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The (; plural: ) is a
local administrative division
local administrative division
of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, roughly equivalent to a
township A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings g ...

township
or
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
.


Importance and function

The provides essential public services: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, and maintenance of local roads and public works. It is headed by a
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their ow ...

mayor
( or ''sindaca'') assisted by a legislative body, the (communal council), and an executive body, the (communal committee). The mayor and members of the are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor (who needs an absolute majority in the first or second round of voting) gains three fifths of the 's seats. The is chaired by the mayor, who appoints others members, called , one of whom serves as deputy mayor (). The offices of the are housed in a building usually called the , or . As of February 2019 there were 7,918 in Italy; they vary considerably in size and population. For example, the of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, in
Lazio Lazio (, ; ; la, Latium, ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the Central Italy, central peninsular section of the country, it has 5,864,321 inhabitants – making it the second most populated region o ...

Lazio
, has an area of 1,307.71 km2 and a population of 2,761,477 inhabitants, and is both the largest and the most populated;
Atrani Atrani is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, con ...

Atrani
in the
province of Salerno The Province of Salerno ( it, Provincia di Salerno) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational ...
(
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
) was the smallest by area, with only 0.12 km2, and
Morterone Morterone ( Valassinese lmo, Murterun) is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the b ...

Morterone
(
Lombardy Lombardy ( ; it, Lombardia ; lmo, Lombardia, , ) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the Northwest Italy, northwest of the country, with an area of . About 10 million people live in Lombardy, forming more than one-sixth of It ...
) is the smallest by population. The population density of the varies widely by
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
and
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
: the
province of Barletta-Andria-Trani The Province of Barletta-Andria-Trani is a provinces of Italy, province of Italy in the Apulia region. The establishment of the province took effect in June 2009, and Andria was appointed as its seat of government on 21 May 2010.http://www.andrial ...
, for example, has 391,224 inhabitants in 10 municipalities, or over 39,000 inhabitants per municipality; whereas the
province of Isernia The province of Isernia ( it, provincia di Isernia) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the region of Molise in Italy. The provincial capital is the city Isernia and the president of the province is Alfredo Ricci. The province of Isernia has an a ...
has 85,237 inhabitants in 52 municipalities, or 1,640 inhabitants per municipality – roughly twenty-four times more communal units per inhabitant. There are inefficiencies at both ends of the scale. Reforms, such as splitting or merging local authorities to seek efficiency or economies of scale face numerous hurdles. Many present day's comuni trace their roots along timescales spanning centuries and at times millennia. Provinces and regions are established by the constitution of the Republic of Italy, and subject to fairly frequent boundary changes. The , instead, carries often a sense of cultural identity beyond its establishment in law. Many have a
municipal police in Florence (Italy) File:Volkswagen Passat Policía Municipal Madrid.JPG, ''Policía Municipal'' of Madrid (Spain) Municipal police are Law enforcement agency, law enforcement agencies that are under the control of local government. This in ...
(), which is responsible for public order duties.
Traffic control Traffic management is a key branch within logistics Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of ...
is their main function in addition to controlling commercial establishments to ensure they open and close according to their license.


Subdivisions

Administrative subdivisions within vary according to their population size. with at least 250,000 residents are divided into (roughly equivalent to French
arrondissements An arrondissement (, , ) is any of various administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms ...
or
London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremo ...
s) to which the delegates administrative functions like the running of schools, social services and waste collection; the delegated functions vary from to . These bodies are headed by an elected president and a local council. Smaller usually comprise: * A main city, town or village, that almost always gives its name to the ; such a place is referred to as the ("head-place" or "capital"; the
French
French
) of the ; the word is also used in casual speech to refer to the city hall. * Outlying areas called (singular: , abbreviated: , literally "fraction"), each usually centred on a small town or village. These usually never had a past as independent settlement, but occasionally are former smaller consolidated into a larger one. They may also represent settlements which predate the : the ancient town of
Pollentia 250px, Church of San Vittore at Pollenzo. Pollentia, known today as Pollenzo ( pms, Polèns), was an ancient city on the left bank of the Tanaro. It is now a '' frazione'' (parish) of Bra in the Province of Cuneo Cuneo (Italian language, Itali ...
(today Pollenzo), for instance, is a of
Bra A bra, short for brassiere or brassière (, or ; ), is a form-fitting A form-fitting garment is an article of clothing that tightly follows the contours of the part of the body being covered. A feature of Western societies is the popula ...
. In recent years the have become more important thanks to the institution of the (fraction council), a local form of
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
which can interact with the to address local needs, requests and claims. Even smaller places are called ("localities", abbreviated: ). * Smaller administrative divisions called , , , , or , which are similar to
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipal ...

district
s and
neighbourhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; American and British English spelling differences, see spelling differences) is a geographicall ...
s. Sometimes a might be more populated than the ; and rarely, owing to unusual circumstances (like depopulation), the town hall and its administrative functions can be moved to one of the : but the still retains the name of the . In some cases, a might not have a but only some . In these cases, it is a (" dispersed comune") and the which hosts the town hall () is a (compare
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with Fre ...
).


Homonymy

There are not many perfect homonymous Italian municipalities. There are only six cases in 12 : Complete list and infos on Comuni-italiani.it * Calliano: Calliano, Piedmont and
Calliano, Trentino Calliano (german: Roßbach or ''Kallian'') is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of th ...
* Castro:
Castro, Apulia Castro (Salentino Salentino is a dialect of the Sicilian language spoken in the Salento peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected ...
and
Castro, Lombardy Castro (Bergamasque: ) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italy, Italian region of Lombardy, located about northeast of Milan and about northeast of Bergamo on the western side of the lake Iseo. As of 31 December 201 ...
* Livo: Livo, Lombardy and
Livo, Trentino Livo (Ladin language, Ladin: ''Lìo'', german: Lifers) is a ''Communes of Trentino, comune'' (municipality) in Trentino in the northern Italy, Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about north of Trento. As of 31 December 2004, it ...
* Peglio: Peglio, Lombardy and
Peglio, Marche Peglio is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino in the Italy, Italian region Marche, located about west of Ancona and about southwest of Pesaro. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 756 and an area of .All demo ...
* Samone: Samone, Piedmont and Samone, Trentino * San Teodoro: San Teodoro, Sardinia and San Teodoro, Sicily This is mostly due to the fact the name of the province or region was appended to the name of the municipality in order to avoid the confusion. Remarkably two provincial capitals share the name :
Reggio nell'Emilia Reggio nell'Emilia ( egl, Rèz; la, Regium Lepidi), also referred to as Reggio Emilia, Reggio di Lombardia or Reggio by its inhabitants, is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region. It has about 171,944 inhabitants and is the main ...

Reggio nell'Emilia
, the capital of the
province of Reggio Emilia The Province of Reggio Emilia ( it, Provincia di Reggio nell'Emilia) is one of the nine provinces of the Italian Region of Emilia-Romagna egl, Emigliàn (masculine) egl, Emiglièna (feminine) rgn, Rumagnòl (masculine) rgn, Rumagnòla (feminine) ...
, in the
Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna (, , both also ; ; egl, Emégglia-Rumâgna or ''Emîlia-Rumâgna''; rgn, Emélia-Rumâgna) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions ...

Emilia-Romagna
, and
Reggio di Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label= Reggino, Rìggiu; el, label= Bovesia Calabrian Greek The Calabrian dialect of Greek language, Greek, or Grecanico
, the capital of the homonymous metropolitan city. Many other towns or villages are likewise partial homonyms (e.g. Anzola dell'Emilia and
Anzola d'Ossola Anzola d'Ossola is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functions: Civ ...
, or
Bagnara Calabra Bagnara Calabra (or simply Bagnara) is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the bas ...

Bagnara Calabra
and
Bagnara di Romagna Bagnara di Romagna ( rgn, Bagnêra) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Ravenna in the Italy, Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about southeast of Bologna and about west of Ravenna. Bagnara di Romagna borders the following mu ...
).


See also

*
List of municipalities of Italy In Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands ...
by region and province * List of renamed municipalities in Italy *
Alphabetical list of municipalities of Italy This is an alphabetical list of the 7,918 Italian municipalities ('' comuni''). These represent the fundamental municipal units of the local government system of the country. A * Abano Terme * Abbadia Cerreto * Abbadia Lariana * Abbadia San ...
* Fusion of municipalities of Italy ; International: *
Communes of France The ' () is a level of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...

Communes of France
* , Spanish & Portuguese *
Medieval commune Medieval communes in the Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded a ...
*
Municipalities of Switzerland Municipalities (german: Gemeinden, ' or '; french: commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and ...
- those in Italian speaking areas of the country are called comuni


References


External links


Associazione Nazionale Comuni Italiani
(in Italian). * * {{authority control Types of administrative division Subdivisions of Italy