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An intentional community is a voluntary
residential community A residential community is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communities m ...
designed from the start to have a high degree of
social cohesion Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar chara ...
and
teamwork Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a group to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way. This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team A team is a group of individuals (human o ...

teamwork
. The members of an intentional community typically hold a common
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...

social
,
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

political
,
religious Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
, or vision, often follow an
alternative lifestyle An alternative lifestyle is a lifestyle perceived to be outside the cultural norm. The phrase may be used by someone to describe their own lifestyle or someone else's. Description of a related set of activities as an alternative lifestyle is a de ...
and typically share responsibilities and property. Intentional communities can be seen as
social experiment A social experiment is a kind of psychological or a sociological research for testing people’s reaction to certain situations or events. The experiment relies solely on a particular social approach when the main source of information is people ...
s or communal experiments. The multitude of intentional communities includes
collective A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective. Collectives can differ from cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, c ...
households,
cohousing Cohousing is an intentional community of private homes clustered around shared space. The term originated in Denmark in late 1960s. Each attached or single family home has traditional amenities, including a private kitchen. Shared spaces typical ...
communities,
coliving Co-living is a residential community A residential community is a community, usually a small town or city, that is composed mostly of residency (domicile), residents, as opposed to commerce, commercial businesses and/or Industrial sector, industr ...
,
ecovillage An ecovillage is a traditional or intentional community with the goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envision, Planning, plan and commit to achieve. People endeavour to reach goals wit ...
s,
monasteries A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical langua ...
, survivalist retreats,
kibbutz A kibbutz ( he, קִבּוּץ / , lit. "gathering, clustering"; plural: kibbutzim / ) is a Intentional community, collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degani ...

kibbutz
im,
hutterites Hutterites (german: link=no, Hutterer), also called Hutterian Brethren (German: ), are a Communalism, communal ethnoreligious group, ethnoreligious branch of Anabaptists, who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Refor ...
,
ashram Traditionally, an ashram (Sanskrit: ''ashrama'' or ''ashramam'') is a spiritual Hermitage (religious retreat), hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions. Etymology The term ''ashram'' ( sa, आश्रम, ) comes from the Sanskrit root ' ( ...

ashram
s, and
housing cooperative A housing cooperative, or housing co-op, is a legal entity, usually a cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred ...
s.
Ashrams Traditionally, an ashram (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in ...
are likely the earliest intentional communities founded around 1500 BCE, while
buddhist monasteries Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, ...

buddhist monasteries
appeared around 500 BCE.
Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos, or simply ; in Ionian Greek () was an ancient Ionians, Ionian Ancient Greek philosophy, Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graec ...

Pythagoras
founded an intellectual vegetarian commune in about 525 BCE in southern Italy. Hundreds of modern intentional communities were formed across Europe, North and South America, Australia, and New Zealand out of the intellectual foment of
utopianism A utopia ( ) typically describes an imaginary community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its members. It was coined by Sir Thomas More for his 1516 book ''Utopia (book), Utopia'', describing a fictional ...
. Intentional communities exhibit the utopian ambition to create a better, more sustainable world for living. Nevertheless, the term utopian community as a synonym for an intentional community is considered to be of pejorative nature and many intentional communities do not consider themselves to be utopian. Also the alternative term commune is considered to be non-neutral or even linked to
leftist Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equality, prioritizing it for all people. ...
politics or
hippies A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in UK English, was a member of the counterculture of the 1960s A counterculture is a culture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, sometimes diametr ...
. Additional terms referring to an intentional community can be
alternative lifestyle An alternative lifestyle is a lifestyle perceived to be outside the cultural norm. The phrase may be used by someone to describe their own lifestyle or someone else's. Description of a related set of activities as an alternative lifestyle is a de ...
, intentional society, cooperative community, withdrawn community, enacted community, socialist colony, communistic society, collective settlement, communal society, mutualistic community, communitarian experiment, experimental community, utopian experiment, practical utopia, and utopian society.


Definitions


Variety

The purposes of intentional communities vary and may be political, , economic, or environmental. In addition to spiritual communities,
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...
communities also exist. One common practice, particularly in spiritual communities, is
communal meal A communal meal is a meal A meal is an eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''o ...
s.
Egalitarian Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equality, prioritizing it for all people. Egalitarian doctrines are generally characterized by the idea that all hu ...
values can be combined with other values.
Benjamin Zablocki Benjamin Zablocki (January 19, 1941 – April 6, 2020) was an American professor of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyda ...
categorized communities this way: * Alternative-family communities (see Tenacious Unicorn Ranch) *
Coliving Co-living is a residential community A residential community is a community, usually a small town or city, that is composed mostly of residency (domicile), residents, as opposed to commerce, commercial businesses and/or Industrial sector, industr ...
communities *
Cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...
communities *
Countercultural A counterculture is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilitie ...
communities *
Egalitarian communities Egalitarian communities are groups of people who have chosen to live together, with egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of ...
*
Political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

Political
communities *
Psychological Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is ...
communities (based on
mystical Mysticism is popularly known as becoming one with God or the Absolute, but may refer to any kind of ecstasy Ecstasy may refer to: * Ecstasy (emotion), a trance or trance-like state in which a person transcends normal consciousness * Religious e ...

mystical
or
gestalt ''Gestalt'', a German word for form or shape, may refer to: * Holism, the idea that natural systems and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not as loose collections of parts Psychology * Gestalt psychology (also known as "Gestalt theory" ...
principles) * Rehabilitational communities (see
Synanon Synanon was initially a drug rehabilitation Drug rehabilitation is the process of medical or Psychotherapy, psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on Psychoactive drug, psychoactive substances such as alcoholic beverage, alcohol, Medical ...
) * * communities *
Experimental An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method ...

Experimental
communities Many communal ventures encompass more than one of these categorizations. Some communes, such as the ashrams of the
Vedanta Society Vedanta Societies refer to organizations, groups, or societies formed for the study, practice, and propagation of Vedanta ''Vedanta'' (; sa, वेदान्त, ), also ''Uttara Mīmāṃsā'', is one of the six (''āstika'') schools ...
or the Theosophical commune
Lomaland Lomaland was a Theosophical community located in Point Loma, San Diego, Point Loma in San Diego, California from 1900 to 1942. Theosophical Society leader Katherine Tingley founded it in 1900 as a school, cultural center, and residential facili ...
, formed around spiritual leaders, while others formed around political ideologies. For others, the "glue" is simply the desire for a more shared, sociable lifestyle. Other themes are
voluntary simplicity Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle. These may include, for example, reducing one's possessions, generally referred to as minimalism, or increasing self-sufficiency. Simple living ma ...
, interpersonal growth, and
self-sufficiency Self-sustainability and self-sufficiency are overlapping states of being in which a person or organization needs little or no help from, or interaction with, others. Self-sufficiency entails the self The self is an individual person as the ob ...
. Some intentional communities are also
micronations A micronation is a political entity whose members claim that they belong to an independent nation or sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geograph ...
, such as
Freetown Christiania Freetown Christiania, also known as Christiania ( da, Fristaden Christiania or '), is an intentional community An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, socia ...

Freetown Christiania
.


Membership

Many communities have different types or levels of membership. Typically, intentional communities have a selection process which starts with someone interested in the community coming for a visit. Often prospective community members are interviewed by a selection committee of the community or in some cases by everyone in the community. Many communities have a "provisional membership" period. After a visitor has been accepted, a new member is "provisional" until they have stayed for some period (often six months or a year) and then the community re-evaluates their membership. Generally, after the provisional member has been accepted, they become a full member. In many communities, the voting privileges or community benefits for provisional members are less than those for full members. Members of Christian intentional communities want to emulate the practices of the earliest believers. Using the
biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an anthology, a compilat ...

biblical
book of
Acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New Te ...
(and, often, the
Sermon on the Mount The Sermon on the Mount (anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or ...
) as a model, members of these communities strive to demonstrate their faith in a corporate context, and to live out the teachings of the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
, practicing compassion and hospitality. Communities such as the Simple Way, the Bruderhof and Rutba House would fall into this category. Despite strict membership criteria, these communities are open to visitors and not reclusive to the extent of some other intentional communities. A survey in the 1995 edition of the "
Communities Directory ''The Communities Directory, A Comprehensive Guide to Intentional Community'' provides listing of intentional communities An intentional community is a voluntary residential community A residential community is a community, usually a sm ...
", published by
Fellowship for Intentional Community The Foundation for Intentional Community (FIC), formerly the Fellowship of Intentional Communities then the Fellowship for Intentional Community, provides publications, referrals, support services, and "sharing opportunities" for a wide range of in ...
(FIC), reported that 54 percent of the communities choosing to list themselves were rural, 28 percent were urban, 10 percent had both rural and urban sites, and 8 percent did not specify.


Governance

The most common form of
governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity ...

governance
in intentional communities is
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...

democratic
(64 percent), with decisions made by some form of
consensus decision-making Consensus decision-making or consensus politics (often abbreviated to ''consensus'') is group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individu ...
or voting. A
hierarchical A hierarchy (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) that are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy i ...

hierarchical
or
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
structure governs 9 percent of communities, 11 percent are a combination of democratic and hierarchical structure, and 16 percent do not specify.Fellowship for Intentional Community. 2005. ''Communities Directory''. 4th Edition. Rutledge, Missouri, USA. . Many communities which were initially led by an individual or small group have changed in recent years to a more democratic form of governance.


Core principles

The central characteristics of communes, or core principles that define communes, have been expressed in various forms over the years. The term "communitarian" was invented by the Suffolk-born radical
John Goodwyn Barmby John Goodwyn Barmby (Bapt. 12 November 1820–1881) was born at Yoxford in Suffolk and educated at Woodbridge School. He was an English Victorian utopian socialist thinker. He and his wife Catherine Barmby (died 1853/1854) were influential supp ...

John Goodwyn Barmby
, subsequently a
Unitarian Unitarian or Unitarianism may refer to: Christian and Christian-derived theologies A Unitarian is a follower of, or a member of an organisation that follows, any of several theologies referred to as Unitarianism: * Unitarianism (1565–present), ...
minister. At the start of the 1970s, ''The New Communes'' author Ron E. Roberts classified communes as a subclass of a larger category of
Utopia A utopia ( ) typically describes an imaginary community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identi ...

Utopia
s. He listed three main characteristics: first, egalitarianism – that communes specifically rejected hierarchy or graduations of social status as being necessary to social order. Second, human scale – that members of some communes saw the scale of society as it was then organized as being too
industrialized Industrialisation Industrialisation (or industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based ...

industrialized
(or factory sized) and therefore unsympathetic to human dimensions. And third, that communes were consciously anti-
bureaucratic The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials and to an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected offi ...

bureaucratic
. Twenty five years later, Dr. Bill Metcalf, in his edited book ''Shared Visions, Shared Lives'' defined communes as having the following core principles: the importance of the group as opposed to the
nuclear family A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the sa ...
unit, a "common purse", a collective household, group decision making in general and intimate affairs. Sharing everyday life and facilities, a commune is an idealized form of family, being a new sort of "primary group" (generally with fewer than 20 people although there are examples of much larger communes). Commune members have emotional bonds to the whole group rather than to any sub-group, and the commune is experienced with emotions which go beyond just social collectivity.


By region

With the simple definition of a commune as an intentional community with 100% income sharing, the online directory of the
Fellowship for Intentional Community The Foundation for Intentional Community (FIC), formerly the Fellowship of Intentional Communities then the Fellowship for Intentional Community, provides publications, referrals, support services, and "sharing opportunities" for a wide range of in ...
(FIC) lists 222 communes worldwide (28 January 2019). Some of these are religious institutions such as
abbey An abbey is a type of monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in Cenobitic monasticism, communities or alone (hermits). A mo ...

abbey
s and
monasteries A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical langua ...
. Others are based in anthroposophic philosophy, including Camphill villages that provide support for the education, employment, and daily lives of adults and children with
developmental disabilities Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood. Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, ...
,
mental health problems A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occ ...
or other
special needs In clinical diagnostic and functional development, special needs (or additional needs) refers to individuals who require assistance for disabilities that may be medical, mental, or psychological. Guidelines for clinical diagnosis are given in bo ...
. Many communes are part of the
New Age movement New Age is a range of spiritual or religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified ...
. Many cultures naturally practice communal or tribal living, and would not designate their way of life as a planned 'commune' per se, though their living situation may have many characteristics of a commune.


Australia

In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, many intentional communities started with the hippie movement and those searching for social alternatives to the nuclear family. One of the oldest continuously running communities is called "Moora Moora Co-operative Community" with about 47 members (Oct 2021). Located at the top of Mount Toolebewong, 65km east of Melbourne, Victoria at an altitude of 600-800 m, this community has been entirely off the electricity grid since its inception in 1974. Founding members still resident include Peter and Sandra Cock.


Germany

In
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, a large number of the intentional communities define themselves as communes and there is a network of political communes called "Kommuja" with about 30 member groups (May 2009). Germany has a long tradition of intentional communities going back to the groups inspired by the principles of ''
Lebensreform ''Lebensreform'' ("life reform") was a social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is Volitio ...
'' in the 19th century. Later, about 100 intentional communities were started in the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
; many had a communal economy. In the 1960s, there was a resurgence of communities calling themselves communes, starting with the
Kommune 1 Kommune 1 or K1 was a politically motivated commune (intentional community), commune in Germany. It was created on 12 January 1967, in West Berlin and finally dissolved in November 1969. Kommune 1 developed from the extraparliamentary opposition o ...
in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, followed by Kommune 2 (also Berlin) and Kommune 3 in
Wolfsburg Wolfsburg ( , , ) is the fifth largest city in the Germany, German state of Lower Saxony, located on the river Aller (Germany), Aller. It lies about east of Hanover and west of Berlin. Wolfsburg is famous as the location of Volkswagen AG's h ...

Wolfsburg
. In the German commune book, ''Das KommuneBuch'', communes are defined by Elisabeth Voß as communities which: * Live and work together * Have a communal economy, i.e. common finances and common property (land, buildings,
means of production The means of production is a concept that encompasses the social use and ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law Anglo-Saxon law (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest record ...
) * Have communal decision making – usually consensus decision making * Try to reduce hierarchy and hierarchical structures * Have communalization of housework, childcare and other communal tasks * Have equality between women and men * Have low
ecological footprint The ecological footprint is a method promoted by the Global Footprint Network Global Footprint Network, founded in 2003, is an independent think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research ce ...
s through sharing and saving resources


Israel

Kibbutz A kibbutz ( he, קִבּוּץ / , lit. "gathering, clustering"; plural: kibbutzim / ) is a Intentional community, collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degani ...

Kibbutz
im in
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
, (sing., kibbutz) are examples of officially organized communes, the first of which were based on agriculture. Other Israeli communities are
Neve Shalom Neve Shalom ( he, נְוֵה שָׁלוֹם, ''lit.'' Oasis of Peace), also known as Wāħat as-Salām ( ar, واحة السلام) is a intentional community, cooperative village in Israel, jointly founded by Israeli Jews and Arab citizens of Is ...
,
Kvutza Kvutza or kevutza ( "group") is a communal settlement among Jews, primarily in pre-state Israel, the word was used in reference to communal life. First there were ''kvutzot'' (plural of kvutza) in the sense of groups of young people with similar i ...
, Yishuv Kehilati,
Moshavim A moshav ( he, מוֹשָׁב, plural ', lit. ''settlement, village'') is a type of Israeli town or settlement, in particular a type of cooperative agricultural community of individual farms settler, pioneered by the Labor Zionism, Labour Zion ...
and Kfar No'ar. Today, there are dozens of urban communes growing in the cities of Israel, often called urban kibbutzim. The urban kibbutzim are smaller and more
anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy and Political movement, movement that is sceptical of authority and rejects all involuntary, coercive forms of hierarchy. Anarchism calls for the abolition of the State (polity), state, which it holds to ...

anarchist
. Most of the urban communes in Israel emphasize social change, education, and local involvement in the cities where they live. Some of the urban communes have members who are graduates of
zionist was the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 pamphlet ''Der Judenstaat ''Der Judenstaat'' ( German, literally ''The Jews' State'', commonly rendered as ''The Jewish State'') is a pamphlet written by Theodor Herzl and publishe ...
-
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
youth movements, like
HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed Histadrut HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed ( he, הסתדרות הנוער העובד והלומד, lit. "Federation of Young Students and Workers" and most commonly translated as Working and Studying Youth), colloquially known as Noar HaOved and abbreviate ...
,
HaMahanot HaOlim Hamahanot Haolim is the first youth study group with Zionistic and socialistic philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledg ...
and Hashomer Hatsair.


Ireland

In 1831 John Vandeleur (a landlord) established a commune on his Ralahine Estate at
Newmarket-on-Fergus Newmarket-on-Fergus, historically known as Corracatlin (), is a town in County Clare County Clare ( ga, Contae an Chláir) is a county in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North ...
,
Co. Clare County Clare ( ga, Contae an Chláir) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain mod ...
. Vandeleur asked Edward Thomas Craig, an English socialist, to formulate rules and regulations for the commune. It was set up with a population of 22 adult single men, 7 married women and their 7 husbands, 5 single women, 4 orphan boys and 5 children under the age of 9 years. No money was employed, only credit notes which could be used in the commune shop. All occupants were committed to a life with no alcohol, tobacco, snuff or gambling. All were required to work for 12 hours a day during the summer and from dawn to dusk in winter. The social experiment prospered for a time and 29 new members joined. However, in 1833 the experiment collapsed due to the gambling debts of John Vandeleur. The members of the commune met for the last time on 23 November 1833 and placed on record a declaration of "the contentment, peace and happiness they had experienced for two years under the arrangements introduced by Mr. Vandeleur and Mr. Craig and which through no fault of the Association was now at an end".


Russia

In
imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
, the vast majority of Russian peasants held their land in communal ownership within a ''mir'' community, which acted as a village government and a cooperative. The very widespread and influential pre-Soviet Russian tradition of Monastic communities of both sexes could also be considered a form of communal living. After the end of communism in Russia, monastic communities have again become more common, populous and, to a lesser degree, more influential in Russian society. Various patterns of Russian behavior — (толока), (помочи), (артель) — are also based on communal ("мирские") traditions.


United Kingdom

A 19th century advocate and practitioner of communal living was the
utopian socialist Utopian socialism is the term often used to describe the first current of modern socialism Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, economic ...
John Goodwyn Barmby John Goodwyn Barmby (Bapt. 12 November 1820–1881) was born at Yoxford in Suffolk and educated at Woodbridge School. He was an English Victorian utopian socialist thinker. He and his wife Catherine Barmby (died 1853/1854) were influential supp ...

John Goodwyn Barmby
, who founded a Communist Church before becoming a
Unitarian Unitarian or Unitarianism may refer to: Christian and Christian-derived theologies A Unitarian is a follower of, or a member of an organisation that follows, any of several theologies referred to as Unitarianism: * Unitarianism (1565–present), ...
minister. The Simon Community in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
is an example of social cooperation, made to ease
homelessness Homelessness is the condition of lacking stable, safe, and adequate housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, o ...
within London. It provides food and religion and is staffed by homeless people and volunteers. Mildly nomadic, they run street "cafés" which distribute food to their known members and to the general public. The Bruderhof has three locations in the UK. In Glandwr, near
Crymych Crymych () is a village of around 800 inhabitants and a Community (Wales), community (population 1,739) in the northeast of Pembrokeshire, Wales. It is situated approximately above sea level at the eastern end of the Preseli Hills, Preseli Mountai ...

Crymych
,
Pembrokeshire Pembrokeshire ( ; cy, Sir Benfro ) is a Local government in Wales#Principal areas, county in the South West Wales, south-west of Wales. It is bordered by Carmarthenshire to the east, Ceredigion to the northeast, and the rest by sea. The count ...
, a co-op called
Lammas Ecovillage Lammas Ecovillage (Welsh: ''Tir-y-Gafel'') is a Low-impact development (UK), low-impact, off-grid ecovillage in Glandwr, Pembrokeshire, Glandwr, near Crymych in Pembrokeshire, West Wales, comprising nine households and a community hub on a site. ...
focuses on planning and
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

sustainable development
. Granted planning permission by the
Welsh Government The Welsh Government ( cy, Llywodraeth Cymru) is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved government of Wales. The government consists of ministers, who attend cabinet meetings, and Minister (government), deputy ministers who do not, and als ...
in 2009, it has since created 9 holdings and is a central communal hub for its community. In
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
, the
Findhorn Foundation The Findhorn Foundation is a Scottish charitable trust registered in 1972, formed by the spiritual community at the Findhorn Ecovillage, one of the largest intentional communities in Britain.''The Dictionary of Alternatives: Utopianism and Or ...
founded by
Peter Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter, a list of people and fictional characters with the given name * Peter (given name) ** Saint Peter (died 60s), apostle of Jesus, leader of the early Christian Church * Peter (surname), a sur ...
and
Eileen Caddy Eileen Caddy Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, MBE (26 August 1917 – 13 December 2006) was a spiritual teacher and new age author, best known as one of the founders of the Findhorn Foundation community at the Findhorn Ecov ...
and
Dorothy Maclean Dorothy Maclean (January 7, 1920 – March 12, 2020) was a Canadian writer and educator on spiritual subjects who was one of the original three adults at what is now the Findhorn Foundation in northeast Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd ...

Dorothy Maclean
in 1962 is prominent for its educational centre and experimental architectural community project based at The Park, in
Moray Moray ( ; sco, Moray; gd, Moireibh or ') is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland. It lies in the north-east of the country, with a coastline on the Moray Firth, and borders the council areas of Aberdeenshire and Highland ( ...

Moray
, Scotland, near the village of
Findhorn Findhorn ( gd, Inbhir Èir or ''Inbhir Èireann'') is a village in Moray, Scotland. It is located on the eastern shore of Findhorn Bay and immediately south of the Moray Firth. Findhorn is 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Kinloss, and about 5 m ...

Findhorn
.Local relations between the
Findhorn Foundation The Findhorn Foundation is a Scottish charitable trust registered in 1972, formed by the spiritual community at the Findhorn Ecovillage, one of the largest intentional communities in Britain.''The Dictionary of Alternatives: Utopianism and Or ...
and the village of
Findhorn Findhorn ( gd, Inbhir Èir or ''Inbhir Èireann'') is a village in Moray, Scotland. It is located on the eastern shore of Findhorn Bay and immediately south of the Moray Firth. Findhorn is 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Kinloss, and about 5 m ...

Findhorn
have occasionally foundered over inconsiderate use of the word 'Findhorn' to mean either the former or the Ecovillage. See for example Walker (1994), Talk:Findhorn Foundation and also
Findhorn (disambiguation)Findhorn may refer to: * Toponyms re northern Scotland: ** Findhorn, village ** Findhorn Bay Findhorn ( gd, Inbhir Èir or ''Inbhir Èireann'') is a village in Moray, Scotland. It is located on the eastern shore of Findhorn Bay and immediately so ...
.
The
Findhorn Ecovillage Findhorn Ecovillage is an experimental architectural community project based at The Park, in Moray Moray ( ; sco, Moray; gd, Moireibh or '; la, Moravia; non, Mýræfi) is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland. It lies in ...
community at The Park, Findhorn, a village in Moray, Scotland, and at
Cluny Hill Cluny Hill is a hill on the East side of Forres Forres (; gd, Farrais) is a town and former royal burgh situated in the north of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part o ...
in
Forres Forres (; gd, Farrais) is a town and former royal burgh in the north of Scotland on the County of Moray, Moray coast, approximately northeast of Inverness and west of Elgin, Moray, Elgin. Forres has been a winner of the Scotland in Bloom awar ...

Forres
, now houses more than 400 people. Historic agricultural examples include the
Diggers 300px, Woodcut from a Diggers document by William Everard The Diggers were a group of Protestant radicals in England, sometimes seen as forerunners of modern anarchism, and also associated with agrarian socialism and Georgism. Gerrard Winstanle ...
settlement on
St George's Hill St George's Hill is a private gated community in Weybridge, Surrey Surrey () is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, East Sussex to the southeast, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the no ...
, Surrey during the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
and the near
Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne ( , ), often simply Newcastle, is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedi ...

Newcastle upon Tyne
during the 1890s.


United States

There is a long history of utopian communities in America which led to the rise in the communes of the
hippie A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in UK English, was a member of the counterculture of the 1960s The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition ...

hippie
movement—the "
back-to-the-land A back-to-the-land movement is any of various agrarian movements across different historical periods. The common thread is a call for people to take up smallholding and to grow food from the land with an emphasis on a greater degree of self-suffi ...
" ventures of the 1960s and 1970s. One commune that played a large role in the hippie movement was Kaliflower, a utopian living cooperative that existed in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
between 1967 and 1973 built on values of
free love Free love is a social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is Volition (psychology), volun ...
and
anti-capitalism Anti-capitalism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use t ...
. Andrew Jacobs of ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' wrote that "after decades of contraction, the American commune movement has been expanding since the mid-1990s, spurred by the growth of settlements that seek to marry the utopian-minded commune of the 1960s with the American predilection for privacy and capital appreciation." (See Intentional community). The
Fellowship for Intentional Community The Foundation for Intentional Community (FIC), formerly the Fellowship of Intentional Communities then the Fellowship for Intentional Community, provides publications, referrals, support services, and "sharing opportunities" for a wide range of in ...
(FIC) is the best source for listings of and more information about communes in the United States. While many American communes are short lived, some have been in operation for over 50 years. The Bruderhof was established in the US in 1954, Twin Oaks in 1967 and
Koinonia Farm Koinonia Farm is a Christianity, Christian farming intentional community in Sumter County, Georgia, Sumter County, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. History The farm was founded in 1942 by two couples, Clarence Jordan, Clarence and Florence Jordan an ...
in 1942. Twin Oaks is a rare example of a non-religious commune surviving for longer than 30 years.


Venezuela

, the
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
n state has initiated the construction of almost 200 "socialist communes" which are billed as autonomous and independent from the government. The communes purportedly have their own "productive gardens" that grow their own vegetables as a method of self-supply. The communes also make independent decisions in regards to administration and the use of funding. The idea has been denounced as an attempt to undermine elected local governments, since the central government could shift its funding away from these in favor of communes, which are overseen by the federal Ministry of Communes and Social Protection.


See also

* Anarchist Catalonia *
Anarcho-communism Anarcho-communism, also known as anarchist communism, is a political philosophy and Anarchist schools of thought, anarchist school of thought which advocates the abolition of the State (polity), state, capitalism, wage labour, social hierarchies a ...

Anarcho-communism
*
Art commune An art commune is a communal living situation or commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concret ...
*
Common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certain common rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel. A person who has a ...
*
Communal land Communal land is a (mostly rural) territory in possession of a community, rather than an individual or company . This sort of arrangement existed in almost all Europe until the 18th century, by which the king or the church officially owned the la ...
* ''Commune'' (documentary), a 2005 documentary about Black Bear Ranch, an intentional community located in Siskiyou County, California *
Commune of Paris The Paris Commune (french: Commune de Paris, ) was a revolutionary socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, economic and social ...
*
Communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Communism
*
Community garden , Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the A ...

Community garden
*
Counterculture of the 1960s The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society. The term was first used in the mo ...
* ''
Diggers and Dreamers ''Diggers and Dreamers: The Guide to Communal Living'' is a primary resource for information, issues, and ideas about intentional communities An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high d ...
'' *
Drop City Drop City was a counterculture A counterculture is a culture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, sometimes diametrically opposed to mainstream cultural mores.Eric Donald Hirsch. ''The Dict ...
*
Egalitarian communities Egalitarian communities are groups of people who have chosen to live together, with egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of ...
*
Ejido An ''ejido'' (, from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Ejido
, a form of Mexican land distribution resembling a commune *
Equality colony Equality Colony was a United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, st ...
*
Fellowship for Intentional Community The Foundation for Intentional Community (FIC), formerly the Fellowship of Intentional Communities then the Fellowship for Intentional Community, provides publications, referrals, support services, and "sharing opportunities" for a wide range of in ...
* Free Vermont *
Great Leap Forward The Great Leap Forward (Second Five Year Plan) of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, mo ...
, a time period in the 1950s and 1960s when the Chinese government created such communes *
Obshchina Obshchina ( rus, общи́на, p=ɐpˈɕːinə, literally "commune") or mir (russian: мир, literally "society", among other meanings), or selskoye obshchestvo (russian: сельское общество, "rural community", official term in th ...
, communes of the Russian Empire *
Hramada Hramada (, {{IPA-be, ɣramaˈda}, sometimes also wrongly spelled as ''Gramada'' or confused for the Ukrainian language, Ukrainian word ''Hromada'' or Polish language, Polish word ''Gromada'') is a Belarusian language, Belarusian word that means ga ...
, a Belarusian commune assembly *
Hutterite Hutterites (german: link=no, Hutterer), also called Hutterian Brethren (German: ), are a Communalism, communal ethnoreligious group, ethnoreligious branch of Anabaptists, who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Refo ...
, a Christian sect that lives in communal "colonies" *
Intentional communities An intentional community is a voluntary residential community A residential community is a community, usually a small town or city, that is composed mostly of residency (domicile), residents, as opposed to commerce, commercial businesses a ...
*
List of intentional communitiesThis is a list of intentional communities An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically hold a commo ...
*
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
*
People's commune The people's commune () was the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas of the People's Republic of China during the period from 1958 to 1983, until they were replaced by Townships of the People's Republic of China, townships. Commu ...
, type of administrative level in China from 1958 – early 1980s *
Renaissance Community The Brotherhood of the Spirit (renamed Renaissance Community in 1974) was one of the largest and most enduring communes in the northeast United States and as such was a distinct link between the commune phenomenon of the 1960s and the current New Ag ...
* Tolstoyans *
Utopia A utopia ( ) typically describes an imaginary community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identi ...

Utopia
*
Utopian socialism Utopian socialism is the term often used to describe the first current of modern socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group ...
*
Well-field system The well-field system () was a Chinese land redistribution method existing between the ninth century BC (late Western Zhou dynasty) to around the end of the Warring States period. Its name comes from Chinese character wikt:井, 井 (''jǐng''), ...
, a Chinese land distribution system with common lands controlled by a village *
World Brotherhood Colonies World Brotherhood Colonies are an idea for self-sustaining spiritual communities envisioned by Paramahansa Yogananda, the Indian yogi and author of '' Autobiography of a Yogi'' and founder of Self-Realization Fellowship / Yogoda Satsanga Society ...


Notes


References


Sources

* Curl, John (2007). Memories of Drop City, The First Hippie Commune of the 1960s and the Summer of Love, a memoir. iUniverse.
Red-coral.net
* Curl, John (2009) ''For All The People: Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America'', PM Press. . * Fitzgerald, George R. (1971). Communes Their Goals, Hopes, Problems. New York: Paulist Press. * Hall, John R. (1978). The Ways Out: Utopian Communal Groups in an Age of Babylon. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. * Horrox, James. (2009). ''A Living Revolution: Anarchism in the Kibbutz Movement''. Oakland: AK Press. * Margaret Hollenbach. (2004)''Lost and Found: My Life in a Group Marriage Commune''.
University of New Mexico Press The University of New Mexico Press (UNMP) is a university press at the University of New Mexico. It was founded in 1929 and published pamphlets for the universitt in its early years before expanding into quarterlies and books. Its administrative o ...
, . * * . (1972) ''Commitment and community: communes and utopias in sociological perspective.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts,
Harvard University Press Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distrib ...
. * Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. (1973) ''Communes: creating and managing the collective life.'' New York, Harper & Row. * Lattin, Don. (2003, March 2) Twilight of Hippiedom
The San Francisco Chronicle
Retrieved March 16, 2008 * Lauber, John. (1963, June). Hawthorne's Shaker Tales lectronic version Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol. 18, 82–86. * * Meunier, Rachel. (1994, December 17). Communal Living in the Late 60s and Early 70s. Retrieved March 16, 2008, fro
thefarm.org
* Miller, Timothy. (1997) "Assault on Eden: A Memoir of Communal Life in the Early '70s", ''Utopian Studies'', Vol. 8, 1997. * Roberts, Ron E. (1971). The New Communes Coming Together in America. New Jersey: Prentice Hall inc. * Van Deusen, David. (2008
''Green Mountain Communes: The Making of a Peoples’ Vermont''
Catamount Tavern News Service. * Veysey, Laurence R. (1978) '' The Communal Experience: Anarchist and Mystical Communities in Twentieth Century America'' * * Wild, Paul H. (1966 March). Teaching Utopia lectronic version The English Journal, Vol. 55, No. 3, 335–37, 339. * Zablocki, Benjamin. (1980, 1971) ''The Joyful Community: An Account of the Bruderhof: A Communal Movement Now in Its Third Generation'' (University of Chicago Press, 1971, reissued 1980), . (The 1980 edition of the
Whole Earth Catalog The ''Whole Earth Catalog'' (WEC) was an American counterculture A counterculture is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as ...
called this book "the best and most useful book on communes that's been written".) * Zablocki, Benjamin. (1980) ''Alienation and Charisma: A Study of Contemporary American Communes'' (The Free Press, 1980), .


Further reading

* * Curl, John (2007) ''Memories of Drop City, the First Hippie Commune of the 1960s and the Summer of Love: a memoir''. iUniverse. . * (1972) ''Commitment and Community: communes and utopias in sociological perspective.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. * McLaughlin, C. and Davidson, G. (1990) ''Builders of the Dawn: community lifestyles in a changing world''. Book Publishing Company. * Lupton, Robert C. (1997) ''Return Flight: Community Development Through Reneighboring our Cities'', Atlanta, Georgia:FCS Urban Ministries. * Moore, Charles E. ''Called to Community: The Life Jesus Wants for His People''.
Plough Publishing House The (; 'place of brothers') is an Anabaptist Anabaptism (from New Latin language, Neo-Latin , from the Greek language, Greek : "re-" and "baptism", german: Täufer, earlier also )Since the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking wo ...
, 2016. * "Intentional Community." ''Plough'', Plough Publishing, www.plough.com/en/topics/community/intentional-community.
Mariani, Mike: ''The New Generation of Self-Created Utopias''
The New York Times, January 16, 2020


External links

*
Federation of Egalitarian Communities

Intentional Communities Website

eurotopia European Directory of Communities and Ecovillages

Intentional Communities Wiki

List of Communes
in th
Communities Directory

Intentional Community For Media and Spirituality

Diggers & Dreamers UK directory & Journal


– slideshow by ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''
International Communes Desk
{{Authority control Anarcho-communism Housing cooperatives Intentional living Living arrangements Sharing economy Types of communities