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In
geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγρα ...

geography
, a confluence (also: ''conflux'') occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage ba ...
joins a larger
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water ...

river
(
main stem In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, "lógos" meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and othe ...
); or where two streams meet to become the
source Source or subsource or ''variation'', may refer to: Research * Historical document * Historical source * Source (intelligence) or subsource, typically a confidential provider of non open-source intelligence * Source (journalism), a person, public ...
of a river of a new name (such as the confluence of the
Monongahela
Monongahela
and Allegheny rivers at
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, ...

Pittsburgh
, forming the
Ohio Ohio () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Of the List of states and territories of the United States, fifty states, it is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 34th-large ...

Ohio
); or where two separated channels of a river (forming a
river island A river island is any exposed land surrounded by river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at ...

river island
) rejoin at the downstream end.


Scientific study of confluences

Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences.
Hydrology Hydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mill ...
studies the characteristic flow patterns of confluences and how they give rise to patterns of erosion, bars, and scour pools. The water flows and their consequences are often studied with
mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environmen ...
s. Confluences are relevant to the distribution of living organisms (i.e.,
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biology ...
) as well; "the general pattern ownstream of confluencesof increasing stream flow and decreasing slopes drives a corresponding shift in habitat characteristics." Another science relevant to the study of confluences is
chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and i ...

chemistry
, because sometimes the mixing of the waters of two streams triggers a chemical reaction, particularly in a polluted stream. The
United States Geological Survey The United States Geological Survey, abbreviated USGS and formerly simply known as the Geological Survey, is a scientific government agency, agency of the Federal government of the United States, United States government. The scientists of the ...
gives an example: "chemical changes occur when a stream contaminated with
acid mine drainage Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acid An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion H+) (a Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Brønsted ...

acid mine drainage
combines with a stream with near-neutral
pH
pH
water; these reactions happen very rapidly and influence the subsequent transport of metals downstream of the mixing zone." A natural phenomenon at confluences that is obvious even to casual observers is a difference in color between the two streams; see images in this article for several examples. According to Lynch, "the color of each river is determined by many things: type and amount of vegetation in the watershed, geological properties, dissolved chemicals,
sediments Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering Weathering is the deterioration of rocks A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categ ...
and biologic content – usually
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cel ...

algae
." Lynch also notes that color differences can persist for miles downstream before they finally blend completely.


River confluence flow zones

Hydrodynamic behaviour of flow in a confluence can be divided into six distinct features which are commonly called confluence flow zones (CFZ). These include # Stagnation zone # Flow deflection zone # Flow separation zone / recirculation zone # Maximum velocity zone # Flow recovery zone # Shear layers


Confluences and mankind

Since rivers often serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any ...

tripoint
. Various examples are found in the list below. A number of major cities, such as
Chongqing Chongqing ( Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that em ...

Chongqing
,
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. With more than six million residents, it is the List of U.S. states and territor ...

St. Louis
, and
Khartoum Khartoum or Khartum ( ; ar, الخرطوم, Al-Khurṭūm) is the capital of Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a ...

Khartoum
, arose at confluences; further examples appear in the list. Within a city, a confluence often forms a visually prominent point, so that confluences are sometimes chosen as the site of prominent public buildings or monuments, as in
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...

Koblenz
,
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about ...
, and
Winnipeg Winnipeg () is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. It is centred on the confluence In geography, a confluence (also: ''conflux'') occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a sin ...
. Cities also often build parks at confluences, sometimes as projects of municipal improvement, as at Portland and
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, ...
. In other cases, a confluence is an industrial site, as in
Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2019 estimated population ...
or
Mannheim Mannheim (; Palatine German language, Palatine German: or ), officially the University City of Mannheim (german: Universitätsstadt Mannheim), is the List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population, second-largest city in the States of Germ ...
. Often a confluence lies in the shared
floodplain File:Flood plain 7991.JPG, Riparian vegetation on the floodplain of the Lynches River, close to Johnsonville, South Carolina. These tupelo and Taxodium, cypress trees show the ordinary high water mark, high-water mark of flooding. A floodpl ...
of the two rivers and nothing is built on it, for example at
Manaus Manaus (; ) is the List of capitals of subdivisions of Brazil, capital and largest city of the States of Brazil, Brazilian state of Amazonas (Brazilian state), Amazonas. It is the List of largest cities in Brazil, seventh-largest city in Brazil, ...

Manaus
, described below. One other way that confluences may be exploited by humans is as sacred places in
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
s. Rogers suggests that for the ancient peoples of the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic) and the Bronze Age ...
in northwest Europe, watery locations were often sacred, especially sources and confluences. Pre-Christian
Slav Slavs are a European ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family nat ...
ic peoples chose confluences as the sites for fortified triangular temples, where they practiced human sacrifice and other sacred rites. In
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, world's third-largest religion, with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The word ''Hindu'' is ...

Hinduism
, the confluence of two sacred rivers often is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Pittsburgh, a number of adherents to
Mayanism Mayanism is a non-codified eclectic collection of New Age beliefs, influenced in part by Pre-Columbian Maya mythology Maya mythology is part of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in North America ...
consider their city's confluence to be sacred.


Notable confluences


Africa

* At
Lokoja Lokoja is a city in Nigeria. It lies at the confluence of the Niger River, Niger and Benue River, Benue list of rivers of Nigeria, rivers and is the capital of Kogi State. While the Oworo people, Oworo, Bassa Nge and Nupe people, Nupe are indigenou ...
,
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is the List of African countries by population, most populous country in Africa; geographically situated between the Sahel to the north, and the Gulf of ...

Nigeria
, the
Benue River The Benue River (french: la Bénoué), previously known as the Chadda River or Tchadda, is the major tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary ...
flows into the
Niger ) , official_languages = French language, French , languages_type = National languages
. * At
Kazungula Image:Zambezi River borders of Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe & Botswana.jpg, 250px, Aerial photo of Kazungula (centre right) on the Zambezi River, before the construction of the bridge. Zambia is on the right; Namibia at the top on the left; Botswana i ...
in
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
, the
Chobe River The Cuando River is a river in south-central Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it ...

Chobe River
flows into the
Zambezi The Zambezi River (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the List of rivers by length, fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its drainage ba ...

Zambezi
. The confluence defines the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any ...

tripoint
of
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
(north of the rivers),
Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn, Lefatshe la Botswana, label=Setswana The Tswana language () is a Bantu language spoken in Southern Africa by about 8,2 million people. It is a Bantu languages, Bantu langua ...

Botswana
(south of the rivers) and
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conve ...

Namibia
(west of the rivers). The land border between Botswana and
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the south-west, Zambia to the north, and Mozambi ...

Zimbabwe
to the east also reaches the Zambezi at this confluence, so there is a second tripoint (Zambia-Botswana-Zimbabwe) only 150 meters downstream from the first. See
Kazungula Image:Zambezi River borders of Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe & Botswana.jpg, 250px, Aerial photo of Kazungula (centre right) on the Zambezi River, before the construction of the bridge. Zambia is on the right; Namibia at the top on the left; Botswana i ...
and
Quadripoint A quadripoint is a point on Earth where four distinct territories meet. The territories can be of different types, such as national and provincial. Several examples exist throughout the world that use other names. In North America, several such pl ...
, and Gallery below for image. * The Sudanese capital of
Khartoum Khartoum or Khartum ( ; ar, الخرطوم, Al-Khurṭūm) is the capital of Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a ...

Khartoum
is located at the confluence of the
White Nile The White Nile ( ar, النيل الأبيض ') is a river in Africa, one of the two main tributaries A tributary or affluent is a stream or river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, ...

White Nile
and the
Blue Nile The Blue Nile (; ), is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course w ...

Blue Nile
, the beginning of the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nubi ...

Nile
.


Asia

* 82 km north of
Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab. It had an estimated population of 2.5 million in 2012. Basra is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handl ...

Basra
in
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country in ...

Iraq
at the town of
Al-Qurnah Al-Qurnah (Kurnah or Qurna, meaning connection/joint in Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in col ...
is the confluence of the rivers
Tigris The Tigris, () is the eastern of the two great river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end ...

Tigris
and
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Tigris–Euphrates river system, Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). Or ...
, forming the
Shatt al-Arab , name_other = Arvand Rud , image = Shat al-arab-22.JPG , image_caption = Shatt al-Arab pictured near Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab. It had an estima ...
. * * At
Devprayag Devprayag (Deva prayāga) is a town and a nagar panchayat (municipality) in Tehri Garhwal district in the state of Uttarakhand, India, and is the final one of the Panch Prayag (five confluences) of Alaknanda River where Alaknanda meets the Bha ...
in
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
, the
Ganges River The Ganges ( ) or Ganga ( , ) is a trans-boundary river of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, He ...
originates at the confluence of the
Bhagirathi The Bhāgīrathī (Pron:/ˌbʌgɪˈɹɑːθɪ/) is a turbulent Himalayan river in the Indian state of Uttarakhand Uttarakhand (), formerly known as Uttaranchal (), is a state in the northern part of India India (Hindi: ), official ...

Bhagirathi
and the
Alaknanda
Alaknanda
; see images above. * Near
Allahabad Allahabad (), officially known as Prayagraj, also known as Ilahabad, is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or re ...

Allahabad
, India, the
Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variety of Easte ...

Yamuna
flows into the Ganges. In
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, world's third-largest religion, with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The word ''Hindu'' is ...

Hinduism
, this is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing; during a
Kumbh Mela Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela () is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years, to celebrate every revolution Brihaspati (Jupiter) completes, at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: the Allahaba ...
event tens of millions of people visit the site. In Hindu belief the site is held to be a ''triple'' confluence (
Triveni Sangam In Hindu tradition, Triveni Sangam is the confluence (Sanskrit: ''sangama'') of three rivers that is also a sacred place, with a bath here said to flush away all of one's sins and free one from the cycle of rebirth Triveni Sangam in Allahabad ...
), the third river being the metaphysical (not physically present)
Sarasvati Saraswati ( sa, सरस्वती, ) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, speech, wisdom, and learning. She is a part of the trinity ('' Tridevi'') of Saraswati, Lakshmi Lakshmi (; ''IAST, Lakṣmī'', ), also known a ...

Sarasvati
. *
Karad Karad is a city in Satara district Satara district is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, sp ...

Karad
, in
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western and central peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the List of states and union territo ...

Maharashtra
,
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
, is the site of the
Pritisangam Pritisangam is a place where Krishna river and Koyna river meet each other. Both rivers originate from Mahabaleshwar and meet each other at Karad from front. This Confluence, sangam is very rare in world where two rivers come from front and take a ...

Pritisangam
(meaning: Lovely Confluence), a T-shaped confluence of
Krishna River The Krishna River is the fourth-largest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganges The Ganges ( ) or Ganga ( , ) is a trans-boundary river of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populo ...

Krishna River
and
Koyna River The Koyna River (Marathi language, Marathi pronunciation: Help:IPA/Marathi, oːj(ə)naː is a tributary of the Krishna River which originates in Mahableshwar, Satara district, western Maharashtra, India. It rises near Mahableshwar, Mahabalesh ...

Koyna River
, where Koyna River mergers into Krishna River forming a T-shape and then the merged rivers flow to the east as Krishna River. *
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , sub ...

Kuala Lumpur
, the capital of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two reg ...

Malaysia
, is where the
Gombak River The Gombak River ( ms, Sungai Gombak) is a river which flows through Selangor and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. It is a tributary of the Klang River. The point where it meets the Klang River is the origin of Kuala Lumpur's name. Gombak River was used ...
(previously known as Sungai Lumpur, which means "muddy river") flows into the
Klang River Klang River ( Malay: ''Sungai Klang'') is a river which flows through Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast ...
at the site of the
Jamek Mosque Jamek Mosque, officially Sultan Abdul Samad Jamek Mosque ( ms, Masjid Jamek Sultan Abdul Samad) is one of the oldest mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostration"), also called masjid, is a p ...
. Recently, the Kolam Biru (Blue Pool), a pool with elaborate fountains, has been installed at the apex of the confluence. *Both
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, ROC). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City t ...

Taipei
and
New Taipei New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...
are where the Dahan and Xindian meet and flow into the
Tamsui River The Tamsui River (formerly Chinese romanization, romanized as Danshui River, ) is a river in northern Taiwan. Geography The Tamsui River begins at the confluence of Xindian River and Dahan River at the western boundary of Taipei and New Taipei ...
. * The
Nam Khan Nam Khan is a river in Laos. It fl ...
River flows into the Mekong at
Luang Prabang Luang Phabang, (Lao language, Lao: wikt:ຫລວງພະບາງ, ຫລວງພະບາງ/wikt:ຫຼວງພະບາງ, ຫຼວງພະບາງ) or ''Louangphabang'' (pronounced ), commonly Transliteration, transliterated into Wes ...

Luang Prabang
in Laos. * The
Jialing
Jialing
flows into the
Yangtze along the Yangtze River. in Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the provinc ...
at
Chongqing Chongqing ( Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that em ...

Chongqing
in
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...

China
. The confluence forms a focal point in the city, marked by Chaotianmen Square, built in 1998. * In the Far East, the
Amur The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably th ...

Amur
forms the international boundary between China and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
. The
Ussuri The Ussuri or Wusuli (russian: Уссури; ) runs through Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хаба́ровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987 ...

Ussuri
, which also demarcates the border, flows into the Amur at a point midway between Fuyuan in China and
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хаба́ровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. ...

Khabarovsk
in Russia. The apex of the confluence is located in a rural area, part of China, where a commemorative park, Dongji Square, has been built; it features an enormous sculpture representing the Chinese character for "East". The Amur-Ussuri border region was the location of the
Sino-Soviet border conflict The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared war, undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China in 1969, following the Sino-Soviet split. The most serious border clash, which brought the world's two largest commu ...
of 1969; the borderline near the confluence was settled peacefully by treaty in 2008. * In
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
, in the town of
Pasanauri Pasanauri ( ka, ფასანაური, also spelled ''Passanauri'') is a small town (''Daba (settlement), daba'') in Georgia (country), Georgia, situated in the Dusheti district, Mtskheta-Mtianeti mkhare, region. Pasanauri lies about north o ...
on the southern slopes of the
Caucasus Mountains The Caucasus Mountains, : pronounced * hy, Կովկասյան լեռներ, : pronounced * az, Qafqaz dağları, pronounced * rus, Кавка́зские го́ры, Kavkázskiye góry, kɐfˈkasːkʲɪje ˈɡorɨ * tr, Kafkas Dağlar ...

Caucasus Mountains
, the Tetri Aragvi ("White Aragvi") is joined by the Shavi Aragvi ("Black Aragvi"). Together, these two rivers continue as the
Aragvi River , name_native_lang = , name_other = , name_etymology = , image = View upstream Aragvi River from Jvari monastery, 2008-07-07.jpg , image_size = , image_caption = View upstream Aragvi River and along ...
. The conflux is known for its dramatic visual contrast of the two rivers.


Australia

* The two largest rivers in Australia, the
Murray
Murray
and its tributary the
Darling Darling is a term of endearment A term of endearment is a word or phrase used to address or describe a person, animal or inanimate object for which the speaker feels love or affection. Terms of endearment are used for a variety of reasons, suc ...

Darling
, converge at
Wentworth, New South Wales Wentworth is a small border town in the far south west of the state of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It bord ...
.


Europe


Seine

* The
Seine ) , mouth_location = Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French Communes of France, commune and city in the Seine-Maritime Departments of France, department in the Normandy (administrative region), Normandy region of nor ...

Seine
divides in the historical center of
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris
, flowing around two river islands, the
Île Saint-Louis 250px, thumbnail, Map of Île Saint-Louis The Île Saint-Louis () is one of two natural islands in the Seine river, in Paris, France (the other natural island is Île de la Cité; the Île aux Cygnes is Artificial island, artificial). The Î ...
and the
Île de la Cité on Île de la Cité from upstream (the east) File:ZuccaParis11.jpg, 300px, Notre Dame de Paris (1944) The Île de la Cité () is one of two remaining natural river island A river island is any river flood, exposed land surrounded by riv ...

Île de la Cité
. At the downstream confluence, where the river becomes a single channel again, the Île de la Cité is crossed by the famous
Pont Neuf The Pont Neuf (, "New Bridge") is the oldest standing bridge across the river Seine in Paris, France. It stands by the western (downstream) point of the Île de la Cité, the island in the middle of the river that was, between 250 and 225 BC, t ...

Pont Neuf
, adjacent to an equestrian statue of King
Henri IV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Antoine of Navarre , mother = Jeanne III of Navarre , religion =Protestantism 1553-1595 Roman Catholicism 1595-1610 , signature= Signature of Henry IV of France.svg , succe ...

Henri IV
and the historically more recent Vert Galant park. The site has repeatedly been portrayed by artists including
Monet Oscar-Claude Monet (, , ; 14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a French painter and founder of Impressionism, impressionist painting who is seen as a key precursor to modernism, especially in his attempts to paint nature as he percei ...
,
Renoir Pierre-Auguste Renoir (; 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine Femininity (also called womanline ...
, and
Pissarro Camille Pissarro ( , ; 10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies). His importance ...
. * Further upstream, the Marne empties into the Seine at
Charenton-le-Pont Charenton-le-Pont () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what ...
and
Alfortville Alfortville () is a Communes of France, commune in the Val-de-Marne Departments of France, department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the Kilometre Zero, center of Paris. History The commune of Alfortville was cre ...

Alfortville
, just southeast of the Paris city limits. The site is dominated by the Huatian Chinagora, a four-star hotel under Chinese management. flows into the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
at
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...

Koblenz
.


Rhine

* The
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...

Rhine
carries much river traffic, and major inland ports are found at its confluence with the Ruhr (river), Ruhr at Duisburg, and with the Neckar at Mannheim; see Mannheim Harbour. * The Main River, Main flows into the Rhine just south of Mainz. * The Moselle (river), Mosel flows into the Rhine further north at
Koblenz Koblenz (; french: Coblence ), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, ...

Koblenz
. The name "Koblenz" itself has its origin in the Latin name "Confluentes". In German, this confluence is known as the "Deutsches Eck" ("German corner") and is the site of an imposing monument to German unification featuring an equestrian statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I. * Upstream in Switzerland, a small town also named Koblenz, Switzerland, Koblenz (for the same reason) is where the Aare River, Aare joins the Rhine.


Danube basin

* Passau, Germany, sometimes called the (City of Three Rivers), is the site of a triple confluence, described thus in a guidebook: "from the north the little Ilz sluices brackish water down from the peat-rich Bavarian Forest, meeting the cloudy brown of the Danube as it flows from the west and the pale snow-melt jade of the Inn River, Inn from the south [i.e., the Alps] to create a murky tricolour." * The Thaya River, Thaya flows into the Morava (river), Morava in a rural location near Hohenau an der March in Austria, forming the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any ...

tripoint
of Austria, Czechia, and Slovakia. * The Morava flows into the Danube at Devín, on the border between Slovakia and Austria. * The Sava flows into the Danube at Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. * In karst, karst topography, which arises in soluble rock, rivers sometimes flow underground and form subterranean confluences, as at Planina Cave in Slovenia, where the Pivka (river), Pivka and Rak (river), Rak merge to form the Unica (river), Unica.


Other

* Lyon, France lies where the Saône flows into the Rhone. A major new museum of science and anthropology, the Musée des Confluences, opened on the site in 2014. * Near Toulouse, France lies where the Ariège (river) flows into the Garonne. Both take their source in the Pyrenees. * The Lusatian Neisse flows into the Oder at a rural location in Poland opposite the German village of Ratzdorf. The two rivers form the Oder-Neisse line, the postwar boundary of Germany and Poland. * The Triangle of Three Emperors, a former political
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any ...

tripoint
, lies in present-day Poland. The empires that abutted (in the decades before World War I) were the Austrian Empire, Austrian, German Empire, German, and Russian Empire, Russian. * Rovaniemi, the capital of Finland, Finnish Lapland (Finland), Lapland and one of the largest towns above the Arctic Circle, is at the confluence of rivers Ounasjoki and Kemijoki. * Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine is located (and named after) on the confluence of the Saksahan and Inhulets River. * The Oka River, Oka Spit of Nizhny Novgorod, flows into the Volga at Nizhny Novgorod in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
. The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Nizhny Novgorod, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral overlooks the site. * The English city of Southampton is built at the confluence of the tidal estuaries of the River Test and River Itchen, Hampshire, River Itchen which combine to form Southampton Water estuary.


North America

Mississippi basin * The Greater Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Twin Cities area of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota features two important Mississippi confluences. Near historical Fort Snelling and the town of Mendota, Minnesota, Mendota—about 9 miles downstream on the Mississippi from Minneapolis—the Minnesota River flows into the Mississippi at Pike Island. The area around this confluence is a location of spiritual, cultural, and historical significance to the Dakota people and is also the site of the earliest European settlements in the Twin Cities area. About 30 miles further downstream from the Minnesota-Mississippi confluence—and 25 miles downstream from St. Paul—the Mississippi joins with the St. Croix River (Wisconsin-Minnesota), St. Croix River near Hastings, Minnesota, and Prescott, Wisconsin. * Vicksburg, Mississippi lies atop bluffs overlooking the confluence of the Mississippi River with its tributary the Yazoo River, Yazoo. Both rivers, as well as the bluffs, played an important role in the Vicksburg Campaign, a pivotal event of the American Civil War. * The Missouri River flows into the Mississippi River at Jones-Confluence Point State Park, just north of St. Louis, Missouri. Slightly further upstream, the Illinois River flows into the Mississippi. * The Madison River, Madison, Jefferson River, Jefferson and Gallatin River, Gallatin Rivers in Three Forks, Montana form the confluence of the Missouri River. * At Keokuk, Iowa, the Des Moines River flows into the Mississippi. This forms the political
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any ...

tripoint
between the U.S. states of Iowa, Missouri, and Illinois. * Just south of Cairo, Illinois, the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi, forming the tripoint between the states of Illinois, Missouri, and Kentucky. * The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the
Monongahela
Monongahela
and Allegheny rivers, located in
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, ...

Pittsburgh
, Pennsylvania. The site is of great historical significance; in the 1970s it was upgraded by the creation of Point State Park, highlighted by a large fountain. Atlantic watersheds * At Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, the Shenandoah River flows into the Potomac River, at the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any ...

tripoint
of the U.S. states of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland. * At Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Schuylkill River flows into the Delaware River, next to the former Philadelphia Naval Shipyard; the site remains industrial. * At Cohoes, New York, a few miles north of Albany, New York, Albany, the Mohawk River flows into the Hudson River, Hudson in three channels separated by islands. The confluence is historically important: upstream traffic on or along the Hudson often took a left turn at the Mohawk, which offers a uniquely level passageway through the Appalachian Mountains that assisted commerce and the settlement of the West. * At Ottawa, the capital of Canada, the Rideau River flows—unusually, as a waterfall—into the Ottawa River; see Rideau Falls. On the island separating the two portions of the falls is a park with military monuments, among them the Ottawa Memorial. * The Hochelaga Archipelago, including the island and city of Montreal, is located where the Ottawa River flows into the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada. * Winnipeg, Canada, is at the confluence of the Red River of the North, Red River, and the Assiniboine River. The area is referred to as The Forks, Winnipeg, The Forks by locals, and has been an important trade location for over 6000 years. Pacific watersheds * The Green River (Colorado River), Green River flows into the Colorado River at the heart of Canyonlands National Park in Utah's Canyon Country. * The Snake River flows into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities (WA), Tri-Cities of Washington (U.S. state), Washington. * In Portland, Oregon, the Willamette River flows into the Columbia at Kelley Point Park, built on land acquired from the Port of Portland in 1984. * Lytton, British Columbia, Canada, is located at the confluence of the muddy Fraser River and the clearer Thompson River.


South America

*
Manaus Manaus (; ) is the List of capitals of subdivisions of Brazil, capital and largest city of the States of Brazil, Brazilian state of Amazonas (Brazilian state), Amazonas. It is the List of largest cities in Brazil, seventh-largest city in Brazil, ...

Manaus
, Brazil is on the Rio Negro (Amazon), Rio Negro near its confluence with the Amazon River, Amazon (see Meeting of Waters). It is the chief port and a hub for the region's extensive river system. * The Iguazu River, Iguazú flows into the Paraná River, Paraná at the "Triple Frontier" ( es, La Triple Frontera, pt, Tríplice Fronteira), the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any ...

tripoint
for Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. * In Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela there is a confluence between Orinoco River and Caroní River.


Confluences of two waterways

Image:IHNCconfluence.png, left, Confluence of canals
This simplified diagram shows how a section of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans also serves as the channel for the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal. At the bottom, a portion of the Intracoastal is also shown to be "confluent" with the Mississippi River. Occasionally "confluence" is used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water, such as two canals or a canal and a lake. A one-mile (1.6 km) portion of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans accommodates the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal; therefore those three waterways are confluent there. The term confluence also applies to the merger of the flow of two glaciers.Vladimir Kotlyakov and Anna Komarova (2006) ''Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German''. Elsevier. Passage cited may be accessed on Google Books.


See also

* *


Notes


References

* Letizia, Chiara (2017) "The Sacred Confluence, between Nature and Culture," in Marie Lecomte-Tilouine (ed.) ''Nature, Culture and Religion at the Crossroads of Asia''. Routledge. Extracts available on line at Google Books.


External links



A collection of full-size, vivid photographs of confluences, most of them mentioned in the list above. {{Rivers, streams and springs Physical geography Rivers Bodies of water River morphology