling the needs ...
that is tasked with the delivery of a
public utility A public utility company (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a ...
such as
electricity Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...

electricity
,
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
or
telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication ov ...
services to its members. Profits are either reinvested into
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An eco ...

infrastructure
or distributed to members in the form of "patronage" or "capital credits", which are essentially
dividend A dividend is a distribution of profit Profit may refer to: Business and law * Profit (accounting), the difference between the purchase price and the costs of bringing to market * Profit (economics), normal profit and economic profit * Profit ...

dividend
s paid on a member's
investment Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In finance Finance is the study of financial institution ...

investment
into the cooperative. In the United States, many cooperatives were formed to provide rural electrical and telephone service as part of the
New Deal The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems theory Systems theory is the interdisciplinar ...
. ''See
Rural Utilities Service The United States Rural Utilities Service (RUS) administers programs that provide infrastructure or infrastructure improvements to rural communities. These include water and waste treatment, electric power, and telecommunications services. it is a ...
''. In the case of electricity, cooperatives are generally either generation and transmission (G&T) co-ops that create and send power via the transmission grid or local distribution co-ops that gather electricity from a variety of sources and send it along to homes and businesses. In Tanzania, it has been proven that the cooperative method is helpful in water distribution. When the people are involved with their own water, they care more because the quality of their work has a direct effect on the quality of their water.


Credit unions, cooperative banking and co-operative insurance

Credit union A credit union, a type of financial institution similar to a commercial bank, is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on a not-for-profit basis. Credit unions generally provide services to members simila ...
s are cooperative
financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entit ...
s that are owned and controlled by their members. Credit unions provide the same
financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of mone ...
as banks but are considered
not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that op ...
organizations and adhere to cooperative principles. Credit unions originated in mid-19th-century Germany through the efforts of pioneers Franz Herman Schulze'Delitzsch and
Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (30 March 1818 – 11 March 1888) was a German mayor and cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common eco ...

Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen
. The concept of financial cooperatives crossed the Atlantic at the turn of the 20th century, when the ''caisse populaire'' movement was started by Alphonse Desjardins in
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Quebec
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
. In 1900, from his home in Lévis, he opened North America's first credit union, marking the beginning of the
Mouvement Desjardins The Desjardins Group (french: Mouvement Desjardins) is a Canadian financial services cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common ec ...
. Eight years later, Desjardins provided guidance for the first credit union in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
, where there are now about 7,950 active status federally insured credit unions, with almost 90 million members and more than $679 billion on deposit. Financial cooperatives hold a significant market share in Europe and Latin America, as well as a few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. They also have a strong presence in Asia, Australia, and the United States. According to the World Council of Credit Unions (WOCCU), there were 68,882 financial cooperatives in 109 countries in 2016, serving more than 235 million members, with total assets exceeding 1.7 trillion dollars. It is worth noting that the WOCCU's data do not include some major financial cooperative networks in Europe, such as Germany, Finland, France, Denmark, and Italy. In many high-income economies, financial cooperatives hold significant market shares of the banking sector.Amr Khafagy

The Economics of Financial Cooperatives: Income Distribution, Political Economy and Regulation", Routledge, 2019
According to the European Association of Cooperative Banks, the market share of cooperative banks in the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) credit market by the end of 2016 was 37% in Finland, 45% in France, 33% in Germany, 43% in the Netherlands, and 22% in Canada. In Germany, Volksbanken-Raiffeisen banks have a market share of approximately 21% of domestic credit and domestic deposits. In the Netherlands, Rabobank holds 34% of deposits, and in France cooperative banks (Crédit Agricole, Crédit Mutuel and BPCE Group) possess more than 59% of domestic credit and 61% of domestic deposits. In Finland, OP financial group holds 35% and 38% of domestic credit and deposits, respectively, and in Canada, Desjardins holds around 42% of domestic deposits and 22% of domestic credit. There are many types of cooperative financial institutions with different names across the world, including financial cooperatives ('cooperativa financiera' is the Spanish term used in Latin America), cooperative banks, credit unions, and savings and credit cooperatives ('cooperativa de ahorro y crédito' in Spanish or 'coopérative d’épargne et de credit' in French-speaking countries). Cooperative banking networks, which were nationalized in Eastern Europe, work now as real cooperative institutions. In Poland, the SKOK (''Spółdzielcze Kasy Oszczędnościowo-Kredytowe'') network has grown to serve over 1 million members via 13,000 branches, and is larger than the country's largest conventional bank. In Nordic Countries, Scandinavia, there is a clear distinction between
mutual savings bank A mutual savings bank is a financial institution chartered by a central or regional government, without capital stock, owned by its members who subscribe to a common fund. From this fund, claims, loans, etc., are paid. Profits after deductions ...
s (Sparbank) and true
credit unions A credit union, a type of financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations that provide services as intermediaries of financial markets. Broadly speaking, there are three major types of f ...
(Andelsbank). The oldest cooperative banks in Europe, based on the ideas of Friedrich Raiffeisen, are joined together in the 'Urgenossen'.


Worker cooperative

A
worker cooperative A worker cooperative is a cooperative Workers' self-management, owned and self-managed by its workers. This control may mean a firm where every worker-owner participates in decision-making in a democratic fashion, or it may refer to one in which m ...
or producer cooperative is a cooperative that is owned and democratically controlled by its "worker-owners". There are no outside owners in a "pure" workers' cooperative, only the workers own shares of the business, though hybrid forms exist in which consumers, community members or capitalist investors also own some shares. In practice, control by worker-owners may be exercised through individual, collective or majority ownership by the workforce, or the retention of individual, collective or majority voting rights (exercised on a one-member one-vote basis). A worker cooperative, therefore, has the characteristic that the majority of its workforce owns shares, and the majority of shares are owned by the workforce. Membership is not always compulsory for employees, but generally only employees can become members either directly (as shareholders) or indirectly through membership of a trust that owns the company. The impact of political ideology on practice constrains the development of cooperatives in different countries. In India, there is a form of workers' cooperative which insists on compulsory membership for all employees and compulsory employment for all members. That is the form of the
Indian Coffee House Indian Coffee House is a restaurant chain A chain store or retail chain is a retail outlet in which several locations share a brand, central management, and standardized business practices. They have come to dominate the retail and dining ...

Indian Coffee House
s. This system was advocated by the Indian communist leader A. K. Gopalan. In places like the UK, common ownership (indivisible collective ownership) was popular in the 1970s. Cooperative Societies only became legal in Britain after the passing of Slaney's Act in 1852. In 1865 there were 651 registered societies with a total membership of well over 200,000. There are now more than 400 worker cooperatives in the UK,
Suma Wholefoods Suma is the trading name of the Triangle Wholefoods Collective Limited, a worker co-operative wholefoods wholesaler. It was founded in Leeds Leeds is the largest city in the Ceremonial counties of England, county of West Yorkshire, Engla ...
being the largest example with a turnover of £24 million.


Business and employment cooperative

''Business and employment cooperatives'' (BECs) are a subset of worker cooperatives that represent a new approach to providing support to the creation of new businesses. Like other business creation support schemes, BEC's enable budding entrepreneurs to experiment with their business idea while benefiting from a secure income. The innovation BECs introduce is that once the businesses are established, the entrepreneurs are not forced to leave and set up independently, but can stay and become full members of the cooperative. The micro-enterprises then combine to form one multi-activity enterprise whose members provide a mutually supportive environment for each other. BECs thus provide budding business people with an easy transition from inactivity to self-employment, but in a collective framework. They open up new horizons for people who have ambition but who lack the skills or confidence needed to set off entirely on their own – or who simply want to carry on an independent economic activity but within a supportive group context.


Purchasing cooperative

A "purchasing cooperative" is a type of cooperative arrangement, often among businesses, to agree to aggregate demand to get lower prices from selected suppliers. Retailers' cooperatives are a form of purchasing cooperative. Major purchasing cooperatives include
Best Western Best Western International, Inc. owns the Best Western Hotels & Resorts brand, which it licenses to over 4,700 hotels worldwide. The franchise, with its corporate headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona, includes more than 2,000 hotels in North America. T ...
,
ACE Hardware Ace Hardware Corporation is an American hardware Hardware may refer to: Technology Computing and electronics * Computer hardware, physical parts of a computer * Digital electronics, electronics that operate on digital signals * Electronic compone ...
and CCA Global Partners. ''Agricultural service cooperatives'' provide various services to their individual farming members, and to ''agricultural production cooperatives'', where production resources such as land or machinery are pooled and members farm jointly.Cobia, David, editor, ''Cooperatives in Agriculture'', Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989), p. 50. Agricultural supply cooperatives aggregate purchases, storage, and distribution of farm inputs for their members. By taking advantage of volume discounts and utilizing other
economies of scale 330px, As quantity of production increases from Q to Q2, the average cost of each unit decreases from C to C1. LRAC is the long-run average cost In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their sca ...
, supply cooperatives bring down members' costs. Supply cooperatives may provide seeds, fertilizers, chemicals, fuel, and farm machinery. Some supply cooperatives also operate machinery pools that provide mechanical field services (e.g., plowing, harvesting) to their members. Examples include the American cranberry-and-grapefruit cooperative Ocean Spray,
collective farm Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise". There are two broad types of communal farms: agricultural cooperatives, in which member-own ...
s in
socialist states Several past and present states have declared themselves socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which ca ...
and the
kibbutzim A kibbutz ( he, קִבּוּץ / , lit. "gathering, clustering"; plural: kibbutzim / ) is an intentional community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degania Alef, Degania. Tod ...
in Israel.


Producer cooperative

Producer cooperatives have producers as their members, and provide services involved in moving a product from the point of production to the point of consumption. Unlike worker cooperatives, they allow businesses with multiple employees to join.
Agricultural cooperative An agricultural cooperative, also known as a farmers' co-op, is a cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as th ...
s and fishery cooperatives are such examples.
Agricultural marketing Agricultural marketing covers the services involved in moving an agricultural product from the farm A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crop ...
cooperatives operate a series of interconnected activities involving planning production, growing and
harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an ...

harvest
ing, grading, packing, transport, storage,
food processing Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes with ...
, distribution and sale. Agricultural marketing cooperatives are often formed to promote specific commodities. Commercially successful agricultural marketing cooperatives include India's
Amul Amul, is an Indian dairy cooperative society, based at Anand, Gujarat, Anand in the Indian state of Gujarat. Formed in 1946, it is a cooperative brand managed by a cooperative body, the ''Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd''. (G ...
(dairy products), which is the world's largest producer of milk and milk products,
Dairy Farmers of America Dairy Farmers of America Inc. (DFA) is a national milk Milk is a nutrient-rich liquid food produced by the mammary gland A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammal ...
(dairy products) in the United States, and Malaysia's
FELDA The Federal Land Development Authority (Felda; ms, Lembaga Kemajuan Tanah Persekutuan. LKTP) is a Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal terr ...
(
palm oil Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substa ...

palm oil
). Producer cooperatives may also be organized by small businesses for pooling their savings and accessing capital, for acquiring supplies and services, or for marketing products and services. Producer cooperatives among urban artisans were developed in the mid-19th-century in Germany by
Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch, also Hermann Schulze, (29 August 1808 – 29 April 1883) was a German politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with makin ...
, who also promoted changes to the legal system (the Prussian ''Genossenschaftsgesetz'' of 1867) that facilitated such cooperatives. At about the same time,
Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (30 March 1818 – 11 March 1888) was a German mayor and cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common eco ...

Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen
developed similar cooperatives among rural people.


Multi-stakeholder cooperatives

Multi-stakeholder cooperatives include representation from different stakeholder groups, such as both consumers and workers.


Social cooperative

Cooperatives traditionally combine social benefit interests with capitalistic property-right interests. Cooperatives achieve a mix of social and capital purposes by democratically governing distribution questions by and between equal but not controlling members. Democratic oversight of decisions to equitably distribute assets and other benefits means capital ownership is arranged in a way for social benefit inside the organization. External societal benefit is also encouraged by incorporating the operating-principle of cooperation between co-operatives. In the final year of the 20th century, cooperatives banded together to establish a number of
social enterprise A social enterprise is an organization that applies commercial strategies to make a positive difference for social benefit. The social impact is funded wholly or partly by reinvesting profits made by the organization to create social capital. Profi ...
agencies that have moved to adopt the multi-stakeholder cooperative model. In the years 1994–2009 the and its member nations gradually revised national accounting systems to "make visible" the increasing contribution of social economy organizations. A particularly successful form of multi-stakeholder cooperative is the Italian "social cooperative", of which some 11,000 exist. "Type A" social cooperatives bring together providers and beneficiaries of a social service as members. "Type B" social cooperatives bring together permanent workers and previously unemployed people who wish to integrate into the labor market. They are legally defined as follows: *no more than 80% of profits may be distributed, interest is limited to the bond rate, and dissolution is altruistic (assets may not be distributed) *the cooperative has legal personality and limited liability *the objective is the general benefit of the community and the social integration of citizens *those of type B integrate disadvantaged people into the labour market. The categories of disadvantage they target may include physical and mental disability, drug and alcohol addiction, developmental disorders and problems with the law. They do not include other factors of disadvantage such as unemployment, race, sexual orientation or abuse. *type A cooperatives provide health, social or educational services *various categories of stakeholder may become members, including paid employees, beneficiaries, volunteers (up to 50% of members), financial investors and public institutions. In type B cooperatives at least 30% of the members must be from the disadvantaged target groups *voting is one person one vote


SCIC

The SCIC – ''Société coopérative d'intérêt collective'' (co-operative society of collective interest) is a type of multi-stakeholder co-operative structure introduced in France in 1982. A SCIC must have at least three different categories of members, including users and employees. Other stakeholder groups that may be represented are volunteers, public authorities and other individual or corporate supporters. Voting is on a ‘one member, one vote’ basis, though voting in colleges is also provided for under certain circumstances. SCICs must have a ‘general interest’ objective. Public bodies can subscribe for up to 20% of the capital. The status allows an association to convert into a co-operative without having to change its legal form. The relative rigidity of the structure, combined with the government's failure to grant tax relief, has limited its take-up.


Multi-stakeholding in retailing

Multi-stakeholder co-operatives also exist in the retail sector. An example is Färm, a Belgian wholefood retailing cooperative founded in 2015 which favours organic and local produce. It operates 16 shops, of which 11 are in Brussels. Categories of members: The cooperative brings together all the participants in the food chain from farm to fork, represented by six different categories of members: * A Investors: the people providing the financial means necessary to achieve the enterprise's ambitions, currently four of the project's founders. This category holds 94% of the shares but only exercises 50% of the votes. The board will consider applications from people wishing to invest in excess of €25,000; * B Managers: the members of Färm's management; * C Workers: members of staff working at Färm, who currently number 36; * D Sympathisers: clients and people who want to support the project without having a contractual or commercial relationship with it. Anyone can become part of this category by buying shares worth a minimum of €105 (currently 5 shares of €21), and a maximum of €5,000. As of September 2020 the cooperative was not accepting new members; * E Suppliers and producers: there is no obligation to hold shares in order to collaborate commercially with Färm, but the enterprise finds it nice that the two groups support each other; * F Supporters: self-employed people who have opened a store under the Färm brand. Governance Each member has one vote. The members elect the board of 10 at the annual general meeting. Each category of members has at least one board member to represent them. An innovative governance provision ensure that one group of members can dominate the others. In practice board decisions are taken by consensus. In the event of a vote, each director has one vote, and except where the cooperative's registered or internal rules provide otherwise, decisions are taken by simple majority of those present or represented. But in the event of a tie, if the votes of a group of voters all belong to the same category, the votes of the other categories prevail. To ensure that members are committed to the cooperative's values, vision and objectives, to guarantee its long-term finance and to limit financial speculation, shares are not transferable for a period of four years. Members receive a 2% discount on purchases.


New generation cooperative

New generation cooperatives (NGCs) are an adaptation of traditional cooperative structures to modern, capital intensive industries. They are sometimes described as a hybrid between traditional co-ops and limited liability companies or public benefit corporations. They were first developed in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
and spread and flourished in the US
Mid-West The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of ...
in the 1990s. They are now common in Canada where they operate primarily in agriculture and food services, where their primary purpose is to add value to
primary products The primary sector of the economy includes any Industry (economics), industry involved in the extraction and production of raw materials, such as farming, logging, hunting, fishing, and mining. The primary sector tends to make up a larger portion ...
. For example, producing
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...
from
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American English, North American and Australian English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas, indige ...

corn
,
pasta Pasta (, ; ) is a type of food typically made from an unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or other shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes such as beans or lentils, are so ...

pasta
from
durum wheat Durum wheat (), also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (''Triticum durum'' or ''Triticum turgidum'' subsp. ''durum''), is a tetraploid species of wheat Wheat is a grass widely Agriculture, cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a ...
, or gourmet cheese from
goat's milk Goat milk is the milk of domestic goat The domestic goat or simply goat (''Capra aegagrus hircus'') is a subspecies of '' C. aegagrus'' domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of or ...
.


Other


Platform cooperative

A platform cooperative, or platform co-op, is a cooperatively owned, democratically governed business that establishes a computing platform, and uses a protocol, website or mobile app to facilitate the sale of goods and services. Platform cooperatives are an alternative to venture capital-funded platforms insofar as they are owned and governed by those who depend on them most—workers, users, and other relevant stakeholders. Proponents of platform cooperativism claim that, by ensuring the financial and social value of a platform circulate among these participants, platform cooperatives will bring about a more equitable and fair digitally mediated economy in contrast with the extractive models of corporate intermediaries. Platform cooperatives differ from traditional cooperatives not only due to their use of digital technologies, but also by their contribution to the
commons The commons is the cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, ...

commons
for the purpose of fostering an equitable social and economic landscape.


Volunteer cooperative

A volunteer cooperative is a cooperative that is run by and for a network of volunteers, for the benefit of a defined membership or the general public, to achieve some goal. Depending on the structure, it may be a
collective A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective. Collectives can differ from cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, c ...
or
mutual organization A mutual, mutual organization, or mutual society is an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -iza ...
, which is operated according to the principles of cooperative governance. The most basic form of volunteer-run cooperative is a
voluntary association A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association, association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization ...
. A
lodge Lodge is originally a term for a relatively small building, often associated with a larger one. Lodge or The Lodge may refer to: Buildings and structures Specific * The Lodge (Australia), the official Canberra residence of the Prime Ministe ...
or
social club A social club may be a group of people or the place where they meet, generally formed around a common interest, occupation, or activity. Examples include: book discussion club A book discussion club is a group of people who meet to discuss a ...

social club
may be organized on this basis. A volunteer-run co-op is distinguished from a
worker cooperative A worker cooperative is a cooperative Workers' self-management, owned and self-managed by its workers. This control may mean a firm where every worker-owner participates in decision-making in a democratic fashion, or it may refer to one in which m ...
in that the latter is by definition
employee-owned Employee stock ownership, or employee share ownership, is where a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a ...
, whereas the volunteer cooperative is typically a
non-stock corporation A non-stock corporation is a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law 'born out of statute"; ...
, volunteer-run consumer co-op or
service organization A service club or service organization is a Volunteering, voluntary nonprofit organization where members meet regularly to perform Charity (practice), charitable works either by direct hands-on efforts or by raising money for other organizations. ...
, in which workers and beneficiaries jointly participate in management decisions and receive discounts on the basis of
sweat equitySweat equity is a non-monetary benefit that a company's stakeholders give in labor and time, rather than a monetary contribution, that benefit the company. Sweat equity is rewarded in the form of sweat equity shares. These are shares given out by a c ...
.


Federal or secondary cooperative

In some cases, cooperative societies find it advantageous to form
cooperative federationA co-operative federation or secondary co-operative is a co-operative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomy, autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cu ...
s in which all of the members are themselves cooperatives. Historically, these have predominantly come in the form of cooperative wholesale societies, and cooperative unions. Cooperative federations are a means through which cooperative societies can fulfill the sixth Rochdale Principle, cooperation among cooperatives, with the ICA noting that "Cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the cooperative movement by working together through local, regional and international structures."


Cooperative union

A second common form of cooperative federation is a cooperative union, whose objective (according to Gide) is "to develop the spirit of solidarity among societies and... in a word, to exercise the functions of a government whose authority, it is needless to say, is purely moral."
Co-operatives UK Co-operatives UK is a British cooperative federation, co-operative federation described as "the central membership organisation for Cooperative, co-operative enterprise throughout the UK". It was founded in 1870 as the Co-operative Central Boa ...
and the
International Cooperative Alliance The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental co-operative federation or, more precisely, a co-operative union Co-operatives UK is a British co-operative federation described as "the central membership organisation for ...
are examples of such arrangements.


Cooperative political movements

In some countries with a strong cooperative sector, such as the UK, cooperatives may find it advantageous to form political groupings to represent their interests. The British
Co-operative Party The Co-operative Party is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...
, the Canadian
Cooperative Commonwealth Federation The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) (french: Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from 1955 the ') was a social-democraticThese sources describe the CCF as a social-democratic political party: * * * * * and democratic socialistTh ...
and
United Farmers of Alberta The United Farmers of Alberta (UFA) is an association of Alberta Alberta () is one of the thirteen of . It is part of and is one of the three . is the official language of the province. In 2016, 76.0% of Albertans were , 1.8% were and 22.2% ...
are prime examples of such arrangements.


= UK

= The British cooperative movement formed the
Co-operative Party The Co-operative Party is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...
in the early 20th century to represent members of
consumers' cooperative Raunds Co-operative Society Limited was a consumer co-operative society based in Raunds, Northamptonshire, founded in 1891 A consumers' co-operative is an enterprise owned by consumers and managed democratically which aims at fulfilling the needs ...
s in Parliament, which was the first of its kind. The Co-operative Party now has a permanent electoral pact with the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
meaning someone cannot be a member if they support a party other than Labour.
Plaid Cymru Plaid Cymru ( ; ; officially Plaid Cymru – the Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language E ...
also run a credit union that is constituted as a co-operative, called the 'Plaid Cymru Credit Union'. UK cooperatives retain a strong market share in food retail, insurance, banking, funeral services, and the travel industry in many parts of the country, although this is still significantly lower than other business models. Former leader of the British Labour Party
Jeremy Corbyn Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (; born 26 May 1949) is a British politician who served as Leader of the Labour Party (UK), Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom), Leader of the Opposition from 2015 to 2020. A Member of ...

Jeremy Corbyn
has publicly expressed support for worker cooperatives.


Women in cooperatives

Since cooperatives are based on values like
self-help Self-help or self-improvement is a self-guided improvement''APA Dictionary of Physicology'', 1st ed., Gary R. VandenBos, ed., Washington: American Psychological Association, 2007.—economically, intellectually, or emotionally—often with a substa ...
,
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
, equality,
equity Equity may refer to: Finance, accounting and ownership *Equity (finance), ownership of assets that have liabilities attached to them ** Stock, equity based on original contributions of cash or other value to a business ** Home equity, the differe ...
, and
solidarity Solidarity is an awareness of shared interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies creating a psychological sense of unity of groups or classes, which rejects the class conflict Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and class ...

solidarity
, they can play a particularly strong role in empowering women, especially in developing countries. Cooperatives allow women who might have been isolated and working individually to band together and create
economies of scale 330px, As quantity of production increases from Q to Q2, the average cost of each unit decreases from C to C1. LRAC is the long-run average cost In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their sca ...

economies of scale
as well as increase their own
bargaining power Bargaining power is the relative power of parties in a situation to exert influence over each other. If both parties are on an equal footing in a debate, then they will have equal bargaining power, such as in a perfectly competitive market In eco ...
in the market. In statements in advance of
International Women's Day International Women's Day (IWD) is a global holiday celebrated annually on March 8 to commemorate the cultural, political, and socioeconomic achievements of women. It is also a focal point in the women's rights movement, bringing attention to ...
in early 2013, President of the
International Cooperative Alliance The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental co-operative federation or, more precisely, a co-operative union Co-operatives UK is a British co-operative federation described as "the central membership organisation for ...
, Dame Pauline Green, said, "Cooperative businesses have done so much to help women onto the ladder of economic activity. With that comes community respect, political legitimacy and influence." However, despite the supposed democratic structure of cooperatives and the values and benefits shared by members, due to
gender norms A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, ...
on the traditional role of women, and other instilled cultural practices that sidestep attempted legal protections, women suffer a disproportionately low representation in cooperative membership around the world. Representation of women through ''active'' membership (showing up to meetings and voting), as well as in leadership and managerial positions is even lower.Nippierd, A. (2002)
"Gender issues in cooperatives."
Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization


Cooperatives in popular culture

, the number of memberships in cooperatives reached one billion, and so the organizational structure and movement has seeped into popular culture. However, in comparison with the number of co-operatives, they are rarely the subject of literature. Among these,
Ken Follett Kenneth Martin Follett, (born 5 June 1949) is a Welsh author of thrillers and historical novels who has sold more than 160 million copies of his works. Many of his books have achieved high ranking on best seller lists. For example, in the US, ...

Ken Follett
mentions their role in working-class life during the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
in ''
Fall of Giants ''Fall of Giants'' is a historical novel Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past. Although the term is commonly used as a synonym for the historical novel, it can also be applied to ...
'' (2010), the first volume of his ''Century Trilogy'': :"Where's our mam?" :"Gone down the Co-op for a tin of jam." The local grocery was a co-operative store, sharing profits among its customers. Such shops were popular in South Wales, although no one knew how to pronounce Co-op, variations ranging from "cop" to "quorp". Less seriously, in ''Murder in the Collective'', Barbara Wilson sets a murder mystery among radical printing collectives in Seattle, while Frances Madeson's 2007 comic novel ''Cooperative Village'' is set in the eponymous housing co-operative in New York. In the
HBO Home Box Office (HBO) is an American pay television Pay television also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to subscription-based television Tel ...
drama television series ''
The Wire ''The Wire'' is an American Crime film, crime drama Television show, television series created and primarily written by author and former police reporter David Simon. The series was broadcast by the cable network HBO in the United States. ''The ...
'', several drug dealers create a democratic alliance called the
New Day Co-Op New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
with the interests of cutting back on violence and increasing business. ''Co-opoly: The Game of Cooperatives'' is a popular
board game Board games are tabletop games that typically use moved or placed on a pre-marked board (playing surface) and often include elements of Table game, table, Card game, card, Role-playing game, role-playing, and Miniatures game, miniatures games a ...
played around the world that challenges players to work together to start and run a cooperative and overcome major hurdles."Teach Your Children Well: Don't Play Monopoly"
, Truthout.org
Cooperatives feature prominently in the Martian economy in Kim Stanley Robinson's ''Mars'' trilogy.


See also

*
Artist cooperative An artist cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an autonomous visual arts organization, enterprise, or association jointly owned and democratically controlled by its members. Artist cooperatives are legal entities organized as non-capital stoc ...
*
Co-determination In corporate governance Corporate governance is the collection of mechanisms, processes and relations used by various parties to control and to operate a corporation. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and re ...
** Worker representation on corporate boards of directors *
Cooperative economics Co-operative economics is a field of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption ( ...
*
Collective ownership Collective ownership is the ownership of means of production by all members of a group for the benefit of all its members. The breadth or narrowness of the group can range from a whole society to a set of coworkers in a particular Business, enterp ...
*
Cohousing Cohousing is an intentional community of private homes clustered around shared space. The term originated in Denmark in late 1960s. Each attached or single family home has traditional amenities, including a private kitchen. Shared spaces typical ...
*
Common ownership Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and economics Brands and enterprises * Enterprise GP Holdings Enterprise GP Holdings ...
*
Commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically hold a common social, politica ...

Commune
*
Corporatism Corporatism is a collectivist political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philo ...
* Cost the limit of price * Danish cooperative movement *
Distributism Distributism is an economic theory asserting that the world's productive assets should be widely owned rather than concentrated. Developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, distributism was based upon the principles of Catholic social ...
*
Employee stock ownership Employee stock ownership, or employee share ownership, is where a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a m ...
*
Employee stock ownership plan Employee stock ownership, or employee share ownership, is where a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a m ...
*
Friendly society A friendly society (sometimes called a benefit society A benefit society, fraternal benefit society, fraternal benefit order, or mutual aid society is a society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent S ...
*
History of the cooperative movement The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, soci ...
*
Kibbutz A kibbutz ( he, קִבּוּץ / , lit. "gathering, clustering"; plural: kibbutzim / ) is a Intentional community, collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degani ...

Kibbutz
*
List of co-operative federations This is a list of co-operative federations. For a list of individual Co-operative Enterprises, please see List of cooperatives. International * Africa Confederation of Co-operative Savings and Credit Associations (ACCOSCA) * International Co-o ...
*
List of cooperatives This is a list of notable co-operative enterprises by country. Co-operative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomy, autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, ...
*
Market socialism Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the Public ownership, public, Cooperative ownership, cooperative, or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy. Market socialism differs from Economi ...
*
Microfinance Microfinance is a category of financial services targeting individuals and small businesses who lack access to conventional banking A bank is a financial institution that accepts Deposit account, deposits from the public and creates a dem ...

Microfinance
/
microcredit :''This article is specific to small loans, often provided in a pooled manner. For direct payments to individuals for specific projects, see Micropatronage. For financial services to the poor, see Microfinance. For small payments, see Micropayme ...
* Mondragón Cooperative Corporation * Mutual aid *
Mutual Ownership Defense Housing DivisionThe Mutual Ownership Defense Housing Division of the Federal Works Agency, an agency of the United States government, operating from about 1940 to 1942 under the leadership of Colonel Lawrence Westbrook, was an attempt by the United States Governm ...
*
Mutualism (economic theory) Mutualism is an anarchist school of thought Anarchism Anarchism is a political philosophy and Political movement, movement that is sceptical of authority and rejects all involuntary, coercive forms of hierarchy. Anarchism calls for the ...
*
Neo-capitalism Neo-capitalism is an economic ideology which blends some elements of capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for Profit (economics), profit. Central characteri ...
*
Participatory democracy Participatory democracy or participative democracy is a model of democracy in which citizens are provided power to make political decisions. Etymological roots of ''democracy'' (Greek ''wikt:demos, demos'' and ''wikt:κράτος, kratos'') imply t ...
* Participatory economics * Polytechnic University of the Philippines College of Cooperatives and Social Development *
Social corporatism Social corporatism, also called social democratic corporatism, is a form of economic tripartite corporatism Corporatism is a political ideology which advocates the organization of society by corporate groups, such as agricultural, labour, ...
*
Social ownership Social ownership is the appropriation of the surplus product Surplus product (german: Mehrprodukt, links=no) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philoso ...
*
Syndicalism Syndicalism is a current in the labor movement The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings: the trade union movement ( British English) or labor union movement (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USE ...

Syndicalism
*
Socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
*
Worker cooperative A worker cooperative is a cooperative Workers' self-management, owned and self-managed by its workers. This control may mean a firm where every worker-owner participates in decision-making in a democratic fashion, or it may refer to one in which m ...


References


Bibliography


Neoliberal Co-optation of Leading Co-op Organizations, and a Socialist Counter-Politics of Cooperation
(February 2015), Carl Ratner, ''
Monthly Review The ''Monthly Review'', established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City. The publication is the longest continuously published socialist magazine in the United States. History Establishment Following th ...

Monthly Review
'', Volume 66, Number 9
Cooperatives On the Path to Socialism?
(February 2015), Peter Marcuse, ''
Monthly Review The ''Monthly Review'', established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City. The publication is the longest continuously published socialist magazine in the United States. History Establishment Following th ...

Monthly Review
'', Volume 66, Number 9 * * * Armitage, S. (1991) 'Consequences of Mutual Ownership for Building Societies', The Service Industries Journal, October, Vol.11(4): pp. 458–480 (p. 471). * Birchall, Johnston. "The International Co-operative Movement", 1997 * Brazda, Johann and Schediwy, Robert (eds.) "Consumer Co-operatives in a Changing World"(ICA), 1989 * Bernardi A., Monni S., eds., (2016)
"The Co-operative firm – Keywords, Roma: RomaTrE-Press."
* Cooperative League of America
''Co-operation 1921–1947''
* Cornforth, C. J. et al. ''Developing Successful Worker Co-ops'', London: Sage Publications, 1988. * Curl, John. "''For All The People: Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America''," PM Press, 2009 * Dana, Leo Paul 2010, "Nunavik, Arctic Quebec: Where Co-operatives Supplement Entrepreneurship," Global Business and Economics Review 12 (1/2), January 2010, pp. 42–71. * Derr, Jascha
''The cooperative movement of Brazil and South Africa''
2013 * Emerson, John
"Consider the Collective: More than business as usual"
2005. Article on graphic design and printing cooperatives. * Gide, Charles
''Consumers' Co-operative Societies''
1922 * Holyoake, George Jacob
''The History of Co-operation''
1908 * Llewellyn, D. and Holmes, M. (1991) 'In Defence of Mutuality: A Redress to an Emerging Conventional Wisdom', Annals of Public and Co-operative Economics, Vol.62(3): pp. 319–354 (p. 327). * Masulis, R. (1987) 'Changes in Ownership Structure: Conversions of Mutual Savings and Loans to Stock Charter', Journal of Financial economics, Vol.18: pp. 29–59 (p. 32). * Paton, R. ''Reluctant Entrepreneurs'', Open University Press, 1989. * Rasmusen, E. (1988) 'Mutual banks and stock banks', Journal of Law and Economics, October, Vol.31: pp. 395–421 (p. 412). * Van Deusen, David. (2006
''Co-ops: The Changing Face of Employment in the Green Mountains''
, Z Magazine. * Vicari S., (2015)
"2014 Annual Report on FAO’s projects and activities in support of producer organizations and cooperatives"
* Vieta, Marco (ed.
"The New Cooperativism" in ''Affinities: A Journal of Radical Theory, Culture, and Action'', Vol. 4, Issue 1, 2010
* Warbasse, James Peter
''Cooperative Peace''
, 1950 * Warbasse, James Peter
''Problems Of Cooperation''
1941 * Whyte, W. F. and Whyte, K. K. ''Making Mondragon'', New York: ILR Press/Itchaca, 1991. * Zeuli, Kimebrly A. and Cropp, Robert

, 2004

a curriculum on cooperative business for secondary school students.
''India: Re-inventing cooperatives by increasing youth involvement''
* Zvi Galor ''Production Cooperative – A Tool for National Development'' in COOP DIALOGUE – An ICA ROAP Journal, vol. 4 No. 1–2 – pp. 13–22 and 17–33.
''The Economics of Financial Cooperatives: Income Distribution, Political Economy and Regulation''
, Amr Khafagy, 2019


External links



from ''
Dollars & Sense ''Dollars & Sense'' is a magazine focusing on economics from a progressive perspective, published by Dollars & Sense, Inc, which also publishes textbooks in the same genre. ''Dollars & Sense'' describes itself as publishing "economic news and anal ...
'' magazine
United Nations 2012 International Year of Cooperatives (IYC)


{{Authority control Business models Market socialism Mutualism (movement) Types of business entity
Types of organization{{Commons category, Types of organization : This category collects articles on types of organizations. See :Organizations by type, which collects categories of organizations by type. Organizations Types, Organizations ...
Private aid programs