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A citation index is a kind of
bibliographic index A bibliographic index is a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and subject in separate sections, or in a single alphabetical sequence under a system of authorized headings collectively known as ...
, an index of
citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose o ...
s between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. A form of citation index is first found in 12th-century Hebrew religious literature. Legal citation indexes are found in the 18th century and were made popular by citators such as
Shepard's Citations ''Shepard's Citations'' is a citator used in United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It con ...
(1873). In 1960,
Eugene Garfield Eugene Eli Garfield (September 16, 1925 – February 26, 2017) was an American linguist and businessman, one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics. He helped to create ''Current Contents'', ''Science Citation Index'' (SCI), ''Journa ...
's
Institute for Scientific Information The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was an academic publishing service, founded by Eugene Garfield in Philadelphia in 1956. ISI offered scientometric and bibliographic database services. Its specialty was citation indexing and analysis, ...
(ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums ...
s, first the ''
Science Citation Index The Science Citation Index (SCI) is a citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded ...
'' (SCI), and later the ''
Social Sciences Citation Index The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is a commercial citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric ...
'' (SSCI) and the ''
Arts and Humanities Citation Index The ''Arts & Humanities Citation Index'' (A&HCI), also known as ''Arts & Humanities Search'', is a citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a ...
'' (AHCI). The first automated citation indexing was done by
CiteSeer CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out Web search query, web searches (Internet searches), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic w ...
in 1997 and was patented. Other sources for such data include
Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other words, it is "data about data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, inc ...
, Elsevier's
Scopus Scopus is Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based information and analytics company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journ ...
, and the
National Institutes of Health The National Institutes of Health (NIH) () is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1880s and is now part of the United States Department of Health an ...
's
iCite
'.


History

The earliest known citation index is an index of biblical citations in rabbinic literature, the ''Mafteah ha-Derashot'', attributed to
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun'', "Our Ra ...

Maimonides
and probably dating to the 12th century. It is organized alphabetically by biblical phrase. Later biblical citation indexes are in the order of the canonical text. These citation indices were used both for general and for legal study. The Talmudic citation index ''En Mishpat'' (1714) even included a symbol to indicate whether a Talmudic decision had been overridden, just as in the 19th-century ''Shepard's Citations''.Bella Hass Weinberg, "Predecessors of Scientific Indexing Structures in the Domain of Religion" in W. Boyden Rayward, Mary Ellen Bowden, ''The History and Heritage of Scientific and Technological Information Systems'', Proceedings of the 2002 Conference, 2004, p. 126''ff'' Unlike modern scholarly citation indexes, only references to one work, the Bible, were indexed. In English legal literature, volumes of judicial reports included lists of cases cited in that volume starting with ''Raymond's Reports'' (1743) and followed by ''Douglas's Reports'' (1783). Simon Greenleaf (1821) published an alphabetical list of cases with notes on later decisions affecting the precedential authority of the original decision. The first true citation index dates to the 1860 publication of Labatt's ''Table of Cases...California...'', followed in 1872 by Wait's ''Table of Cases...New York...''. But the most important and best-known citation index came with the 1873 publication of
Shepard's Citations ''Shepard's Citations'' is a citator used in United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It con ...
.


Major citation indexing services

General-purpose, subscription-based academic citation indexes include: *
Web of Science Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is a website that provides subscription-based access to multiple databases that provide comprehensive citation data for many different academic disciplines. It was originally produced by the In ...
by
Clarivate Analytics Clarivate is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociological con ...
(previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of
Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canada-based multinational media conglomerate. The company was founded in Toronto, Ontario Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. Wi ...
) *
Scopus Scopus is Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based information and analytics company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journ ...
by
Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based information and analytics company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as ''The Lanc ...

Elsevier
, available online only, which similarly combines subject searching with citation browsing and tracking in the sciences and . Each of these offer an index of citations between publications and a mechanism to establish which documents cite which other documents. They are not open-access and differ widely in cost: Web of Science and Scopus are available by subscription (generally to libraries). In addition,
CiteSeer CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out Web search query, web searches (Internet searches), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic w ...
and
Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other words, it is "data about data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, inc ...
are freely available online. Several open-access, subject-specific citation indexing services also exist, such as: *
INSPIRE-HEPINSPIRE-HEP is an open access digital library for the field of high energy physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), ...
which covers high energy physics, *
PubMed PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE bibliographic database, database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes o ...

PubMed
, which covers life sciences and biomedical topics, and *
Astrophysics Data System The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is an online database of over eight million astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronom ...
which covers astronomy and physics.


Representativeness of proprietary databases

Clarivate Analytics Clarivate is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociological con ...
'
Web of Science Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is a website that provides subscription-based access to multiple databases that provide comprehensive citation data for many different academic disciplines. It was originally produced by the In ...
(WoS) and Elsevier's
Scopus Scopus is Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based information and analytics company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journ ...
databases are synonymous with data on international research, and considered as the two most trusted or authoritative sources of bibliometric data for peer-reviewed global research knowledge across disciplines. They are both also used widely for the purposes of researcher evaluation and promotion, institutional impact (for example the role of WoS in the UK Research Excellence Framework 2021.), and international league tables (Bibliographic data from Scopus represents more than 36% of assessment criteria in the THE rankings, Times Higher Education.). But while these databases are generally agreed to contain rigorously-assessed, high quality research, they do not represent the sum of current global research knowledge. It is often mentioned in popular science articles that the research output of countries in South America, Asia, and Africa are disappointingly low. Sub-Saharan Africa is cited as an example for having "13.5% of the global population but less than 1% of global research output".. This fact is based on data from a World Bank/Elsevier report from 2012 which relies on data from Scopus.. Research outputs in this context refers to papers specifically published in peer-reviewed journals that are indexed in Scopus. Similarly, many others have analysed putatively global or international collaborations and mobility using the even more selective WoS database. Research outputs in this context refers to papers specifically published in peer-reviewed journals that are indexed either in Scopus or WoS. Both WoS and Scopus are considered highly selective. Both are commercial enterprises, whose standards and assessment criteria are mostly controlled by panels in North America and Western Europe. The same is true for more comprehensive databases such as Ulrich's Web which lists as many as 70,000 journals, while Scopus has fewer than 50% of these, and WoS has fewer than 25%. While Scopus is larger and geographically broader than WoS, it still only covers a fraction of journal publishing outside North America and Europe. For example, it reports a coverage of over 2,000 journals in Asia ("230% more than the nearest competitor"),, 2017. which may seem impressive until you consider that in Indonesia alone there are more than 7,000 journals listed on the government's Garuda portal. (of which more than 1,300 are currently listed on DOAJ);. whilst at least 2,500 Japanese journals listed on the J-Stage platform. portal. Similarly, Scopus claims to have about 700 journals listed from Latin America, in comparison with SciELO's 1,285 active journal count; portal. but that's just the tip of the iceberg judging by the 1,300+ DOAJ-listed journals in Brazil alone.. Furthermore, the editorial boards of the journals contained in Wos and Scopus databases are integrated by researchers from western Europe and North America. For example, in the journal ''Human Geography'', 41% of editorial board members are from the United States, and 37.8% from the UK. Similarly,) studied ten leading marketing journals in WoS and Scopus databases, and concluded that 85.3% of their editorial board members are based in the United States. It comes as no surprise that the research that gets published in these journals is the one that fits the editorial boards' world view. Comparison with subject-specific indexes has further revealed the geographical and topic bias – for example Ciarli found that by comparing the coverage of rice research in CAB Abstracts (an agriculture and global health database) with WoS and Scopus, the latter "may strongly under-represent the scientific production by developing countries, and over-represent that by industrialised countries", and this is likely to apply to other fields of agriculture. This under-representation of applied research in Africa, Asia, and South America may have an additional negative effect on framing research strategies and policy development in these countries. The overpromotion of these databases diminishes the important role of "local" and "regional" journals for researchers who want to publish and read locally-relevant content. Some researchers deliberately bypass "high impact" journals when they want to publish locally useful or important research in favour of outlets that will reach their key audience quicker, and in other cases to be able to publish in their native language. Furthermore, the odds are stacked against researchers for whom English is a foreign language. 95% of WoS journals are English consider the use of English language a hegemonic and unreflective linguistic practice. The consequences include that non-native speakers spend part of their budget on translation and correction and invest a significant amount of time and effort on subsequent corrections, making publishing in English a burden. A far-reaching consequence of the use of English as the ''lingua franca'' of science is in knowledge production, because its use benefits "worldviews, social, cultural, and political interests of the English-speaking center" ( p. 123). The small proportion of research from South East Asia, Africa, and Latin America which makes it into WoS and Scopus journals is not attributable to a lack of effort or quality of research; but due to hidden and invisible epistemic and structural barriers (Chan 2019, Twitter.). These are a reflection of "deeper historical and structural power that had positioned former colonial masters as the centers of knowledge production, while relegating former colonies to peripheral roles" (Chan 2018, Leslie Chan interview with Open Library of Humanities.). Many North American and European journals demonstrate conscious and unconscious bias against researchers from other parts of the world.. Many of these journals call themselves "international" but represent interests, authors, and even references only in their own languages., Cameron Neylon. Therefore, researchers in non-European or North American countries commonly get rejected because their research is said to be "not internationally significant" or only of "local interest" (the wrong "local"). This reflects the current concept of "international" as limited to a Euro/Anglophone-centric way of knowledge production. In other words, "the ongoing internationalisation has not meant academic interaction and exchange of knowledge, but the dominance of the leading Anglophone journals in which international debates occurs and gains recognition" (, p. 8). Clarivate Analytics have made some positive steps to broaden the scope of WoS, integrating the SciELO citation index – a move not without criticism, Leslie Chan. – and through the creation of the Emerging Sources Index (ESI), which has allowed database access to many more international titles. However, there is still a lot of work to be done to recognise and amplify the growing body of research literature generated by those outside North America and Europe. The Royal Society have previously identified that "traditional metrics do not fully capture the dynamics of the emerging global science landscape", and that academia needs to develop more sophisticated data and impact measures to provide a richer understanding of the global scientific knowledge that is available to us. Academia has not yet built digital infrastructures which are equal, comprehensive, multi-lingual and allows fair participation in knowledge creation. One way to bridge this gap is with discipline- and region-specific preprint repositories such as
AfricArXivAfricArXiv is an open-access repository for preprints of academic publications which are either about Africa or by African scientists. The platform was established in 2018. It was established to make preprint servers more available in various field ...
and InarXiv. Open access advocates recommend to remain critical of those "global" research databases that have been built in Europe or Northern America and be wary of those who celebrate these products act as a representation of the global sum of human scholarly knowledge. Finally, let us also be aware of the geopolitical impact that such systematic discrimination has on knowledge production, and the inclusion and representation of marginalised research demographics within the global research landscape.


See also

*
Acknowledgment indexAn acknowledgement index (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval ...
*
Chinese Science Citation Database The Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD) is a bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolu ...
*
Citation analysisCitation analysis is the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that ...
*
CiteSeerX CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out Web search query, web searches (Internet searches), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic w ...
*
Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) The Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) is a citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression ...
*
Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other words, it is "data about data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, inc ...
* Index Copernicus *
Indian Citation Index The Indian Citation Index (ICI) is an online bibliographic database containing abstract (summary), abstracts and citations from academic journals. Currently ICI covers more than 1100 Academic journal, journals from India covering scientific, Tech ...
*
Journal Citation Reports ''Journal Citation Reports'' (''JCR'') is an annual publicationAnnual publications, more often simply called annuals, are periodical publications appearing regularly once per year."Annuals", in ''Encyclopedia of library and information science'' ( ...
* Korea Citation Index * The Lens *
Microsoft Academic Search Microsoft Academic Search was a research project and academic search engine retired in 2012. It relaunched in 2016 as Microsoft Academic. History Microsoft launched a search tool called Windows Live Academic Search in 2006 to directly compete wi ...
*
Redalyc The Redalyc project (''Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y El Caribe, España y Portugal'') is a bibliographic database and a digital library of Open Access journals, supported by the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México with ...

Redalyc
*
Russian Science Citation Index Russian Science Citation Index (Russian: Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)) is a bibliographic database of scientific publications in Russian. It accumulates more than 13 million publications of Rus ...
*
SciELO SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) is a bibliographic database, digital library, and cooperative electronic publishing model of open access journals. SciELO was created to meet the scientific communication needs of developing countries ...
*
Scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the ter ...
*
Semantic Scholar Semantic Scholar is an artificial intelligence, artificial-intelligence backed search engine for academic publications that was developed at the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence and publicly released in November 2015. It uses recent adv ...
* Serbian Citation Index


Notes


External links


Citation Indexing and Indexes. In ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Citation Index Academic publishing Reputation management