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A client state, in
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
, is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
that is economically, politically, and/or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state (called “controlling state” in this article). A client state may variously be described as
satellite state A satellite state is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state ...
,
associated state An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted. The details of suc ...
,
dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies of the British Empire. "Dominion status" was formally accorded to Canada, Australia, Dominion of New Zealand, New Zealand, Dominion of Newfoundland ...

dominion
,
condominium A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, ...
,
self-governing colony In the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom an ...
,
neo-colony Neocolonialism is the practice of using economic imperialism, Globalization Globalization, or globalisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (- ...
,
protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency (sometimes referred as an external territory) is a territory that does not ...
,
vassal state A vassal state is any state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
,
puppet state A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government or dummy government is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...
, and
tributary state A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or , to the superior power. This token often took the form of a ...
.


Controlling states in history


Persia, Greece, and Rome

Ancient states such as
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
and
Parthia Parthia ( peo, 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 ''Parθava''; xpr, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 ''Parθaw''; pal, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 ''Pahlaw'') is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and offici ...

Parthia
,
Greek city-states ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (199 ...
, and
Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
sometimes created client states by making the leaders of that state subservient, having to provide
tribute A tribute (; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...

tribute
and soldiers.
Classical Athens The city of Athens ( grc, Ἀθῆναι, ''Athênai'' Help:IPA/Greek, .tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯ Modern Greek: Αθήναι ''Athine'' or, more commonly and in singular, Αθήνα ''Athina'' .'θi.na during the Classical Greece, classical period ...
, for example, forced weaker states into the
Delian League The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330 under the leadership of Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, ...
and in some cases imposed democratic government on them. Later,
Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος ; 382 – 21 October 336 BC) was the king (basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in cer ...
similarly imposed the
League of Corinth The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country lo ...
. One of the most prolific users of client states was Republican Rome which, instead of conquering and then absorbing into an empire, chose to make client states out of those it defeated (e.g.
Demetrius of Pharos Demetrius of Pharos (also Pharus) ( grc, Δημήτριος ἐκ Φάρου) was a ruler of Pharos involved in the First Illyrian War The Illyrian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei kingdom. In the ''Firs ...
), a policy which was continued up until the 1st century BCE when it became the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. Sometimes the client was not a former enemy but a
pretender A pretender is someone who claims to be the rightful ruler of a country although not recognized as such by the current government. The term is often used to suggest that a claim is not legitimate.Curley Jr., Walter J.P. Monarchs-in-Waiting. New ...
whom Rome helped,
Herod the Great Herod I (; ; grc-gre, ; c. 72 – 4 or 1 BCE), also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman Empire, Roman client state, client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian Kingdom of Judea, Herodian kingdom. He is known for his colossal building p ...
being a well-known example. The use of client states continued through the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
as the
feudal system Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disco ...
began to take hold.


Chinese dynasties


Ottoman Empire

The number of tributary or vassal states varied over time but notable were the
Khanate of Crimea The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the longest-lived o ...
,
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; : ', : ) is a and geographical region of . It is situated north of the and south of the . Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections ...
,
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
,
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western R ...
, Sharifate of Mecca and the
Sultanate of Aceh The Sultanate of Aceh, officially the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam ( ace, Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam; Jawoë: كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام), was a Sultanate centered in the modern-day Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially ...

Sultanate of Aceh
.


19th and 20th centuries


Russia and Serbia

The
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...
tried to make Serbia a client state in order to form a
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
opposition to the Ottoman Empire, but after the 1903 May Coup, Serbia came under the influence of Russia, which was forming a pan-
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
opposition to the Latin Christianity represented by the Austro-Hungarian empire. In 1914, Russia repeatedly warned the Austro-Hungarian Empire against attacking Serbia. When it did attack, Russia mobilized its army. Russia also wanted Bulgaria and Montenegro as client states. At the time, Great Britain and Austria both considered Serbia as a client state controlled by Russia, and most historians today might call Serbia a client state, but historian
Christopher Clark Sir Christopher Munro Clark (born 14 March 1960) is an Australian historian living in England and Germany. He is the twenty-second Regius Professor of History at the University of Cambridge. In 2015 he was knighted for his services to Angl ...
, author of ''The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914'', in a 2014 conference on the causes of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
(“The Great War”), argues that Serbia was a “client state” only in the imaginations of Russia’s leaders:
It was a risk enhancing initiative f Russian Foreign Minister Serge Sazanovto allow Serbia to become to see Serbia as a kind of client; ... Serbia, to my knowledge, has never been a client of anyone. This is a mistake, when Great Powers think they can secure the services of “client states”; That Those “clients” are never in fact “clients”! That’s a mistake that is presumably going to continue being made by our political leaderships, though one hopes one day it will stop.


France

During the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras (1789–1815), France conquered most of
western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

western Europe
and established several client states. At first, during the
French revolutionary wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
these states were erected as "''Républiques soeurs''" ("sister republics"). They were established in Italy (
Cisalpine Republic The Cisalpine Republic ( it, Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the ...
in
Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical cha ...
,
Parthenopean Republic The Parthenopean Republic ( it, Repubblica Partenopea, french: République Parthénopéenne) or Neapolitan Republic (''Repubblica Napoletana'') was a short-lived, semi-autonomous republic A republic () is a form of government A ...
in
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivis ...
), Greece ( ''Îles Ioniennes''), Switzerland (
Helvetic Republic In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = ...
and Rhodanic Republic), Belgium and the Netherlands (
Batavian Republic The Batavian Republic ( nl, Bataafse Republiek; french: République Batave) was the successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Successor'' (film), a 1 ...
). During the
First French Empire The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, also known as the Napoleonic Empire, was the empire ruled by Napoleon, Napoleon Bonaparte, who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th cen ...
, while
Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led Napoleon Bonaparte's battle record, several successful campaigns during the French Rev ...

Napoleon I
and the French army conquered
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
, such states changed, and several new states were formed. The Italian republics were transformed into the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...

Kingdom of Italy
under Napoleon's direct rule in the north, and the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer ...
in the south, first under
Joseph Bonaparte it, Giuseppe-Napoleone Buonaparte es, José Napoleón Bonaparte , house = Bonaparte , father = Carlo Buonaparte Carlo Maria Buonaparte or Charles-Marie Bonaparte (27 March 1746 – 24 February 1785) was a Corsicans, Corsican ...

Joseph Bonaparte
's rule and later under Marshal
Joachim Murat Joachim Murat (; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a French military commander and statesman who served during the French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of ...

Joachim Murat
. A third state was created in the Italian Peninsula, the
Kingdom of Etruria The Kingdom of Etruria (; it, Regno di Etruria) was an Italian kingdom between 1801 and 1807 which made up a large part of modern Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...
. The Batavian Republic was replaced by the
Kingdom of Holland The Kingdom of Holland ( nl, Holland (contemporary), (modern); french: Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to p ...
, ruled by Napoleon's third brother,
Louis Bonaparte Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (born Luigi Buonaparte; 2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846) was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French Emperor of the French ( French: ''Empereur des Français'') was the title of the monarch A monarch ...

Louis Bonaparte
. A total of 35 German states, all of them allies of France, seceded from the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
to create the
Confederation of the Rhine The Confederated States of the Rhine, simply known as the Confederation of the Rhine, was a confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common act ...
, a client state created to provide a buffer between France and its two largest enemies to the east, Prussia and Austria. Two of those states were Napoleonic creations: the huge
Kingdom of Westphalia The Kingdom of Westphalia was a kingdom in Germany, with a population of 2.6 million, that existed from 1807 to 1813. It included territory in Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=n ...
, which was controlled by
Jerome Bonaparte Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 342–347 – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belo ...

Jerome Bonaparte
, the Emperor's youngest brother; and the
Grand Duchy of Würzburg The Grand Duchy of Würzburg (german: Großherzogtum Würzburg) was a Germany, German grand duchy centered on Würzburg existing in the early 19th century. As a consequence of the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, the Bishopric of Würzburg was seculari ...
. Following the
French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula
French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula
, Spain too was turned into a client
Kingdom of Spain under Joseph Bonaparte Napoleonic Spain was the part of Spain loyal to Joseph Bonaparte, Joseph I during the Peninsular War (1808–1813) after the country was partially occupied by French forces. During this period, the country was considered a client state of the Firs ...
; as was Poland, then the
Duchy of Warsaw The Duchy of Warsaw ( pl, Księstwo Warszawskie, french: Duché de Varsovie, german: Herzogtum Warschau), also known as Napoleonic Poland, was a Poland, Polish client state of the First French Empire, French Empire established by Napoleon Bonapar ...
. In the 20th century, France started to apply the concept of ''
Françafrique In international relations, () is France's sphere of influence (or in French, meaning 'backyard') over former List of French possessions and colonies#In Africa, French and Belgian colonial empire, Belgian colonies in sub-Saharan Africa. The ...
'', its name for its former African colonies, sometimes extended to the former Belgian colonies. At present the term is used on some occasions to criticise the allegedly neocolonial relationship France has with its former colonies in Africa. The countries involved provide oil and minerals important to the French economy. In addition, French companies have commercial interests in several countries of the continent.


British Empire

In the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
the
Indian Princely States Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
were technically independent and were given their separate independence in 1947 (although the
Nizam of Hyderabad The Nizams were the rulers of Hyderabad from 18th-through-20th-century. Nizam of Hyderabad (Niẓām ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was the title of the monarch of the Hyderabad State Hyderabad State (), also known as Hyderabad D ...
indeed opted for independence but could not retain his independence from India). Egyptian Independence in 1922 ended a British protectorate in Egypt. Sudan continued to be governed as
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan ( ar, السودان الإنجليزي المصري ') was a condominium A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or le ...

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
until Sudanese independence in 1956; Britain also had an interest in Egypt until the
Suez Crisis The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war, also called the Tripartite Aggression ( ar, العدوان الثلاثي, Al-ʿUdwān aṯ-Ṯulāṯiyy) in the Arab world and the Sinai War in Israel,Also known as the Suez War or 1956 War ...
was over.
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...
was made a kingdom in 1932. In each case the economic and military reality did not amount to full independence, but a status where the local rulers were British clients. Similarly in Africa (e.g. Northern Nigeria under
Lord Lugard Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard (22 January 1858 – 11 April 1945), known as Sir Frederick Lugard between 1901 and 1928, was a British Empire, British soldier, mercenary, explorer of Africa and colonial administrator. He was G ...
), and Malaya with the
Federated Malay States )Under God's Protection , capital = Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption ...
and
Unfederated Malay States The term Unfederated Malay States () was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay peninsula in the first half of the twentieth century. These states were Johor Johor (), also spelled as Johore, is a States an ...
; the policy of ''
indirect rule Indirect rule was a system of public administration, governance used by the British Empire, British and others to control parts of their colonial empires, particularly in Colonisation of Africa, Africa and Western imperialism in Asia, Asia, which ...
''.


Germany

After
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
was defeated in the
Battle of France The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of German ...
,
Vichy France Vichy France (french: Régime de Vichy; 10 July 1940 – 9 August 1944) is the common name of the French State (') headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known a ...
was established as a client state of Nazi Germany, which remained as such until 1942 when it was reduced to a
puppet government A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government is a State (polity), state that is ''de jure'' independent but ''de facto'' completely dependent upon an outside Power (international relations), power and subject to its orders.Compare: Puppet ...
until its liberation in 1944. Germany also established, in its newly conquered Eastern territories, client states including the
Slovak Republic Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entit ...
, the
Croatian State
Croatian State
and the Albanian Kingdom.


United States of America

The term applied has been applied to authoritarian regimes with close ties to the United States during the Cold War, also referred to as U.S. proxy states, such as
South Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam , image_map ...
, Indonesia (1967–1998) under the
Suharto Suharto (; ; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian Army officer Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native In ...
Regime,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...
until 1979,
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...
under the regime of
Lon Nol Marshal Lon Nol ( km, លន់ នល់, also ; 13 November 1913 – 17 November 1985) was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister of Cambodia#REDIRECT Prime Minister of Cambodia The prime minister of Cambodia ( km ...
from 1970 to 1975, the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...
under
Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and lawyer who was the 10th president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometime ...
from 1965 to 1986, and
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
. U.S. - Iran relations under
the Shah
the Shah
(reigned 1941 to 1979) have been cited as a modern political-science case-study. *
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...
(1973–1990) * (1945–1979, on the
island of Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The m ...
from 1949) * (1902–1959) *
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...
(1967–1998) * (1970–1975) *
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...
(1965–1986) * (1955–1975) * * * The term has also been applied to states which are extremely economically dependent on a more powerful nation. The three Pacific Ocean countries associated with the United States under the
Compact of Free Association The Compact of Free Association (COFA) is an international agreement establishing and governing the relationships of free association between the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United St ...
(the
Federated States of Micronesia The Federated States of Micronesia (; abbreviated FSM), or simply Micronesia, is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is oft ...
, the
Marshall Islands The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands ( mh, Aolepān Aorōkin Ṃajeḷ), is an independent near the in the , slightly west of the . Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of . The countr ...
and
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territori ...

Palau
) have been called client states.


Japan

In the late 19th century, the
Japanese Empire The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imp ...

Japanese Empire
gradually reduced
Joseon Korea Joseon (also transcribed as Chosŏn, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was the last dynastic kingdom of Korea. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye Taejo of Joseon ...
's status to that of a client state. In the early 20th century, this was converted to
direct ruleDirect rule is when an imperial or central power takes direct control over the legislature, executive and civil administration of an otherwise largely self-governing territory. Examples Chechnya In 1991, Chechnya declared independence and was named ...
.
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
, in contrast, remained a
puppet state A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government or dummy government is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...
throughout World War II. * * *(Post
Sino-Japanese War
Sino-Japanese War
) *(Post
Sino-Japanese War
Sino-Japanese War
) *(Current
Okinawa Prefecture is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...
) * * * * * *(
East Hebei Autonomous Government The East Hebei Autonomous Government (),Japanese language, Japanese also known as the East Ji Autonomous Government and the East Hebei Autonomous Anti-Communist Government, was a short-lived late-1930s state in Northern and southern China, norther ...
,
Great Way Government The Great Way or Dadao Government, formally the Great Way Municipal Government of Shanghai, was a short-lived puppet government A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government is a State (polity), state that is ''de jure'' independent but ' ...

Great Way Government
) **
Wang Jingwei regime The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China ( zh, t=中華民國國民政府, p=Zhōnghuá mínguó guómín zhèngfǔ), the government of the puppet state A puppet state, puppet ré ...
** Provisional Government of the Republic of China **
Great Way Government The Great Way or Dadao Government, formally the Great Way Municipal Government of Shanghai, was a short-lived puppet government A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government is a State (polity), state that is ''de jure'' independent but ' ...

Great Way Government
*( from 9 March 1945 to 16 October 1945) *
Provisional Government of Free India The Provisional Government of Free India (''Arzi Hakumat-e-Azad Hind'') or, more simply, ''Azad Hind'', was an Indian Provisional government established in Japanese occupied Singapore during World War II World War II or the Sec ...
*
Empire of Vietnam The Empire of Vietnam ( vi, Đế quốc Việt Nam; Hán tự: 帝國越南; ja, ベトナム帝国) was a short-lived puppet state of Imperial Japan governing the former French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''To ...


Soviet Union

Soviet proxy or "client" states included much of the
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement ...
nations whose policies were heavily influenced by Soviet military power and economic aid. Other third world nations with Marxist-Leninist governments were routinely criticized as being Soviet proxies as well, among them Cuba following the
Cuban Revolution The Cuban Revolution ( es, Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (; ; 13 August 1926 – 25 November 2016) was a Cuban revolutionary, lawyer, and politician who was the leader of ...
, the
Democratic People's Republic of Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It borders China and Russia to the north, at the Yalu River, Yalu (Amnok) and Tu ...

Democratic People's Republic of Korea
, the
People's Republic of Angola The People's Republic of Angola () was the self-declared socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can ...
, the
People's Republic of Mozambique People's, branded as ''People's Viennaline'' until May 2018, and legally ''Altenrhein Luftfahrt GmbH'', is an Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, locat ...
, the
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA),, renamed the Republic of Afghanistan, in 1986, was the Afghan Afghan (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian ...
, and the
Democratic Republic of Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) ( vi, Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa) was a state in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1954 and a country from 1954 to 1976. During the August Revolution following World War I ...
(
North Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV; vi, Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa), was a state in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1954, and a country from 1954 to 1976. During the August Revolution following World War ...

North Vietnam
). Within the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
itself, the
Ukrainian SSR The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, translit=Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika, abbreviated ...
and the
Byelorussian SSR The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; be, Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка, Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; russian: Белорус ...
, had seats at the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, but were actually proper Soviet territory. *
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement ...
and
Comecon#REDIRECT Comecon The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (, ; English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, CEMA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Uni ...

Comecon
states: ** (1946-1968) ** ** ** ** (1949-1990) ** ** ** ** (remained a ''de jure'' member in spite of the de-satellization of Romania) ** (
North Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV; vi, Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa), was a state in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1954, and a country from 1954 to 1976. During the August Revolution following World War ...

North Vietnam
to 1976) *** (1979–1989) ** (1979–91) * (until the
Sino-Soviet split The Sino-Soviet split was the breaking of political relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by Doctrine, doctrinal divergences that arose from their different interpretati ...
) * * (1949-1991) * (1974–1991 (
Derg The Derg (also spelled Dergue; , ; om, Dergii), officially the Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC), was the military junta A military junta () is a government A government is the system or group of people governin ...

Derg
until 1987)) * * (until the Tito-Stalin split)


21st century


Argentina

* has been described as a client state of
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina


Australia

* has been regarded as a client state of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
by some sources, as it is heavily dependent on economic support from Australia, uses Australia's currency and processes and houses unauthorised asylum seeker arrivals to Australia under the
Pacific Solution The Pacific Solution is the name given to the Government of Australia The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australi ...
. In ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'', Ben Doherty wrote that "Nauru is a client state in every sense, kept functioning, just, by its wealthy neighbour. But its dependence on Australian largesse makes its government entirely beholden to its benefactor’s interests, even at the expense of its own people" and described Nauru as a "tiny, impoverished client state in the middle of the Pacific". Refugee advocate David Manne labelled a plan by Nauru to sign the
1951 Refugee Convention Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , ...
as a "cynical marketing tool" by a "client state of Australia". *, also involved in the
Pacific Solution The Pacific Solution is the name given to the Government of Australia The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australi ...
, has been called to a lesser extent, a client state of Australia.


China

* has sometimes been considered a client state of the People's Republic of China. * has also been considered a Chinese client state, although this is disputed. * has been described as "a near-client state of he People's Republic ofChina". * has been described as a client state of the People's Republic of China by ''Huffpost''. * has sometimes been seen as a client state of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
since the
Dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
in 1991, although this is sometimes disputed. * has sometimes been referred to as a client state.


France

* has been described as a client state of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. * has been described as a client state of France. * has been described as a client state of France. * has been described as a client state of France.


India

* has sometimes been referred to as a client state. * is sometimes referred to as an Indian client state.


Iran

These countries have to varying degrees been called client states of Iran. * * * * (
Supreme Political Council The Supreme Political Council (SPC; ar, المجلس السياسي الأعلى ''al-Majlis as-Siyāsiyy al-ʾAʿlā'') is a List of states with limited recognition, largely unrecognised executive body formed by the Houthi movement and the Gene ...
)


Israel

* (1994-present) in Palestine *
Free Lebanon State The Free Lebanon State ( ar, دولة لبنان الحر '), also known as the State of Free Lebanon was an List of states with limited recognition, unrecognized puppet state of Israel, announced by Saad Haddad, Lebanese people, Lebanese politicia ...

Free Lebanon State
(1979-1984) and
South Lebanon Army The South Lebanon Army or South Lebanese Army (SLA) ( ar, جيش لبنان الجنوبي, Jayš Lubnān al-Janūbiyy), also known as Lahad Army ( ar, links=no, جيش لحد) and De Facto Forces (DFF), was a Lebanon, Lebanese Christian-dominated ...
(1978-2000) in Lebanon * Mujahideen-el-Khelq in Iran * Fursan al-Joulan in Golan Heights, Syria


Pakistan

*
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
under the
Taliban The Taliban (; ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students or 'seekers'), which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban Islamic Movement and/or Islamic Movement of Taliban is a Deobandi Deobandi ( hi, देव ...

Taliban
has been referred to as a client state of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
.


Russia

* - ''
Financial Times The ''Financial Times'' (''FT'') is a daily newspaper printed in broadsheet and published digitally that focuses on business and economic Current affairs (news format), current affairs. Based in London, England, the paper is owned by a Japanese ...
'' has said that Russia "has long treated Belarus as a client state". * has been referred to as a Russian client state. * is sometimes referred to as a Russian client state. * has been described as a client state of Russia. Mongolia is also a ''de facto'' satellite state of Russia. Mongolia was also a Soviet Satellite State until 1992. * has been described as a client state of Russia. * is sometimes referred to as a Russian client state. * has been referred to as a client state of Russia.


Japan

* has been described as a client state of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
.


Saudi Arabia

* - According to ''The Atlantic'', "Bahrain has long positioned itself as a client state to Saudi Arabia as well as the
U.S The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and a ...

U.S
." * (
Cabinet of Yemen The Cabinet of Yemen refers to the governing body of the internationally recognized Yemen government led by President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi who replaced former President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh on February 25, 2012 as the new President of Yem ...
) - during the civil war in Yemen. * - Bangladesh has been referred to as a Saudi client state.


Turkey

* is sometimes referred to as a Turkish client state. * is often referred to as a Turkish client state. * *
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
(
Syrian National Coalition The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces ( ar, الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) ( ar, الائتلاف ال ...
)


United States of America

There are three Pacific Island states that are under the
Compact of Free Association The Compact of Free Association (COFA) is an international agreement establishing and governing the relationships of free association between the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United St ...
: * * *
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
is officially a commonwealth of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, that is, it has a pact of association for the common good with the United States. It is an associated state, but unlike the other three it is not entirely independent. Various other media have listed the following as American client states: * was described as a client state of United States and NATO. * has been described as a client state of the United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of the United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of the United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of the United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * on the
island of Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The m ...
has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of United States. * (
Cabinet of Yemen The Cabinet of Yemen refers to the governing body of the internationally recognized Yemen government led by President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi who replaced former President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh on February 25, 2012 as the new President of Yem ...
) has been described as a client state of United States. * has been described as a client state of the United States. While the term has also been used to describe: * * * * * * * *() * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * In certain instances, particularly in defense, the has been described as a client state of the US.


See also

*
Banana republic Banana Republic is an American clothing and accessories retailer owned by the American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate organization that owns or controls the production of goods or services in at least on ...

Banana republic
*
Suzerain Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity controls the foreign policy and relations of a tributary state, while allowing the tributary state to have internal autonomy. The dominant state is called the "suzerain." Suzeraint ...
* Tributary (political) *
Strategic autonomyStrategic autonomy is a policy objective of the European Union. Strategic autonomy is the ability of the European Union to defend Europe and act militarily in its neighborhood without so much reliance on the United States. Background A first r ...


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Client State Sovereignty Geopolitics