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Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing
colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropole, metropolitan ...

colonies
and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of
colonisation Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their or their ancestors' former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such links ...

colonisation
, colonisers may impose their religion, language, economics, and other cultural practices. The foreign administrators rule the territory in pursuit of their interests, seeking to benefit from the colonised region's people and resources. It is associated with but distinct from
imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power Hard power is the use of military and economics, economi ...

imperialism
. Though colonialism has existed since ancient times, the concept is most strongly associated with the European colonial period starting with the 15th century when some European states established colonising empires. At first, European colonising countries followed policies of
mercantilism Mercantilism is an economic policy The economic policy of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Li ...

mercantilism
, aiming to strengthen the home-country economy, so agreements usually restricted the colony to trading only with the
metropole The metropole (from the Greek ''metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

metropole
(mother country). By the mid-19th century, however, the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and adopted the principle of
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
, with few restrictions or
tariff A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...
s.
Christian mission A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity to new converts. Missions involve sending individuals and groups across boundaries, most commonly geographical boundaries, to carry on evangelism or other activities, such as educ ...
aries were active in practically all of the European-controlled colonies because the metropoles were Christian. Historian Philip Hoffman calculated that by 1800, before the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
,
Europeans Europeans are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by commo ...

Europeans
already controlled at least 35% of the globe, and by 1914, they had gained control of 84% of the globe. In the
aftermath of World War II The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of a new era for all countries involved, defined by the decline of all European colonial empires and simultaneous rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Un ...
colonial powers retreated between 1945 and 1975; over which time nearly all colonies gained
independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822.">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state State may ref ...

independence
, entering into changed colonial, so-called
postcolonial Postcolonialism is the critical academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and generally with the a ...
and
neocolonialist Neocolonialism is the practice of using economics, Globalization, globalisation, cultural imperialism and International Monetary Fund, conditional aid to influence a country instead of the previous Colonialism, colonial methods of direct military ...
relations. Postcolonialism and neocolonialism have continued or shifted relations and ideologies of colonialism, justifying its continuation with concepts such as
development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in development *Filmmaking#Development, Filmmaking, development phase, including finance and budgeting *Development (music), the process thematic material i ...
and new frontiers, as in exploring outer space for colonization.


Definitions

''
Collins English Dictionary The ''Collins English Dictionary'' is a printed and online dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic ...
'' defines colonialism as "the practice by which a powerful country directly controls less powerful countries and uses their resources to increase its own power and wealth". ''Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary'' defines colonialism as "the system or policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories".''Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language'', 1989, p. 291. The ''
Merriam-Webster Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books A reference work is a work such as a book or periodical literature, periodical (or electronic publishing, its electronic equivalent) to which one can refer for info ...
Dictionary'' offers four definitions, including "something characteristic of a colony" and "control by one power over a dependent area or people". Etymologically, the word "
colony In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, ...
" comes from the Latin '' colōnia''—"a place for agriculture". The ''
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy The ''Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' (''SEP'') combines an online encyclopedia An online encyclopedia, also called an Internet encyclopedia, or a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British E ...
'' uses the term "to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including the Americas, Australia, and parts of Africa and Asia". It discusses the distinction between colonialism,
imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power Hard power is the use of military and economics, economi ...

imperialism
and
conquest Conquest is the act of military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, g ...

conquest
and states that " e difficulty of defining colonialism stems from the fact that the term is often used as a synonym for imperialism. Both colonialism and imperialism were forms of conquest that were expected to benefit Europe economically and strategically," and continues "given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use ''colonialism'' broadly to refer to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s". In his preface to
Jürgen Osterhammel Jürgen Osterhammel (born 1952 in Wipperfürth, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German historian specialized in world history. Academia Osterhammel started his academic career as a research fee student at the London School of Economics in 1976/77 an ...
's ''Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview'', Roger Tignor says "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence." In the book, Osterhammel asks, "How can 'colonialism' be defined independently from 'colony?'" He settles on a three-sentence definition:


Types of colonialism

Historian A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the stu ...
s often distinguish between various overlapping forms of colonialism, which they classify into four types:
settler colonialism Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the p ...
, exploitation colonialism, surrogate colonialism, and
internal colonialismInternal colonialism is the uneven effects of economic development In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudentia ...
. *
Settler colonialism Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the p ...
involves large-scale
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigration
, often motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons. It aims largely to replace any existing population. Here, a large number of people emigrate to the colony for the purpose of staying and cultivating the land.
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
,
Apartheid South Africa The Union of South Africa ( nl, Unie van Zuid-Afrika; af, Unie van Suid-Afrika ) is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony The Cap ...
(and to a more controversial extent
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...
) are examples of settler-colonial societies. *
Exploitation colonialism 300px, Exploitation colonialism: The world in 1898; European empires colonised the Americas, Africa">Americas.html" ;"title="empires colonised the Americas">empires colonised the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Exploitation colonialism is t ...
, also known as Planter or Extractive colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on the exploitation of natural resources or labour to the benefit of the
metropole The metropole (from the Greek ''metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

metropole
. This category includes
trading posts A trading post, trading station, or trading house, also known as a factory, was an establishment or settlement where goods and services could be traded. Typically the location of the trading post would allow people from one geographic area to tra ...
as well as larger colonies where colonists would constitute much of the political and economic administration. Prior to the end of the trans-Atlantic
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...

slave trade
and widespread abolition, when indigenous labour was unavailable,
slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved per ...
were often imported to the Americas, first by the Portuguese, and later by the Spanish, Dutch, French and British. * Surrogate colonialism involves a settlement project supported by a colonial power, in which most of the settlers do not come from the same ethnic group as the ruling power. *
Internal colonialismInternal colonialism is the uneven effects of economic development In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudentia ...
is a notion of uneven structural power between areas of a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
. The source of exploitation comes from within the state. This is demonstrated in the way control and exploitation may pass from people from the colonizing country to an immigrant population within a newly independent country. * National colonialism is a process involving elements of both settler and internal colonialism, in which nation-building and colonization are symbiotically connected, with the colonial regime seeking to remake the colonized peoples into their own cultural and political image. The goal is to integrate them into the state, but only as reflections of the state's preferred culture. is the archetypal example of a national-colonialist society. *Trade Colonialism is a focus on control over the trading relationships of the colony. A good example of trade colonialism is the British trade coercion post-1842 Opium war in China forcing the opening of additional ports for foreign trade.


Socio-cultural evolution

As colonialism often played out in pre-populated areas,
sociocultural evolution Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of sociobiology Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution. It draws from disciplines includi ...
included the formation of various ethnically hybrid populations. Colonialism gave rise to culturally and ethnically mixed populations such as the
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

mestizo
s of the Americas, as well as racially divided populations such as those found in
French Algeria French Algeria (french: Alger to 1839, then afterwards; unofficially , ar, الجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, refers to the France, French colonisation of Algeria. French rule in the region began in 1830 with t ...
or in
Southern Rhodesia The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a landlocked self-governing colony, self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa, established in 1923 and consisting of British South Africa Company (BSAC) territories lying south of the Zambezi R ...
. In fact, everywhere where colonial powers established a consistent and continued presence, hybrid communities existed. Notable examples in Asia include the
Anglo-Burmese The Anglo-Burmese people, also known as the Anglo-Burmans, are a community of Eurasian (mixed ancestry), Eurasians of Burmese and European descent, who emerged as a distinct community through mixed relationships (sometimes permanent, sometimes ...
,
Anglo-Indian The term Anglo-Indian can refer to at least two groups of people: those with multiracial people, mixed Indian people, Indian and British people, British ancestry and people of British descent born or residing in India. The latter sense is now ...
, Burgher,
Eurasian Singaporean Eurasians in Singapore are persons of either full Ethnic groups in Europe, European or mixed European and Ethnic groups in Asia, Asian descent. Their European ancestry traces to emigrants of countries that span the length and breadth of Europe ...
,
Filipino mestizo In the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Fi ...
, Kristang and
Macanese people The Macanese people ( pt, Macaense) are an East Asian ethnic group that originated in Macau in the 16th century, consisting of people of predominantly mixed Cantonese people, Cantonese and Portuguese people, Portuguese as well as Malays (ethnic ...
s. In the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
(later
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
) the vast majority of "Dutch" settlers were in fact Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans, formally belonging to the European legal class in the colony (see also
Indos in pre-colonial history Indo people (short for Indo-European) are a Eurasian people of mixed Indonesian and European descent. Through the 16th and 18th century known by the name Mestiço (Dutch: Mestiezen). To this day they form one of the largest Eurasian communities ...
and
Indos in colonial history Indos (short for Indo-Europeans, from Dutch ''Indo-Europeanen'') are a Eurasian Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather tha ...
).


History

Colonial empires in 1800.svg , Map of colonial and land-based empires throughout the world in 1800. World 1914 empires colonies territory.PNG , Map of colonial and land-based empires throughout the world in 1914. World 1936 empires colonies territory.png , Map of colonial empires (and Soviet Union) throughout the world in 1936. Colonization 1945.png , Map of colonial empires at the end of the Second World War, 1945.


Premodern

Activity that could be called colonialism has a long history, starting at least as early as the
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt
ians.
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
ns,
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
and
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
founded
colonies in antiquity Colonies in antiquity were post-Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the use of the first stone tools ...
.
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
had an enterprising maritime trading-culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC; later the
Persian empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...
and various
Greek city-states ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (199 ...
continued on this line of setting up colonies. The
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
would soon follow, setting up ''coloniae'' throughout the Mediterranean, in Northern Africa, and in Western Asia. Beginning in the 7th century,
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...
colonized a substantial portion of the Middle East, Northern Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. From the 9th century
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...
(
Norsemen The Norsemen (or Norse people) were a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are ...
) established
colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropole, metropolitan ...

colonies
in Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, North America, present-day Russia and Ukraine, France (Normandy) and Sicily. In the 9th century a new wave of
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
colonisation began, with competitors such as the
Venetians Venetian often means from or related to: * Venice, a city in Italy * Veneto, a region of Italy * Republic of Venice (697–1797), a historical nation in that area Venetian and the like may also refer to: * Venetian language, a Romance language sp ...
,
Genovese Genovese is an Italian surname meaning, properly, someone from Genoa. Its Italian plural form '' Genovesi'' has also developed into a surname. People * Alfred Genovese (1931–2011), American oboist * Alfredo Genovese (born 1964), Argentine arti ...
and Amalfians infiltrating the wealthy previously
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
or
Eastern Roman The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
islands and lands. European
Crusaders The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusaders
set up colonial regimes in
Outremer The Crusader States, also known as Outremer, were four Roman Catholic realms in the Middle East that lasted from 1098 to 1291. These Feudalism, feudal Polity, polities were created by the Latin Church, Latin Catholic leaders of the First Cru ...
(in
the Levant The Levant () is an approximate An approximation is anything that is intentionally similar but not exactly equality (mathematics), equal to something else. Etymology and usage The word ''approximation'' is derived from Latin ''approximat ...
, 1097–1291) and in the (12th century onwards).
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...
began to dominate
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
and reached its greatest nominal colonial extent at the conclusion of the
Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Roman Catholic Church, Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Islam, Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first defeating th ...
in 1204, with the declaration of the acquisition of three octaves of the Byzantine Empire.


Modern

Modern colonialism started with the Portuguese
Prince Henry the Navigator Dom Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator ( pt, Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-cen ...
(1394-1460), initiating the
Age of Exploration The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period The early modern period of modern history ...
and establishing African trading posts (1445 onwards). Spain (initially the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kin ...

Crown of Castile
) and soon after Portugal encountered the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
(1492 onwards) through sea travel and built trading posts or conquered large extents of land. For some people, it is this building of colonies across oceans that differentiates colonialism from other types of
expansionism In expansionism, states expand their territory through military empire-building or colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and gener ...
. Madrid and Lisbon between the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
and the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
in 1494; other would-be colonial powers paid little heed to the theoretical demarcation. The 17th century saw the birth of the
French colonial empire The French colonial empire () comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and League of Nations mandate, mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First French Co ...
and the
Dutch Empire The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies—mainly the Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( n ...
, as well as the
English overseas possessions The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Act ...
, which later became the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. It also saw the establishment of a
Danish colonial empire , conventional_long_name = Danish overseas colonies , status = Empire , status_text = , life_span = 1536–1953 (Denmark) 1536–1814 (Norway) , government_type = Constitutional monarchy A ...
and some Swedish overseas colonies. A first wave of
independence movement upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Independence_of_Brazil">Brazil's_independence_on_September_7,_1822..html" ;"title="1822.html" ;"title="Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822">Independence of Brazil">Brazi ...
s started with the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
(1775–1783), initiating a new phase for the British Empire. The Spanish Empire largely collapsed in the Americas with the
Latin American wars of independence Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule. The American Revolution was the first in the Americas, and the British defeat in the American Revolutionary W ...
( onwards). However, empire-builders established several new colonies after this time, including in the
German colonial empire The German colonial empire (german: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of . Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was . Short-lived attempts at by had occurred in ...
and the
Belgian colonial empire Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large lan ...

Belgian colonial empire
. In the late-19th century, many European powers became involved in the
Scramble for Africa The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonisation of Africa, colonization of most of Africa by seven Western Europe, Western European powers during a ...
. The
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
,
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...

Austrian Empire
existed at the same time as the above empires but did not expand over oceans. Rather, these empires expanded through the more traditional route of the conquest of neighbouring territories. There was, though, some Russian colonisation of the Americas across the Bering Strait. From the 1860s, the Empire of Japan modelled itself on European colonial empires and expanded its territories in the Pacific and on the Asian mainland. Argentina and the Empire of Brazil fought for hegemony in South America. The United States of America gained overseas territories after the 1898 Spanish–American War - hence the coining of the term American imperialism, "American Empire". After the World War I, First World War of 1914–1918, the victorious Allies of World War I, allies divided up the German colonial empire and much of the Ottoman Empire between themselves as League of Nations mandates, grouping these territories into three classes according to how quickly it was deemed that they could prepare for independence. The empires of Russia and Austria collapsed in 1917–1918. Nazi Germany set up short-lived colonial systems (''Reichskommissariate'', General Government, ''Generalgouvernement'') in Eastern Europe in the early 1940s. After World War II (1939-1945) decolonisation progressed rapidly, due to a number of reasons. First, the Japanese victories in the Pacific War of 1941-1945 had showed Indian people, Indians and other subject peoples that the colonial powers were not invincible. Second, World War II had significantly weakened all the overseas colonial powers economically. Dozens of independence movements and global political solidarity projects such as the Non-Aligned Movement proved instrumental in the decolonisation efforts of former colonies. These included significant wars of independence fought in Indonesian War of Independence, Indonesia, First Indochina War, Vietnam, Algerian War of Independence, Algeria, and Kenyan War of Independence, Kenya. Eventually, the European powers—pressured by the United States and Soviets—resigned themselves to decolonisation. In 1962 the United Nations set up a Special Committee on Decolonisation, often called the Committee of 24, to encourage this process.


The status and cost of European colonization at the turn of the 20th century

The world's colonial population at the outbreak of the First World War (1914) - a high point for colonialism - totalled about 560 million people, of whom 70% lived in British possessions, 10% in French possessions, 9% in Dutch possessions, 4% in Japanese possessions, 2% in German possessions, 2% in American possessions, 3% in Portuguese possessions, 1% in Belgian possessions and 0.5% in Italian possessions. The domestic domains of the colonial powers had a total population of about 370 million people. Outside Europe, few areas had remained without coming under formal colonial tutorship - and even Siam, Chinese Empire, China, Nepal, Japan, Afghanistan, Persia and Ethiopian Empire, Abyssinia had felt varying degrees of Western colonial-style influence - Concessions and leases in international relations, concessions, Unequal treaty, unequal treaties, extraterritoriality and the like. Asking whether colonies paid, economic historian Grover Clark (1891-1938) argues an emphatic "No!" He reports that in every case the support cost, especially the military system necessary to support and defend colonies, outran the total trade they produced. Apart from the British Empire, they did not provide favoured destinations for the immigration of surplus metropole populations. The question of whether colonies paid is, however, a complicated one when recognizing the multiplicity of interests involved. In some cases colonial powers paid a lot in military costs while private investors pocketed the benefits. In other cases the colonial powers managed to move the burden of administrative costs to the colonies themselves by imposing taxes.


Neocolonialism

The word "neocolonialism" has originated from Jean-Paul Sartre in 1956, to refer to a variety of contexts since the decolonisation that took place after World War II. Generally it does not refer to a type of direct colonisation - rather to colonialism or colonial-style exploitation by other means. Specifically, neocolonialism may refer to the theory that former or existing economic relationships, such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Central American Free Trade Agreement, or the operations of companies (such as Royal Dutch Shell in Nigeria and Brunei) fostered by former colonial powers were or are used to maintain control of former colonies and dependencies after the colonial independence movements of the post–World War II period. The term "neocolonialism" became popular in ex-colonies in the late-20th century.


List of colonies


British colonies and protectorates

* Aden Protectorate, Aden * British Afghanistan, Afghanistan * Anglo-Egyptian Sudan * Ascension Island *
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
** New South Wales ** Victoria (Australia), Victoria ** Tasmania ** Queensland ** South Australia ** Western Australia * Bahamas * Barbados * Basutoland * Bechuanaland * British Borneo ** Brunei ** Crown Colony of Labuan, Labuan ** North Borneo ** Kingdom of Sarawak, Sarawak * British East Africa * British Guiana * British Honduras * British Hong Kong * British Leeward Islands ** Anguilla ** Antigua ** Barbuda ** British Virgin Islands ** Dominica ** Montserrat ** Nevis ** Saint Kitts * British Malaya ** Federated Malay States ** Straits Settlements ** Unfederated Malay States * British Somaliland * British Western Pacific Territories ** British Solomon Islands ** Fiji ** Gilbert and Ellice Islands ** Phoenix Islands ** Pitcairn Islands ** New Hebrides (condominium (international law), condominium with France) ** Tonga ** Union Islands * British Windward Islands ** Barbados ** Dominica ** Grenada ** Saint Lucia ** Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Myanmar *
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
* Ceylon * Christmas Island * Cocos (Keeling) Islands * Cyprus (including Akrotiri and Dhekelia) * Egypt * Falkland Islands * Falkland Islands Dependencies ** Graham Land ** South Georgia Island, South Georgia ** South Orkney Islands ** South Shetland Islands ** South Sandwich Islands ** Victoria Land * Gambia * Gibraltar * Gold Coast (British colony), Gold Coast * British India, India (including what is today Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar) * Heard Island and McDonald Islands * Ireland * Jamaica * Kenya * Maldives * Malta Colony, Malta * Mandatory Palestine * British Mauritius, Mauritius * Muscat and Oman * Norfolk Island * Nigeria * Northern Rhodesia * Nyasaland * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Shanghai International Settlement * South Africa ** Cape Colony ** Colony of Natal, Natal ** Transvaal Colony ** Orange River Colony *
Southern Rhodesia The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a landlocked self-governing colony, self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa, established in 1923 and consisting of British South Africa Company (BSAC) territories lying south of the Zambezi R ...
* St Helena * Swaziland * Trinidad and Tobago * Tristan da Cunha * Trucial States * Uganda * Tonga


French colonies

* Acadia * French Algeria, Algeria * Canada (New France), Canada * Clipperton Island * Comoros Islands (including Mayotte) * French conquest of Corsica, Corsica * French Guiana * French Equatorial Africa ** Chad ** Oubangui-Chari ** French Congo ** Gabon * French India (Puducherry (union territory), Pondichéry, Chandernagor, Karaikal, Karikal, Mahé, India, Mahé and Yanam, Yanaon) * French Indochina **Annam (French protectorate), Annam ** Tonkin (French protectorate), Tonkin ** French Cochinchina, Cochinchina ** French Protectorate of Cambodia, Cambodia ** French Protectorate of Laos, Laos * French Polynesia * French Somaliland * French Southern and Antarctic Lands * French West Africa ** Ivory Coast ** French Dahomey, Dahomey ** Guinea ** French Sudan ** Mauritania ** Niger ** Senegal ** French Upper Volta, Upper Volta * Guadeloupe ** Saint Barthélemy ** Collectivity of Saint Martin, Saint Martin * La Réunion * Louisiana (New France), Louisiana * Madagascar * Martinique * French protectorate of Morocco, French Morocco * Lebanon * New Caledonia * Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon * Saint-Domingue * Shanghai French Concession (similar concessions in Guangzhouwan, Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, Tianjin, Tientsin, Hankou, Hankéou) * French protectorate of Tunisia, Tunisia * New Hebrides (condominium with Britain) * Wallis-et-Futuna


United States colonies and protectorates

* Concessions in Tianjin#American Concession (1869–1902), American Concession in Tianjin (1869–1902) * American Concession (Shanghai), American Concession in Shanghai (1848–1863) * Treaty ports, American Concession in Beihai (1876–1943) * Treaty ports, American Concession in Harbin (1898–1943) * American Samoa * Beijing Legation Quarter (1861–1945) * Corn Islands (1914–1971) * Canton and Enderbury Islands * Caroline Islands * Cuba (Platt Amendment turned Cuba into a protectorate – until Cuban Revolution) * Falkland Islands (1832) * Guantánamo Bay * Guam * Gulangyu Island (1903–1945) * Haiti (1915–1934) * Indian Territory (1834–1907) * Isla de la Juventud, Isle of Pines (1899–1925) * Liberia (Independent since 1847, US protectorate until post-WW2) * Marshall Islands * Midway Atoll, Midway * Nicaragua (1912–1933) * Northern Mariana Islands * Palau * Palmyra Atoll * Panama (Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty turned Panama into a protectorate, protectorate until post-WW2) * Panama Canal Zone (1903–1979) * Philippines (1898–1946) * Puerto Rico * Quita Sueño Bank (1869–1981) * Roncador Bank (1856–1981) * Ryukyu Islands (1945-1972) * Shanghai International Settlement (1863–1945) * Sultanate of Sulu (1903–1915) * Swan Islands, Honduras (1914–1972) * Treaty ports, Treaty Ports of China, Korea and Japan * United States Virgin Islands * Wake Island * Wilkes Land


Russian colonies and protectorates

* Emirate of Bukhara (1873–1917) * Grand Duchy of Finland (1809–1917) * Khiva Khanate (1873–1917) * Kauai (Hawaii) (1816–1817) * Russian America (Alaska) (1733–1867) * Fort Ross, California, Fort Ross (California)


German colonies

* Bismarck Archipelago * Kamerun * Caroline Islands * German New Guinea * German Samoa * German Solomon Islands * German East Africa * German South-West Africa * Gilbert Islands * Kiautschou Bay concession, Jiaozhou Bay * Mariana Islands * Marshall Islands * Nauru * Palau * Togoland * Concessions in Tianjin, Tianjin


Italian colonies and protectorates

* Italian Aegean Islands *Italian protectorate over Albania, Italian Albania (1918–1920) *Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943), Italian Albania (1939–1943) *Italian concessions in China **Italian concession of Tientsin * Governorate of Dalmatia, Italian governorate of Dalmatia * Italian governorate of Montenegro * Hellenic State (1941–1944), Hellenic State * Italian Eritrea * Italian Somaliland
-''Italian Trans-Juba'' (briefly; annexed) *Italian colonization of Libya, Libya ** Italian Tripolitania ** Italian Cyrenaica ** Italian Libya * Italian East Africa * Sicily, Italian Sicily * Kingdom of Naples, Italian Naples


Dutch colonies and Overseas Territories

* Dutch Brazil * Dutch Ceylon * Dutch Formosa * Dutch Cape Colony * Aruba * Bonaire * Curaçao * Saba * Sint Eustatius * Sint Maarten * Surinam (Dutch colony) *
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
* Dutch New Guinea


Portuguese colonies

* Portuguese Africa ** Portuguese Congo, Cabinda ** Ceuta ** Madeira ** Portuguese Angola ** Portuguese Cape Verde ** Portuguese Guinea ** Portuguese Mozambique ** Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe ** Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá * Portuguese Asia ** Portuguese India *** Goa *** Daman District, India, Daman *** Diu, India, Diu ** Macau, Portuguese Macau * Portuguese Oceania ** Flores ** Portuguese Timor ** Solor * Portuguese South America ** Colonial Brazil ** Cisplatina ** Misiones Orientales * Portuguese North America ** Azores ** Newfoundland and Labrador


Spanish colonies

* Canary Islands * Cape Juby * Captaincy General of Cuba ** Spanish Florida ** Spanish Louisiana * Captaincy General of the Philippines ** Caroline Islands ** Mariana Islands ** Marshall Islands ** Palau Islands * Ifni * Río de Oro * Saguia el-Hamra * Spanish Morocco * Spanish Netherlands * Spanish Sahara * Aragonese conquest of Sardinia, Spanish Sardinia * Spanish Sicily * Viceroyalty of Peru ** Captaincy General of Chile * Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ** Spanish Guinea *** Annobón *** Bioko, Fernando Po *** Río Muni * Viceroyalty of New Granada ** Captaincy General of Venezuela * Viceroyalty of New Spain ** Captaincy General of Guatemala ** Captaincy General of Yucatán ** Captaincy General of Santo Domingo ** Captaincy General of Puerto Rico ** Spanish Formosa


Austrian and Austro-Hungarian colonies

* Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878–1918. * Tianjin, China, 1902–1917. * Austrian Netherlands, 1714–1797 * Austrian colonization of Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands, 1778–1783 * North Borneo, 1876–1879


Danish colonies

* Danish India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands * Danish West Indies (now United States Virgin Islands) * Danish Norway * Faroe Islands * Greenland * Iceland * Serampore * Danish Gold Coast * Danish India *Duchy of Estonia (1219–1346)


Belgian colonies

* Belgian Congo * Ruanda-Urundi * Tianjin


Swedish colonies

* Baltic states * Guadeloupe * New Sweden * Swedish colony of Saint Barthélemy, Saint Barthélemy * Swedish Pomerania * Swedish Gold Coast


Norwegian Overseas Territories

*Svalbard *Jan Mayen *Bouvet Island *Queen Maud Land *Peter I Island


Ottoman colonies and Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire

*Rumelia *North Africa#Arab conquest to modern times, Ottoman North Africa *Ottoman Arabia


Other non-European colonialist countries


Australian Overseas Territories

* Papua New Guinea * Christmas Island * Cocos Islands * Coral Sea Islands * Heard Island and McDonald Islands * Norfolk Island * Nauru * Australian Antarctic Territory


New Zealand dependencies

* Cook Islands * Nauru * Niue * Ross Dependency ** Balleny Islands ** Ross Island ** Scott Island ** Roosevelt Island, Antarctica, Roosevelt Island


Japanese colonies and protectorates

* Bonin Islands * Karafuto * Korea under Japanese rule, Korea * Kuril Islands * Kwantung Leased Territory * South Pacific Mandate, Nanyo ** Caroline Islands ** Marshall Islands ** Northern Mariana Islands ** Palau Islands * Penghu Islands * Ryukyu Domain * Taiwan under Japanese rule, Taiwan * Volcano Islands


Chinese colonies and protectorates

* East Turkistan (Xinjiang) from 1884 - 1933, 1934-1944, 1949-present * Guangxi (Tusi) * Hainan ** Nansha Islands ** Xisha Islands * Manchuria * Inner Mongolia * Outer Mongolia during the Qing dynasty * Taiwan * Tibet (Kashag) * Tuva during the Qing dynasty * Yunnan (Tusi) * Chinese domination of Vietnam, Vietnam during the Han, Sui, and Tang dynasties * Ryukyu Kingdom, Ryukyu from the 15th to the 19th century


Omani colonies

Omani Empire * Swahili coast * Zanzibar * Qatar * Somalia, Bahrain * Somalia * Socotra


Mexican colonies

* The Californias * Texas * Central America * Clipperton Island * Revillagigedo Islands * Chiapas


Ecuatorian colonies

* Galápagos Islands


Colombian colonies

* Panama * Ecuador * Venezuela * Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina


Argentine colonies and protectorates

* Protectorate of Peru (1820–1822) * Gobierno del Cerrito (1843–1851) * Chile (1817–1818) * Paraguay (1810–1811, 1873) * Uruguay (1810–1813) * Bolivia (1810–1822) * Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina, Tierra del Fuego * Conquest of the Desert, Patagonia * Falkland Islands and Falkland Islands Dependencies, Dependencies (1829–1831, 1832–1833, 1982) * Argentine Antarctica * Misiones * Formosa province, Formosa * Puna de Atacama (1839– ) * Hippolyte Bouchard, invasion Argentina to California (1818) * Equatorial Guinea (1810-1815)


Paraguayan colonies

* Mato Grosso do Sul * Formosa province, Formosa


Bolivian colonies

* Puna de Atacama (1825–1839 ceded to Argentina) (1825–1879 ceded to Chile) * Acre (state), Acre


Ethiopian colonies

* Eritrea


Moroccan colonies

* Western Sahara


Indian colonies and protectorates

* Gilgit Baltistan


Thai colonies (Siam)

* Kingdom of Vientiane (1778–1828) * Kingdom of Luang Prabang (1778–1893) * Kingdom of Champasak (1778–1893) * Kingdom of Cambodia (1771–1867) * Siamese invasion of Kedah, Kedah (1821–1826) * Perlis (1821-1836)


(Ancient) Egyptian colonies

* Canaan * Nubia


(Khedivate) Egyptian colonies

* Anglo-Egyptian Sudan * Habesh Eyalet * Sidon Eyalet * Damascus Eyalet


Impact of colonialism and colonisation

The impacts of colonisation are immense and pervasive. Various effects, both immediate and protracted, include the spread of virulent Pandemic, diseases, oppression, unequal social relations, detribalization, Exploitation of natural resources, exploitation, enslavement, History of medicine#Modern medicine, medical advances, the creation of new institutions, Slavery in Africa#Abolition, abolitionism,Lovejoy, Paul E. (2012). Transformations of Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. London: Cambridge University Press. improved infrastructure, and technological progress. Colonial practices also spur the spread of colonist languages, literature and cultural institutions, while endangering or obliterating those of native peoples. The native cultures of the colonised peoples can also have a powerful influence on the imperial country.


Economy, trade and commerce

Economic expansion, sometimes described as the colonial surplus, has accompanied imperial expansion since ancient times. Greek trade networks spread throughout the Mediterranean region while Roman trade expanded with the primary goal of directing tribute from the colonised areas towards the Roman metropole. According to Strabo, by the time of emperor Augustus, up to 120 Roman ships would set sail every year from Myos Hormos in Roman Egypt to India. With the development of trade routes under the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, Aztec civilisation developed into an extensive empire that, much like the Roman Empire, had the goal of exacting tribute from the conquered colonial areas. For the Aztecs, a significant tribute was the acquisition of sacrificial victims for their religious rituals. On the other hand, European colonial empires sometimes attempted to channel, restrict and impede trade involving their colonies, funneling activity through the metropole and taxing accordingly. Despite the general trend of economic expansion, the economic performance of former European colonies varies significantly. In "Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of Long-run Growth", economists Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson (economist), Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson (Harvard University), James A. Robinson compare the economic influences of the European colonists on different colonies and study what could explain the huge discrepancies in previous European colonies, for example, between West African colonies like Sierra Leone and Hong Kong and Singapore. According to the paper, economic institutions are the determinant of the colonial success because they determine their financial performance and order for the distribution of resources. At the same time, these institutions are also consequences of political institutions – especially how de facto and de jure political power is allocated. To explain the different colonial cases, we thus need to look first into the political institutions that shaped the economic institutions. For example, one interesting observation is "the Reversal of Fortune" – the less developed civilisations in 1500, like North America, Australia, and New Zealand, are now much richer than those countries who used to be in the prosperous civilisations in 1500 before the colonists came, like the Mughals in India and the Incas in the Americas. One explanation offered by the paper focuses on the political institutions of the various colonies: it was less likely for European colonists to introduce economic institutions where they could benefit quickly from the extraction of resources in the area. Therefore, given a more developed civilisation and denser population, European colonists would rather keep the existing economic systems than introduce an entirely new system; while in places with little to extract, European colonists would rather establish new economic institutions to protect their interests. Political institutions thus gave rise to different types of economic systems, which determined the colonial economic performance. European colonisation and development also changed gendered systems of power already in place around the world. In many pre-colonialist areas, women maintained power, prestige, or authority through reproductive or agricultural control. For example, in certain parts of sub-Saharan Africa women maintained farmland in which they had usage rights. While men would make political and communal decisions for a community, the women would control the village's food supply or their individual family's land. This allowed women to achieve power and autonomy, even in patrilineal and patriarchal societies. Through the rise of European colonialism came a large push for development and industrialisation of most economic systems. However, when working to improve productivity, Europeans focused mostly on male workers. Foreign aid arrived in the form of loans, land, credit, and tools to speed up development, but were only allocated to men. In a more European fashion, women were expected to serve on a more domestic level. The result was a technologic, economic, and class-based gender gap that widened over time. Within a colony, the presence of extractive colonial institutions in a given area has been found have effects on the modern day economic development, institutions and infrastructure of these areas.


Slavery and indentured servitude

European nations entered their imperial projects with the goal of enriching the European metropoles. Exploitation of non-Europeans and of other Europeans to support imperial goals was acceptable to the colonisers. Two outgrowths of this imperial agenda were the extension of slavery and indentured servitude. In the 17th century, nearly two-thirds of English settlers came to North America as indentured servants. European slave traders brought large numbers of African slaves to the Americas by sail. Spain and Portugal had Atlantic slave trade, brought African slaves to work in African colonies such as Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe, and then in Latin America, by the 16th century. The British, French and Dutch joined in the slave trade in subsequent centuries. The European colonial system took approximately 11 million Africans to the Caribbean and to North and South America as slaves. abolitionism, Abolitionists in Europe and Americas protested the inhumane treatment of African slaves, which led to the elimination of the slave trade (and later, of most forms of slavery) by the late 19th century. One (disputed) school of thought points to the role of abolitionism in the American Revolution: while the British colonial metropole started to move towards outlawing slavery, slave-owning elites in the Thirteen Colonies saw this as one of the reasons to fight for their post-colonial independence and for the right to develop and continue a largely slave-based economy. British colonising activity in New Zealand from the early 19th century played a part in ending slave-taking and slave-keeping among the indigenous Māori people, Māori. On the other hand, British colonial History of South Africa (1815–1910), administration in Southern Africa, when it officially abolished slavery in the 1830s, caused rifts in society which arguably perpetuated slavery in the Boer Republics and fed into the philosophy of ''apartheid''. The labour shortages that resulted from abolition inspired European colonisers in Queensland, British Guaiana and Fiji (for example) to develop new sources of labour, re-adopting a system of indentured servitude. Indentured servants consented to a contract with the European colonisers. Under their contract, the servant would work for an employer for a term of at least a year, while the employer agreed to pay for the servant's voyage to the colony, possibly pay for the return to the country of origin, and pay the employee a wage as well. The employees became "indentured" to the employer because they owed a debt back to the employer for their travel expense to the colony, which they were expected to pay through their wages. In practice, indentured servants were exploited through terrible working conditions and burdensome debts imposed by the employers, with whom the servants had no means of negotiating the debt once they arrived in the colony. India and China were the largest source of indentured servants during the colonial era. Indentured servants from India travelled to British colonies in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean, and also to French and Portuguese colonies, while Chinese servants travelled to British and Dutch colonies. Between 1830 and 1930, around 30 million indentured servants migrated from India, and 24 million returned to India. China sent more indentured servants to European colonies, and around the same proportion returned to China. Following the
Scramble for Africa The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonisation of Africa, colonization of most of Africa by seven Western Europe, Western European powers during a ...
, an early but secondary focus for most colonial regimes was the suppression of slavery and the slave trade. By the end of the colonial period they were mostly successful in this aim, though slavery persists in Africa and in the world at large with much the same practices of ''de facto'' servility despite legislative prohibition.


Military innovation

Conquering forces have throughout history applied innovation in order to gain an advantage over the armies of the people they aim to conquer. Greeks developed the phalanx system, which enabled their military units to present themselves to their enemies as a wall, with foot soldiers using shields to cover one another during their advance on the battlefield. Under Philip II of Macedon, they were able to organise thousands of soldiers into a formidable battle force, bringing together carefully trained infantry and cavalry regiments. Alexander the Great exploited this military foundation further during his conquests. The Spanish Empire held a major advantage over Mesoamerican warriors through the use of weapons made of stronger metal, predominantly iron, which was able to shatter the blades of axes used by the Aztec civilisation and others. The use of gunpowder weapons cemented the European military advantage over the peoples they sought to subjugate in the Americas and elsewhere.


The end of empire

The populations of some colonial territories, such as Canada, enjoyed relative peace and prosperity as part of a European power, at least among the majority; however, minority populations such as First Nations peoples and French-Canadians experienced marginalisation and resented colonial practices. Francophone residents of Quebec, for example, were vocal in opposing conscription into the armed services to fight on behalf of Britain during World War I, resulting in the Conscription crisis of 1917. Other European colonies had much more pronounced conflict between European settlers and the local population. Rebellions broke out in the later decades of the imperial era, such as India's Sepoy Rebellion, Sepoy Rebellion of 1857. The territorial boundaries imposed by European colonisers, notably in central Africa and South Asia, defied the existing boundaries of native populations that had previously interacted little with one another. European colonisers disregarded native political and cultural animosities, imposing peace upon people under their military control. Native populations were often relocated at the will of the colonial administrators. The Partition of British India in August 1947 led to the Indian independence movement, Independence of India and the Pakistan Movement, creation of Pakistan. These events also caused much bloodshed at the time of the migration of immigrants from the two countries. Muslims from India and Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan migrated to the respective countries they sought independence for.


Post-independence population movement

In a reversal of the migration patterns experienced during the modern colonial era, post-independence era migration followed a route back towards the imperial country. In some cases, this was a movement of settlers of European origin returning to the land of their birth, or to an ancestral birthplace. 900,000 French colonists (known as the ''Pied-Noirs'') resettled in France following Algeria's independence in 1962. A significant number of these migrants were also of Algerian descent. 800,000 people of Processo Revolucionário Em Curso#The retornados, Portuguese origin migrated to Portugal after the independence of former colonies in Africa between 1974 and 1979; 300,000 settlers of Dutch origin migrated to the Netherlands from the Dutch West Indies after Dutch military control of the colony ended. After WWII 300,000 Dutchmen from the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
, of which the majority were people of Eurasian descent called Indo people, Indo Europeans, repatriated to the Netherlands. A significant number later migrated to the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Global travel and migration in general developed at an increasingly brisk pace throughout the era of European colonial expansion. Citizens of the former colonies of European countries may have a privileged status in some respects with regard to immigration rights when settling in the former European imperial nation. For example, rights to dual citizenship may be generous, or larger immigrant quotas may be extended to former colonies. In some cases, the former European imperial nations continue to foster close political and economic ties with former colonies. The Commonwealth of Nations is an organisation that promotes cooperation between and among Britain and its former colonies, the Commonwealth members. A similar organisation exists for former colonies of France, the Francophonie; the Community of Portuguese Language Countries plays a similar role for former Portuguese colonies, and the Dutch Language Union is the equivalent for former colonies of the Netherlands. Migration from former colonies has proven to be problematic for European countries, where the majority population may express hostility to ethnic minorities who have immigrated from former colonies. Cultural and religious conflict have often erupted in France in recent decades, between immigrants from the Maghreb countries of north Africa and the majority population of France. Nonetheless, immigration has changed the ethnic composition of France; by the 1980s, 25% of the total population of "inner Paris" and 14% of the metropolitan region were of foreign origin, mainly Algerian.


Introduced diseases

Encounters between explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced new diseases, which sometimes caused local epidemics of extraordinary virulence. For example, smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and others were unknown in pre-Columbian America. Half the native population of Hispaniola in 1518 was killed by smallpox. Smallpox also ravaged Mexico in the 1520s, killing 150,000 in Tenochtitlan alone, including the emperor, and Peru in the 1530s, aiding the European conquerors. Measles killed a further two million Mexican natives in the 17th century. In 1618–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans. Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837-38 smallpox epidemic, 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians. Some believe that the death of up to 95% of the Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases. Over the centuries, the Europeans had developed high degrees of Immunity (medical), immunity to these diseases, while the indigenous peoples had no time to build such immunity. Smallpox decimated the native population of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, killing around 50% of indigenous Australians in the early years of British colonisation. It also killed many New Zealand Māori people, Māori. As late as 1848–49, as many as 40,000 out of 150,000 Hawaiians are estimated to have died of measles, whooping cough and influenza. Introduced diseases, notably smallpox, nearly wiped out the native population of Easter Island. In 1875, measles killed over 40,000 Fijians, approximately one-third of the population. The Ainu people, Ainu population decreased drastically in the 19th century, due in large part to infectious diseases brought by Japanese settlers pouring into Hokkaido. Conversely, researchers have hypothesised that a precursor to syphilis may have been carried from the New World to Europe after Christopher Columbus, Columbus's voyages. The findings suggested Europeans could have carried the nonvenereal tropical bacteria home, where the organisms may have mutated into a more deadly form in the different conditions of Europe. The disease was more frequently fatal than it is today; syphilis was a major killer in Europe during the Renaissance. The first cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. Ten thousand British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic. Between 1736 and 1834 only some 10% of East India Company's officers survived to take the final voyage home. Waldemar Haffkine, who mainly worked in India, who developed and used vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague in the 1890s, is considered the first microbiologist. According to a 2021 study by Jörg Baten and Laura Maravall on the Anthropometry, anthropometric influence of colonialism on Africans, the human height, average height of Africans decreased by 1.1 centimetres upon colonization and later recovered and increased overall during colonial rule. The authors attributed the decrease to diseases, such as malaria and African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, Forced labour, forced labor during the early decades of colonial rule, conflicts, land grabbing, and 1890s African rinderpest epizootic, widespread cattle deaths from the rinderpest viral disease.


Countering disease

As early as 1803, the Enlightenment in Spain, Spanish Crown organised a mission (the Balmis expedition) to transport the smallpox vaccine to the Spanish Empire, Spanish colonies, and establish mass vaccination programs there. By 1832, the federal government of the United States established a Smallpox vaccine, smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans. Under the direction of Mountstuart Elphinstone a program was launched to propagate smallpox vaccination in India. From the beginning of the 20th century onwards, the elimination or control of disease in tropical countries became a driving force for all colonial powers. The African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness epidemic in Africa was arrested due to mobile teams systematically screening millions of people at risk. In the 20th century, the world saw the biggest increase in its population in human history due to lessening of the mortality rate in many countries due to History of medicine#Modern medicine, medical advances. The world population has grown from 1.6 billion in 1900 to over seven billion today.


Colonialism and the history of thought


Colonial botany

Colonial botany refers to the body of works concerning the study, cultivation, marketing and naming of the new plants that were acquired or traded during the age of European colonialism. Notable examples of these plants included sugar, nutmeg, tobacco, cloves, cinnamon, Peruvian bark, peppers and tea. This work was a large part of securing financing for colonial ambitions, supporting European expansion and ensuring the profitability of such endeavors. Vasco de Gama and Christopher Columbus were seeking to establish routes to trade spices, dyes and silk from the Moluccas, India and China by sea that would be independent of the established routes controlled by Venetian and Middle Eastern merchants. Naturalists like Hendrik van Rheede, Georg Eberhard Rumphius, and Jacobus Bontius compiled data about eastern plants on behalf of the Europeans. Though Sweden did not possess an extensive colonial network, botanical research based on Carl Linnaeus identified and developed techniques to grow cinnamon, tea and rice locally as an alternative to costly imports.


Universalism

The conquest of vast territories brings multitudes of diverse cultures under the central control of the imperial authorities. From the time of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, this fact has been addressed by empires adopting the concept of universalism, and applying it to their imperial policies towards their subjects far from the imperial capitol. The capitol, the metropole, was the source of ostensibly enlightened policies imposed throughout the distant colonies. The empire that grew from Greek conquest, particularly by Alexander the Great, spurred the spread of Greek language, religion, science and philosophy throughout the colonies. While most Greeks considered their own culture superior to all others (the word barbarian is derived from mutterings that sounded to Greek ears like "bar-bar"), Alexander was unique in promoting a campaign to win the Winning hearts and minds, hearts and minds of the Persians. H
adopted Persian customs of clothing
and otherwise encouraged his men to wikt:go native, go native by adopting local wives and learning their mannerisms. Of note is that he radically departed from earlier Greek attempts at colonisation, characterised by the History of the Peloponnesian War, murder and enslavement of the local inhabitants and the settling of Greek citizens from the polis. Roman universalism was characterised by cultural and religious tolerance and a focus on civil efficiency and the rule of law. Roman law was imposed on both Roman citizens and colonial subjects. Although Imperial Rome had Education in ancient Rome, no public education, Latin spread through its use in government and trade. Roman law prohibited local leaders to wage war between themselves, which was responsible for the 200 year long Pax Romana, at the time the longest period of peace in history. The Roman Empire was tolerant of diverse cultures and religious practises, even allowing them on a few occasions to Hyrcanus II, threaten Roman authority.


Colonialism and geography

Settlers acted as the link between indigenous populations and the imperial hegemony, thus bridging the geographical, ideological and commercial gap between the colonisers and colonised. While the extent in which geography as an academic study is implicated in colonialism is contentious, geographical tools such as cartography, shipbuilding, navigation, mining and agricultural productivity were instrumental in European colonial expansion. Colonisers' awareness of the Earth's surface and abundance of practical skills provided colonisers with a knowledge that, in turn, created power."Painter, J. & Jeffrey, A., 2009. ''Political Geography'', 2nd ed., Sage. "Imperialism" p. 23 (GIC). Anne Godlewska and Neil Smith argue that "empire was 'quintessentially a geographical project. Historical geographical theories such as environmental determinism legitimised colonialism by positing the view that some parts of the world were underdeveloped, which created notions of skewed evolution. Geographers such as Ellen Churchill Semple and Ellsworth Huntington put forward the notion that northern climates bred vigour and intelligence as opposed to those indigenous to tropical climates (See The Tropics) viz a viz a combination of environmental determinism and Social Darwinism in their approach. Political geographers also maintain that colonial behaviour was reinforced by the physical mapping of the world, therefore creating a visual separation between "them" and "us". Geographers are primarily focused on the spaces of colonialism and imperialism; more specifically, the material and symbolic appropriation of space enabling colonialism. Maps played an extensive role in colonialism, as Bassett would put it "by providing geographical information in a convenient and standardised format, cartographers helped open West Africa to European conquest, commerce, and colonisation". However, because the relationship between colonialism and geography was not scientifically objective, cartography was often manipulated during the colonial era. Social norms and values had an effect on the constructing of maps. During colonialism map-makers used rhetoric in their formation of boundaries and in their art. The rhetoric favoured the view of the conquering Europeans; this is evident in the fact that any map created by a non-European was instantly regarded as inaccurate. Furthermore, European cartographers were required to follow a set of rules which led to ethnocentrism; portraying one's own ethnicity in the centre of the map. As J.B. Harley put it, "The steps in making a map – selection, omission, simplification, classification, the creation of hierarchies, and 'symbolisation' – are all inherently rhetorical." A common practice by the European cartographers of the time was to map unexplored areas as "blank spaces". This influenced the colonial powers as it sparked competition amongst them to explore and colonise these regions. Imperialists aggressively and passionately looked forward to filling these spaces for the glory of their respective countries. The ''Dictionary of Human Geography'' notes that cartography was used to empty 'undiscovered' lands of their Indigenous meaning and bring them into spatial existence via the imposition of "Western place-names and borders, [therefore] priming 'virgin' (putatively empty land, 'wilderness') for colonisation (thus sexualising colonial landscapes as domains of male penetration), reconfiguring alien space as absolute, quantifiable and separable (as property)." David Livingstone stresses "that geography has meant different things at different times and in different places" and that we should keep an open mind in regards to the relationship between geography and colonialism instead of identifying boundaries. Geography as a discipline was not and is not an objective science, Painter and Jeffrey argue, rather it is based on assumptions about the physical world. Comparison of wikt:exogeography, exogeographical representations of ostensibly tropical environments in science fiction art support this conjecture, finding the notion of the tropics to be an artificial collection of ideas and beliefs that are independent of geography.


Colonialism and imperialism

A colony is a part of an empire and so colonialism is closely related to
imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power Hard power is the use of military and economics, economi ...

imperialism
. Assumptions are that colonialism and imperialism are interchangeable, however Robert J. C. Young suggests that imperialism is the concept while colonialism is the practice. Colonialism is based on an imperial outlook, thereby creating a consequential relationship. Through an empire, colonialism is established and capitalism is expanded, on the other hand a capitalist economy naturally enforces an empire.


Marxist view of colonialism

Marxism views colonialism as a form of capitalism, enforcing exploitation and social change. Marx thought that working within the global capitalist system, colonialism is closely associated with uneven development. It is an "instrument of wholesale destruction, dependency and systematic exploitation producing distorted economies, socio-psychological disorientation, massive poverty and neocolonial dependency". Colonies are constructed into modes of production. The search for raw materials and the current search for new investment opportunities is a result of inter-capitalist rivalry for capital accumulation. Lenin regarded colonialism as the root cause of imperialism, as imperialism was distinguished by monopoly capitalism via colonialism and as Lyal S. Sunga explains: "Vladimir Lenin advocated forcefully the principle of self-determination of peoples in his "Theses on the Socialist Revolution and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination" as an integral plank in the programme of socialist internationalism" and he quotes Lenin who contended that "The right of nations to self-determination implies exclusively the right to independence in the political sense, the right to free political separation from the oppressor nation. Specifically, this demand for political democracy implies complete freedom to agitate for secession and for a referendum on secession by the seceding nation." Non Russian marxists within the RSFSR and later the USSR, like Sultan Galiev and Vasyl Shakhrai, meanwhile, between 1918 and 1923 and then after 1929, considered the Soviet Regime a renewed version of the Russian imperialism and colonialism. In his critique of colonialism in Africa, the Guyanese historian and political activist Walter Rodney states: :"The decisiveness of the short period of colonialism and its negative consequences for Africa spring mainly from the fact that Africa lost power. Power is the ultimate determinant in human society, being basic to the relations within any group and between groups. It implies the ability to defend one's interests and if necessary to impose one's will by any means available ... When one society finds itself forced to relinquish power entirely to another society that in itself is a form of underdevelopment ... During the centuries of pre-colonial trade, some control over social political and economic life was retained in Africa, in spite of the disadvantageous commerce with Europeans. That little control over internal matters disappeared under colonialism. Colonialism went much further than trade. It meant a tendency towards direct appropriation by Europeans of the social institutions within Africa. Africans ceased to set indigenous cultural goals and standards, and lost full command of training young members of the society. Those were undoubtedly major steps backwards ... Colonialism was not merely a system of exploitation, but one whose essential purpose was to repatriate the profits to the so-called 'mother country'. From an African view-point, that amounted to consistent expatriation of surplus produced by African labour out of African resources. It meant the development of Europe as part of the same dialectical process in which Africa was underdeveloped. Colonial Africa fell within that part of the international capitalist economy from which surplus was drawn to feed the metropolitan sector. As seen earlier, exploitation of land and labour is essential for human social advance, but only on the assumption that the product is made available within the area where the exploitation takes place." According to Vladimir Lenin, Lenin, the new imperialism emphasised the transition of capitalism from
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
to a stage of monopoly capitalism to finance Capital (economics), capital. He states it is, "connected with the intensification of the struggle for the partition of the world". As
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
thrives on exports of commodities, monopoly capitalism thrived on the export of capital amassed by profits from banks and industry. This, to Lenin, was the highest stage of capitalism. He goes on to state that this form of capitalism was doomed for war between the capitalists and the exploited nations with the former inevitably losing. War is stated to be the consequence of imperialism. As a continuation of this thought G.N. Uzoigwe states, "But it is now clear from more serious investigations of African history in this period that imperialism was essentially economic in its fundamental impulses."


Liberalism, capitalism and colonialism

Classical liberals were generally in abstract opposition to colonialism and imperialism, including Adam Smith, Frédéric Bastiat, Richard Cobden, John Bright, Henry Richard, Herbert Spencer, H.R. Fox Bourne, Edward Morel, Josephine Butler, W.J. Fox and William Ewart Gladstone.Liberal Anti-Imperialism
, professor Daniel Klein, 1.7.2004
Their philosophies found the Imperialism, colonial enterprise, particularly
mercantilism Mercantilism is an economic policy The economic policy of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Li ...

mercantilism
, in opposition to the principles of
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
and Political freedom, liberal policies. Adam Smith wrote in ''The Wealth of Nations'' that Britain should grant independence to all of its colonies and also argued that it would be economically beneficial for British people in the average, although the merchants having mercantilist privileges would lose out.


Scientific thought in colonialism, race and gender

During the colonial era, the global process of colonisation served to spread and synthesize the social and political belief systems of the "mother-countries" which often included a belief in a certain natural racial superiority of the race of the mother-country. Colonialism also acted to reinforce these same racial belief systems within the "mother-countries" themselves. Usually also included within the colonial belief systems was a certain belief in the inherent superiority of male over female, however this particular belief was often pre-existing amongst the pre-colonial societies, prior to their colonisation. Popular political practices of the time reinforced colonial rule by legitimising European (and/ or Japanese) male authority, and also legitimising female and non-mother-country race inferiority through studies of craniology, comparative anatomy, and phrenology. Biologists, naturalists, anthropologists, and ethnologists of the 19th century were focused on the study of colonised indigenous women, as in the case of Georges Cuvier's study of Saartjie Baartman, Sarah Baartman. Such cases embraced a natural superiority and inferiority relationship between the races based on the observations of naturalists' from the mother-countries. European studies along these lines gave rise to the perception that African women's anatomy, and especially genitalia, resembled those of mandrills, baboons, and monkeys, thus differentiating colonised Africans from what were viewed as the features of the evolutionarily superior, and thus rightfully authoritarian, European woman. In addition to what would now be viewed as pseudo-scientific studies of race, which tended to reinforce a belief in an inherent mother-country racial superiority, a new supposedly "science-based" ideology concerning gender roles also then emerged as an adjunct to the general body of beliefs of inherent superiority of the colonial era. Female inferiority across all cultures was emerging as an idea supposedly supported by craniology that led scientists to argue that the typical brain size of the female human was, on the average, slightly smaller than that of the male, thus inferring that therefore female humans must be less developed and less evolutionarily advanced than males. This finding of relative cranial size difference was later simply attributed to the general typical size difference of the human male body versus that of the typical human female body. Within the former European colonies, non-Europeans and women sometimes faced invasive studies by the colonial powers in the interest of the then prevailing pro-colonial scientific ideology of the day. Such seemingly flawed studies of race and gender coincided with the era of colonialism and the initial introduction of foreign cultures, appearances, and gender roles into the now gradually widening world-views of the scholars of the mother-countries.


"The Other"

"The Other", or "othering", is the process of creating a separate entity to persons or groups who are labelled as different or non-normal due to the repetition of characteristics. Othering is the creation of those who discriminate, to distinguish, label, categorise those who do not fit in the societal norm. Several scholars in recent decades developed the notion of the "other" as an epistemological concept in social theory. For example, postcolonial scholars, believed that colonising powers explained an "other" who were there to dominate, civilise, and extract resources through colonisation of land. Political geographers explain how colonial/imperial powers (countries, groups of people etc.) "othered" places they wanted to dominate to legalise their exploitation of the land. During and after the rise of colonialism the Western powers perceived the East as the "other", being different and separate from their societal norm. This viewpoint and separation of culture had divided the Eastern and Western culture creating a dominant/subordinate dynamic, both being the "other" towards themselves.


Post-colonialism

Post-colonialism (or post-colonial theory) can refer to a set of theories in philosophy and literature that grapple with the legacy of colonial rule. In this sense, one can regard post-colonial literature as a branch of postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. Many practitioners take Edward Said, Edward Saïd's book Orientalism (book), ''Orientalism'' (1978) as the theory's founding work (although French theorists such as Aimé Césaire (1913–2008) and Frantz Fanon (1925–1961) made similar claims decades before Saïd). Saïd analyzed the works of Honoré de Balzac, Balzac, Charles Baudelaire, Baudelaire and Lautréamont, arguing that they helped to shape a societal fantasy of European racial superiority. Writers of post-colonial fiction interact with the traditional colonial discourse, but modify or subvert it; for instance by retelling a familiar story from the perspective of an oppressed minor character in the story. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak's ''Subaltern (post-colonialism), Can the Subaltern Speak?'' (1998) gave its name to Subaltern Studies. In ''A Critique of Postcolonial Reason'' (1999), Spivak argued that major works of European metaphysics (such as those of Immanuel Kant, Kant and Hegel) not only tend to exclude the subaltern from their discussions, but actively prevent non-Europeans from occupying positions as fully human subject (philosophy), subjects. Hegel's ''Phenomenology of Spirit'' (1807), famous for its explicit ethnocentrism, considers Western culture, Western civilisation as the most accomplished of all, while Kant also had some traces of Racism, racialism in his work.


Colonistics

The field of colonistics studies colonialism from such viewpoints as those of economics, sociology and psychology.


Effects of colonialism on the colonisers

In his 1955 essay, ''Discourse on Colonialism'' (French language, French: ''Discours sur le colonialisme''), French poet Aimé Césaire evaluates the effects of racist, sexist, and capitalist attitudes and motivations on the civilisations that attempted to colonise other civilisations. In explaining his position, he says, "I admit that it is a good thing to place different civilisations in contact with each other that it is an excellent thing to blend different worlds; that whatever its own particular genius may be, a civilisation that withdraws into itself atrophies; that for civilisations, exchange is oxygen." However, he contends that colonisation is a harmful and counterproductive means of interacting with and learning from neighbouring civilisations. To illustrate his point, he explains that colonisation relies on racist and xenophobic frameworks that dehumanise the targets of colonisation and justify their extreme and brutal mistreatment. Every time an immoral act perpetrated by colonisers onto the colonised is justified by racist, sexist, otherwise xenophobic, or capitalist motivations to subjugate a group of people, the colonising civilisation "acquires another dead weight, a universal regression takes place, a gangrene sets in, a centre of infection begins to spread." Césaire argues the result of this process is that "a poison [is] instilled into the veins of Europe and, slowly but surely, the continent proceeds toward ''savagery''." Césaire is indicating that the racist and xenophobic justifications for colonisation—motivated by capitalist desires—ultimately result in the moral and cultural degradation of the colonising nation. Thusly, colonisation is damaging to the civilisations that participate as perpetrators in a way that is internally harmful.


British public opinion about the British Empire

The 2014 YouGov survey found that British people are mostly proud of colonialism and the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
:


Colonial migrations

Nations and regions outside Europe with significant populations of European ethnic groups, European ancestry * Africa (see Europeans in Africa) ** South Africa (European South African): 5.8% of the population ** Namibia (European Namibians): 6.5% of the population, of which most are Afrikaans-speaking, in addition to a German-speaking minority. ** Réunion: estimated to be approx. 25% of the population ** Zimbabwe (Europeans in Zimbabwe) ** Algeria (Pied-noir) ** Botswana: 3% of the population ** Kenya (Europeans in Kenya) ** Mauritius (Franco-Mauritian) ** Morocco (European Moroccans) ** Ivory Coast (French people) ** Senegal ** Canary Islands (Spanish people, Spaniards), known as Canarian people, Canarians. ** Seychelles (Franco-Seychellois) ** Somalia (Italian Somalis) ** Eritrea (Italian Eritreans) ** Saint Helena (UK) including Tristan da Cunha (UK): predominantly European. ** Swaziland: 3% of the population ** Tunisia (European Tunisians) * Asia ** Siberia (Russians, Volga Germans, Germans and Ukrainians in Russia, Ukrainians) ** Kazakhstan (Russians in Kazakhstan, Germans of Kazakhstan): 30% of the population ** Uzbekistan (Russian diaspora, Russians and other Slavic peoples, Slavs): 6% of the populationRobert Greenall
"Russians left behind in Central Asia"
BBC News, 23 November 2005.
** Kyrgyzstan (Russians and other Slavs): 14% of the population ** Turkmenistan (Russians and other Slavs): 4% of the population ** Tajikistan (Russians and other Slavs): 1% of the population ** Hong Kong ** Philippines (Spanish Ancestry): 3% of the population ** People's Republic of China (Russians in China) ** Indian subcontinent (Anglo-Indians) * Latin America (see White Latin American) **Argentina (Ethnography of Argentina#Ethnic groups, European Immigration to Argentina): 97% of the population ** Bolivia: 15% of the population ** Brazil (White Brazilian): 47% of the population ** Chile (White Latin American#Chile, White Chilean): 60–70% of the population. ** Colombia (White Colombian): 37% of the population ** Costa Rica: 83% of the population ** Cuba (White Cuban): 65% of the population ** Dominican Republic: 16% of the population ** Ecuador: 7% of the population ** Honduras: 1% of the population ** El Salvador: 12% of the population ** Mexico (White Mexican): 9% or ~17% of the population. and 70–80% more as Mestizos. ** Nicaragua: 17% of the population ** Panama: 10% of the population ** Puerto Rico: approx. 80% of the population ** Peru (European Peruvian): 15% of the population ** Paraguay: approx. 20% of the population ** Uruguay (White Latin American#Uruguay, White Uruguayan): 88% of the population ** Venezuela (White Venezuelan): 42% of the population * Rest of the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
**Bahamas: 12% of the population ** Barbados (White Barbadian): 4% of the population ** Bermuda: 34% of the population **
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
(European Canadians): 80% of the population ** Falkland Islands: mostly of British descent. ** French Guiana: 12% of the population ** Greenland: 12% of the population ** Martinique: 5% of the population ** Saint Barthélemy ** Trinidad and Tobago: 1% of the population **
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
(European American): 72% of the population, including White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Whites. * Oceania (see Europeans in Oceania) **
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
(European Australians): 90% of the population ** New Zealand (European New Zealanders): 78% of the population ** New Caledonia (Caldoche): 35% of the population ** French Polynesia: (Zoreilles) 10% of the population ** Hawaii: 25% of the population ** Christmas Island: approx. 20% of the population. ** Guam: 7% of the population ** Norfolk Island: 9→5% of the population


Numbers of European settlers in the colonies (1500–1914)

By 1914, Europeans had migrated to the colonies in the millions. Some intended to remain in the colonies as temporary settlers, mainly as military personnel or on business. Others went to the colonies as immigrants. British people were by far the most numerous population to migrate to the colonies: 2.5 million settled in Canada; 1.5 million in Australia; 750,000 in New Zealand; 450,000 in the Union of South Africa; and 200,000 in India. French citizens also migrated in large numbers, mainly to the colonies in the north African Maghreb region: 1.3 million settled in Algeria; 200,000 in Morocco; 100,000 in Tunisia; while only 20,000 migrated to French Indochina. Dutch and German colonies saw relatively scarce European migration, since Dutch and German colonial expansion focused on commercial goals rather than settlement. Portugal sent 150,000 settlers to Angola, 80,000 to Mozambique, and 20,000 to Goa. During the Spanish Empire, approximately 550,000 Spanish settlers migrated to Latin America.


See also

* African independence movements * Age of Discovery * Anti-imperialism * Chartered company * Chinese imperialism * Christianity and colonialism * Civilising mission * Colonial Empire * Colonialism and the Olympic Games * Coloniality of power * Colonial war * Decoloniality * Decolonization of the Americas * Direct colonial rule * Empire of Liberty * European colonization of Africa * European colonization of the Americas * European colonization of Micronesia * European colonisation of Southeast Asia * French law on colonialism * German eastward expansion * Global Empire * Historiography of the British Empire * Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation * International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) * Muslim conquests * Orientalism * Pluricontinental * Protectorate * Satellite state * Soviet Empire * Stranger King (Concept) * Western imperialism in Asia


Notes


Further reading

* Albertini, Rudolf von. ''European Colonial Rule, 1880–1940: The Impact of the West on India, Southeast Asia, and Africa'' (1982) 581 pp * Benjamin, Thomas, ed. ''Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism Since 1450'' (2006) * Cooper, Frederick. ''Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History'' (2005) * Cotterell, Arthur. ''Western Power in Asia: Its Slow Rise and Swift Fall, 1415 – 1999'' (2009) popular history
excerpt
* Getz, Trevor R. and Heather Streets-Salter, eds.: ''Modern Imperialism and Colonialism: A Global Perspective'' (2010) * * LeCour Grandmaison, Olivier: ''Coloniser, Exterminer – Sur la guerre et l'Etat colonial'', Fayard, 2005, * Lindqvist, Sven: ''Exterminate All The Brutes'', 1992, New Press; Reprint edition (June 1997), * Morris, Richard B. and Graham W. Irwin, eds. ''Harper Encyclopedia of the Modern World: A Concise Reference History from 1760 to the Present'' (1970
online
* Ness, Immanuel and Zak Cope, eds. ''The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism'' (2 vol 2015), 1456 pp * Nuzzo, Luigi
''Colonial Law''
European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2010, retrieved: December 17, 2012. * Osterhammel, Jürgen: ''Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview'', Princeton, NJ: M. Wiener, 1997. * Page, Melvin E. et al. eds. ''Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia'' (3 vol 2003) * Petringa, Maria, ''Brazza, A Life for Africa'' (2006), . * Vijay Prashad, Prashad, Vijay: ''The Darker Nations: A People's History of the Third World'', The New Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-56584-785-9 * * Rönnbäck, K. & Broberg, O. (2019) Capital and Colonialism. The Return on British Investments in Africa 1869–1969 (Palgrave Studies in Economic History) * Schill, Pierre : ''Réveiller l'archive d'une guerre coloniale. Photographies et écrits de Gaston Chérau, correspondant de guerre lors du conflit italo-turc pour la Libye (1911–1912)'', Créaphis, 480 p., 2018 (). ''Awaken the archive of a colonial war. Photographs and writings of a French war correspondent during the Italo-Turkish war in Libya (1911–1912)''. With contributions from art historian Caroline Recher, critic Smaranda Olcèse, writer Mathieu Larnaudie and historian Quentin Deluermoz. * Stuchtey, Benedikt
''Colonialism and Imperialism, 1450–1950''
European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: July 13, 2011. * Townsend, Mary Evelyn. ''European colonial expansion since 1871'' (1941). * U.S. Tariff Commission. ''Colonial tariff policies'' (1922), worldwide; 922p
survey online
*

* Wendt, Reinhard
''European Overseas Rule''
European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: June 13, 2012.


Primary sources

* Joseph Conrad, Conrad, Joseph, ''Heart of Darkness'', 1899 * Frantz Fanon, Fanon, Frantz, ''The Wretched of the Earth'', Preface by Jean-Paul Sartre. Translated by Constance Farrington. London: Penguin Book, 2001 * Bartolomé de las Casas, Las Casas, Bartolomé de, ''A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies'' (1542, published in 1552).


External links

* * {{Authority control Colonialism, Cultural geography International relations theory Articles containing video clips