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Nature conservation is the moral philosophy and
conservation movement The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resource , Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation ...
focused on protecting species from
extinction Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ...

extinction
, maintaining and restoring
habitats In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organism ...
, enhancing
ecosystem services Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits to humans provided by the natural environment and from healthy . Such ecosystems include, for example, s, s, s and s. These ecosystems, functioning in healthy relationship, offer such things ...
, and protecting
biological diversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...
. A range of values underlie conservation, which can be guided by biocentrism,
anthropocentrism Anthropocentrism (; from grc, ἄνθρωπος, ''ánthrōpos'', "human being"; and grc, κέντρον, ''kéntron'', "center") is the belief that human beings are the most important entity in the universe. Anthropocentrism interprets or re ...
,
ecocentrism Ecocentrism (; from Greek: οἶκος ''oikos'', "house" and κέντρον ''kentron'', "center") is a term used in ecological political philosophy to denote a nature-centered, as opposed to human-centered (i.e. anthropocentric), system of valu ...
, and
sentientism Sentientism is an ethical philosophy according to which moral consideration is based on sentience Sentience is the capacity to be aware of feelings and sensations. The word was first coined by philosophers in the 1630s for the concept of an abil ...
, environmental ideologies that inform ecocultural practices and identities. There has recently been a movement towards
evidence-based conservation Evidence-based conservation is the application of evidence in nature conservation management actions and policy making. It is defined as systematically assessing scientific information from published, peer-reviewed publications and texts, practition ...
which calls for greater use of scientific evidence to improve the effectiveness of conservation efforts. As of 2018 15% of land and 7.3% of the oceans were protected. Many environmentalists set a target of protecting 30% of land and marine territory by 2030.


Introduction

Conservation goals include conserving habitat, preventing
deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

deforestation
, halting species
extinction Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ...

extinction
, reducing
overfishing Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, an ...
, and mitigating
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
. Different philosophical outlooks guide conservationists towards these different goals. The principal value underlying many expressions of the conservation ethic is that the natural world has intrinsic and intangible worth along with utilitarian value – a view carried forward by parts of the scientific
conservation movement The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resource , Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation ...
and some of the older
Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** Romanticism in science, of that er ...
schools of the
ecology movement The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation movement, conservation and green politics, is a diverse philosophical, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues. En ...
. Philosophers have attached intrinsic value to different aspects of nature, whether this is individual organisms ( biocentrism) or ecological wholes such as species or ecosystems (ecoholism). More
utilitarian Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically va ...
schools of conservation have an anthropocentric outlook and seek a proper valuation of local and global impacts of human activity upon nature in their effect upon human
wellbeing Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuable relative ''to'' someone. So the well-being of a person is what is ultimately good ''for'' this person, what is in the s ...
, now and to posterity. How such values are assessed and exchanged among people determines the social, political and personal restraints and imperatives by which conservation is practiced. This is a view common in the modern
environmental movement The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation ...
. There is increasing interest in extending the responsibility for human wellbeing to include the welfare of
sentient Sentience is the capacity to experience feeling Feeling was originally used to describe the physical sensation of touch The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system. The somatosensory system is a complex system of sensory ...
animals. Branches of conservation ethics focusing on sentient individuals include
ecofeminism Ecofeminism is a branch of feminism Feminism is a range of s and that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social . Feminism incorporates the position that societies prioritize the male point of view, and ...
and
compassionate conservation Compassionate conservation is a discipline which aims to combine the fields of conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation may also refer ...
. In the United States of America, the year 1864 saw the publication of two books which laid the foundation for Romantic and Utilitarian conservation traditions in America. The posthumous publication of
Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817May 6, 1862) was an American naturalist, essayist, poet, and philosopher. A leading Transcendentalism, transcendentalist, he is best known for his book ''Walden'', a reflection upon simple living in natural s ...

Henry David Thoreau
's ''
Walden ''Walden'' (; first published in 1854 as ''Walden; or, Life in the Woods'') is a book by American transcendentalist writer Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817May 6, 1862) was an American naturalist, essay An essa ...

Walden
'' established the grandeur of unspoiled nature as a citadel to nourish the spirit of man. A very different book from
George Perkins Marsh George Perkins Marsh (March 15, 1801July 23, 1882), an American diplomat and philology, philologist, is considered by some to be America's first environmentalist and by recognizing the irreversible impact of man's actions on the earth, a precurso ...

George Perkins Marsh
, ''
Man and Nature A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce ...

Man and Nature
'', later subtitled "The Earth as Modified by Human Action", catalogued his observations of man exhausting and altering the land from which his sustenance derives. The consumer conservation ethic is sometimes expressed by the ''four R's'': " Rethink, Reduce, Recycle, Repair". This social ethic primarily relates to
local purchasing Local purchasing is a preference to buy locally produced goods and services rather than those produced farther away. It is very often abbreviated as a positive goal, "buy local" or "buy locally', that parallels the phrase "think globally, act loca ...
,
moral purchasing Ethical consumerism (alternatively called ethical consumption, ethical purchasing, moral purchasing, ethical sourcing, ethical shopping also associated with sustainable and green consumerism) is a type of consumer activism based on the concept of ...
, the
sustained
sustained
, and efficient use of
renewable resource A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can bro ...
s, the moderation of destructive use of finite resources, and the prevention of harm to common resources such as
air The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (ph ...

air
and
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
quality, the natural functions of a living earth, and cultural values in a
built environment In urban planning, architecture and civil engineering, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human impact on the environment, human-made environment that provides the setting for human behavior, human activity, including Home, ...
. The person credited with formulating the conservation ethic in the United States is former president,
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or his initials T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president o ...

Theodore Roosevelt
.


Terminology

In common usage, the term refers to the activity of systematically protecting natural resources such as forests, including biological diversity.
Carl F. Jordan
Carl F. Jordan
defines the term as: While this usage is not new, the idea of biological conservation has been applied to the principles of ecology,
biogeography Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geography, geographic space and through evolutionary history of life, geological time. Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geograp ...

biogeography
,
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
, economy, and sociology to maintain
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Genetics, genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near ...

biodiversity
. The term "conservation" itself may cover the concepts such as
cultural diversity Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture In agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the ris ...
,
genetic diversity Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species, it ranges widely from the number of species to differences within species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classificati ...
, and the concept of movements
environmental conservation Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals, organizations and governments. Its objectives are to conserve natural resources and the existing natural environment and, where possible, to repair dama ...
,
seedbank A seed bank (also seed banks or seeds bank) stores seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) ...

seedbank
(preservation of seeds). These are often summarized as the priority to
respect diversity The prerogative to respect diversity, often said to "begin with biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and Genetic variability, variability of life, life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the Genetics, genetic, sp ...
. Much recent movement in conservation can be considered a resistance to
commercialism Commercialism is the application of both manufacturing and consumption (economics), consumption towards personal usage, or the practices, methods, aims, and spirit of free enterprise geared toward generating profit. Commercialism can also be used ...
and
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
.
Slow Food Slow Food is an organization that promotes local food and traditional cooking. It was founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting ...
is a consequence of rejecting these as moral priorities, and embracing a slower and more locally focused lifestyle.


Practice

Distinct trends exist regarding conservation development. The need for conserving land has only recently intensified during what some scholars refer to as the Capitalocene epoch. This era marks the beginning of colonialism, globalization, and the industrial revolution that has led to global land change as well as climate change. While many countries' efforts to preserve
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
and their
habitats In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organism ...

habitats
have been government-led, those in the North Western Europe tended to arise out of the middle-class and aristocratic interest in
natural history Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history ...

natural history
, expressed at the level of the individual and the national, regional or local
learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipline (academia), academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the ...
. Thus countries like Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, etc. had what would be called
non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of ...
s – in the shape of the
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the pu ...
,
National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, commonly known as the National Trust, is a charity and membership organisation for heritage conservation in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, cou ...
and County Naturalists' Trusts (dating back to 1889, 1895, and 1912 respectively) Natuurmonumenten, Provincial Conservation Trusts for each Dutch province, Vogelbescherming, etc. – a long time before there were
national parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national parks
and
national nature reserve Nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area), is a protected area of importance for flora, faun ...
s. This in part reflects the absence of wilderness areas in heavily cultivated Europe, as well as a longstanding interest in
laissez-faire ''Laissez-faire'' ( ; from french: laissez faire , ) is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects hav ...
government in some countries, like the UK, leaving it as no coincidence that
John Muir John Muir ( ; April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914), also known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, crea ...

John Muir
, the Scottish-born founder of the National Park movement (and hence of government-sponsored conservation) did his sterling work in the US, where he was the motor force behind the establishment of such national parks as
Yosemite Yosemite National Park ( ) is an American national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or deve ...

Yosemite
and
Yellowstone Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by ...

Yellowstone
. Nowadays, officially more than 10 percent of the world is legally protected in some way or the other, and in practice, private fundraising is insufficient to pay for the effective management of so much land with protective status. Protected areas in developing countries, where probably as many as 70–80 percent of the species of the world live, still enjoy very little effective management and protection. Some countries, such as Mexico, have non-profit civil organizations and landowners dedicated to protecting vast private property, such is the case of Hacienda Chichen's Maya Jungle Reserve and Bird Refuge in
Chichen Itza Chichen Itza , es, Chichén Itzá , often with the emphasis reversed in English to ; from yua, Chiʼchʼèen Ìitshaʼ () "at the mouth of the well of the people" was a large built by the of the Terminal Classic period. The is located ...

Chichen Itza
,
Yucatán Yucatán (, also , , ; yua, Yúukatan ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán,; yua, link=no, Xóot' Noj Lu'umil Yúukatan. is one of the 32 states which comprise the political divisions of Mexico, Federal Entities of Mexico. I ...
. The Adopt A Ranger Foundation has calculated that worldwide about 140,000 rangers are needed for the protected areas in developing and transition countries. There are no data on how many rangers are employed at the moment, but probably less than half the protected areas in developing and transition countries have any rangers at all and those that have them are at least 50% short This means that there would be a worldwide ranger deficit of 105,000 rangers in the developing and transition countries. Adopt A Ranger fears that the ranger deficit is the greatest single limiting factor in effectively conserving nature in 75% of the world. Currently, no conservation organization or western country or international organization addresses this problem. Adopt A Ranger has been incorporated to draw worldwide public attention to the most urgent problem that conservation is facing in developing and transition countries: protected areas without field staff. Very specifically, it will contribute to solving the problem by fundraising to finance rangers in the field. It will also help governments in developing and transition countries to assess realistic staffing needs and staffing strategies. Others, including
Survival International Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the collective rights, rights of indigenous peoples, indigenous and/or tribal peoples and uncontacted peoples. The organisation's campaigns generally focus on ...
, have advocated instead for cooperation with local tribal peoples, who are natural allies of the conservation movement and can provide cost-effective protection. The terms ''conservation'' and ''preservation'' are frequently conflated outside the academic, scientific, and professional kinds of literature. The US National Park Service offers the following explanation of the important ways in which these two terms represent very different conceptions of environmental protection ethics: ″Conservation and preservation are closely linked and may indeed seem to mean the same thing. Both terms involve a degree of protection, but how that protection is carried out is the key difference. Conservation is generally associated with the protection of natural resources, while preservation is associated with the protection of buildings, objects, and landscapes. Put simply, ''conservation seeks the proper use of nature, while preservation seeks protection of nature from use''. During the
environmental movement The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation ...
of the early 20th century, two opposing factions emerged: conservationists and preservationists. Conservationists sought to regulate human use while preservationists sought to eliminate human impact altogether.″ C.A. Claus presents a distinction for conservation practices.Claus, C. A. 2020. Drawing the Sea Near: Satoumi and Coral Reef Conservation in Okinawa. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press Claus divides conservation into conservation-far and conservation-near. Conservation-far is the means of protecting nature by separating it and safeguarding it from humans. Means of doing this include the creation of preserves or national parks. They're meat to keep the flora and fauna away from human influence and have become a staple method in the west. Conservation-near however is conservation via connection. The method of reconnecting people to nature through traditions and beliefs in order to foster a desire to protect nature. The basis is that instead of forcing compliance to separate from nature onto the people, instead conservationists work with locals and their traditions to find conservation efforts that work for all.


Evidence-based conservation

Evidence-based conservation is the application of evidence in conservation management actions and policy making. It is defined as systematically assessing scientific information from published,
peer-review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
ed publications and texts, practitioners' experiences, independent expert assessment, and local and
indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
knowledge on a specific conservation topic. This includes assessing the current effectiveness of different management interventions, threats and emerging problems, and economic factors. Evidence-based conservation was organized based on the observations that decision making in conservation was based on
intuition Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is ...
and/or practitioner experience often disregarding other forms of evidence of successes and failures (e.g. scientific information). This has led to costly and poor outcomes. Evidence-based conservation provides access to information that will support decision making through an evidence-based framework of “what works” in conservation. The evidence-based approach to conservation is based on evidence-based practice which started in
medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...
and later spread to
nursing Nursing is a profession within the health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''qua ...
,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...
,
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
, and other fields. It is part of the larger movement towards
evidence-based practices Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the idea that occupational practices ought to be based on scientific evidence Scientific evidence is evidence Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion, because evident t ...
.


See also

*
Conservation biology Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. It is an int ...
*
Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a strategy wherein samples of animal genetic materials are preserved cryogenics, cryogenically."Cryoconservation of Animal Genetic Resources", Rep. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the Uni ...
* Dark green environmentalism *
Environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and non-living things occurring , meaning in this case not . The term is most often applied to the or s ...
* Index of environmental articles *
List of environmental issues This is an alphabetical list of environmental issues, harmful aspects of human activity on the biophysical environment. They are loosely divided into causes, effects and mitigation, noting that effects are interconnected and can cause new effects. ...
*
List of environmental organizations An environmental organization is an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comprising one or more peopl ...
*
Natural capital on "natural capital" and "balancing the budget of our resources" File:Fires along the Rio Xingu, Brazil - NASA Earth Observatory.jpg, Fires along the Rio Xingu, Brazil - NASA Earth Observatory. Loss of natural capital assets may have significant ...
*
Natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all life, living and non-living things occurring nature, naturally, meaning in this case not Artificiality, artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth. Th ...

Natural environment
*
Natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewabl ...
*
Sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture is farming Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise tren ...

Sustainable agriculture
*
Trail ethics Trail ethics define appropriate ranges of behavior for hiker Hiking is a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, path or footpa ...
* Forest conservation *
Water conservation Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) centu ...
*
Wildlife conservation Wildlife conservation refers to the practice of protecting wild species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is ...
*
Conservation communityA conservation community is a group of individuals and families living in a community who are committed to saving large parcels of land from ecological degradation. This land can be forest A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundr ...


References


Further reading

* Conservation and evolution (Frankel et Soulé, 1981) * Glacken, C.J. (1967) Traces on the Rhodian Shore. University of California Press. Berkeley * Grove, R.H. (1992) 'Origins of Western Environmentalism',
Scientific American ''Scientific American'' (informally abbreviated ''SciAm'' or sometimes ''SA'') is an American popular science Popular science (also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', ...
267(1): 22–27. * Grove, R.H. (1997) ''Ecology, Climate and Empire: Colonialism and Global Environmental History 1400–1940'' Cambridge: Whitehorse Press * Grove, R.H. (1995) ''Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens, and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600–1860'' New York:
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowled ...
* Leopold, A. (1966) ''A Sand County Almanac'' New York:
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for fre ...

Oxford University Press
* Pinchot, G. (1910) ''The Fight for Conservation'' New York:
Harcourt Brace Harcourt () was an American publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed ...
. * ''"Why Care for Earth's Environment?"'' (in the series ''"The Bible's Viewpoint"'') is a two-page article in the December 2007 issue of the magazine
Awake! ''Awake!'' is an illustrated religious magazine published every four months by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. It is considered to be a companion magazine of ''The Watchtower'', and is distributed by Jehovah's Witnesses. ...
. * A free textbook for download.


External links


''Dictionary of the History of ideas'':
Conservation of Natural Resources
''For Future Generations'', a Canadian documentary on how the conservation ethic influenced national parks

Category List --- Religion-Online.org
"Ecology/Environment" {{DEFAULTSORT:Conservation (Ethic) Environmental ethics Habitat Trees