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This article contains a list of cinematic techniques that are divided into categories and briefly described.


Basic definitions of terms

;
180-degree rule In filmmaking, the 180-degree rule is a basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and another character or object within a scene. By keeping the camera on one side of an imaginary axis between two characters, ...
:A continuity editorial technique in which a sequence of shots in a scene with two actors are all shot with the camera on one side of the two actors so that a coherent spacial relationship and
eyeline matchAn eyeline match is a film editing technique associated with the continuity editing Continuity editing is the process, in film and video creation, of combining more-or-less related shots, or different components cut from a single shot, into a sequenc ...
are maintained. ;Aerial shot :A shot taken from an airborne device, generally while moving. This technique has gained popularity in recent years due to the popularity and growing availability of drones. ;Arc :A dolly shot where the camera moves in an arc along a circular or elliptical radius in relation to the subject ("arc left" or "arc right") ;
Backlighting (lighting design) '' by candlelight'', by Joseph Wright of Derby, 1765 Image:Backlight-wedding.jpg, 220px, Using backlighting, this portrait is improved by not allowing the harsh sunlight to cast hot spots on the faces AND by ringing the couple with an outlining eff ...
:The main source of light is behind the subject, silhouetting it, and directed toward the camera. ;Bridging shot :A shot used to cover a jump in time or place or other discontinuity. Examples are a clock face showing advancing time, falling calendar pages, railroad wheels, newspaper headlines and seasonal changes. Bridge shots are also used to avoid jump cuts when inserting a pick-up. ;
Camera angle The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera A movie camera (also film camera and cine-camera) is a type of photographic camera that rapidly takes a sequence of photographs, either on an image sensor An image sensor or ...
:The point of view or viewing position adopted by the camera with respect to its subject. Most common types are :*
High-angle shot Example of high-angle shot in photography A high-angle shot is a Cinematic techniques, cinematic technique where the camera looks down on the subject from a high angle and the point of focus often gets "swallowed up". High-angle shots can make th ...
(the camera is higher than its subject) :*
Low-angle shot 150px, A Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer photographed from a low angle looks more imposing. In cinematography, a low-angle shot, is a shot (film), shot from a camera angle positioned low on the vertical axis, anywhere below the eye line, lo ...
(the camera is lower than its subject) ;
Close-up A close-up or closeup in filmmaking, television production, photography, still photography, and the comic strip medium is a type of shot (filmmaking), shot that tightly film frame, frames a person or object. Close-ups are one of the standard sh ...

Close-up
: A frame depicting the human head or an object of similar size. ;Cut : An editorial transition signified by the immediate replacement of one shot with another. ;
Cross-cutting Cross-cutting is an editing technique most often used in films to establish action occurring at the same time, and usually in the same place. In a cross-cut, the camera will cut away from one action to another action, which can suggest the simulta ...
:Cutting between different events occurring simultaneously in different locations. Especially in narrative filmmaking, cross-cutting is traditionally used to build suspense or to suggest a thematic relationship between two sets of actions. ;
Continuity editing Continuity editing is the process, in film and video creation, of combining more-or-less related shots, or different components cut from a single shot, into a sequence to direct the viewer's attention to a pre-existing consistency of story across bo ...
:An editorial style that preserves the illusion of undisrupted time and space across editorial transitions (especially cuts). ;
Deep focus Deep focus is a photographic and cinematographic technique using a large depth of field. Depth of field is the front-to-back range of focus in an image, or how much of it appears sharp and clear. In deep focus, the foreground, middle ground, and ...
:A technique in which objects in the extreme foreground and objects in the extreme background are kept equally in focus. ; Dissolve :An editorial transition overlapping a fade in and a fade out in such a way that one image gradually disappears while another simultaneously emerges. This transition generally suggest a longer period of narrative elapses than is suggested by cuts. ;
Camera Dolly A camera dolly is a wheeled cart or similar device used in filmmaking and television production to create smooth horizontal camera movements. The camera is mounted to the dolly and the camera operator and focus puller or camera assistant usually ...
:A wheeled cart or similar device upon which a movie camera is mounted to give it smooth, horizontal mobility. ;Dollying or Dolly shot :A shot in which the camera moves horizontally either toward or away from its subject, or right or left in relation to the subject. Traditionally dolly shots are filmed from a
camera dolly A camera dolly is a wheeled cart or similar device used in filmmaking and television production to create smooth horizontal camera movements. The camera is mounted to the dolly and the camera operator and focus puller or camera assistant usually ...
but the same motion may also be performed with a
Steadicam Steadicam is a brand of camera stabilizer A camera stabilizer, or camera–stabilizing mount, is a device designed to hold a camera A camera is an optical instrument used to capture an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image ...
,
gimbal A gimbal is a pivoted support that permits rotation of an object about an axis. A set of three gimbals, one mounted on the other with orthogonal pivot axes, may be used to allow an object mounted on the innermost gimbal to remain independent of ...

gimbal
, etc. A dolly shot is generally described in terms of "dollying in" or "dollying out". Also known as
trucking Road transport or road transportation is a type of transport by using roads. Transport on roads can be roughly grouped into the transportation of goods and transportation of people. In many countries licensing requirements and safety regulations ...
in and out, or right and left. ;
Dolly zoom In the video inset, the object moves with the camera and it does not zoom, so the FOV does not change; thus there is no dolly effect A dolly zoom (also known as a Alfred Hitchcock, Hitchcock shot, Vertigo (film), ''Vertigo'' shot, Jaws (film), ' ...
:A powerful and dramatic effect produced by simultaneously trucking in or out while synchronously zooming out or in. ;
Editing Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written language, written, photographic, Image editing, visual, Audio engineer, audible, or Film editing, cinematic material used by a person or an entity to convey a message or information. T ...
:The selection and organization of shots into a series, usually in the interest of creating larger cinematic units. Adding music is also a great way to make it more cinematic ;
Ellipsis (linguistics) In linguistics, ellipsis (from the el, ἔλλειψις, ''élleipsis'', "omission") or an elliptical construction is the omission from a clause In language, a clause is a part of the sentence that constitutes or comprises a predicate (gramma ...
:A term referring to "chunks" of time left out of a narrative, signaled in filmmaking by editorial transitions ;
Establishing shot An establishing shot in filmmaking and television production sets up, or establishes, the context for a scene by showing the relationship between its important figures and objects. It is generally a long or extreme-long shot at the beginning of ...
:A shot, often a long shot, usually placed at the beginning of a scene to establish the general location of the specific action to follow. This shot is also known as an Extreme Long Shot. ;
Eyeline matchAn eyeline match is a film editing technique associated with the continuity editing Continuity editing is the process, in film and video creation, of combining more-or-less related shots, or different components cut from a single shot, into a sequenc ...
:A type of continuity editorial match involving two or more, sequential shots in which the preceding shot contains an agent (a person, animal, etc.) gazing in the direction of some unseen, off-screen vision, and following shot(s) contains an image presumed by the spectator to be the object of the agent's gaze. This technique is an important consideration in dialogues where actors are talking to each other. (Contrast with
Over the shoulder shot The over the shoulder shot (OTS) is a camera angle The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera A movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an ...
; See also
180 degree rule In filmmaking, the 180-degree rule is a basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and another character or object within a scene. By keeping the camera on one side of an imaginary axis between two characters, ...

180 degree rule
) ;Extreme close-up :A shot framed so closely as to show only a portion of the face or of some object. ;Extreme long shot :A shot in which the human figure would be extremely insignificant compared to its surroundings. :A panoramic view photographed from a considerable distance and made up essentially of landscape or distant background. ;Fade in/out :An editorial transition in which the image either gradually appears out of ("fade in") or gradually fades into ("fade out") a black screen. ;
Fill light A typical shoulder or back-side lamp to create contrast between the background and center object so as to give a three-dimensional appearance.">Backlighting (lighting design)">shoulder or back-side lamp to create contrast between the background and ...
:An auxiliary light placed to the side of the subject that softens shadows and illuminates areas not lit by the key light (see "key light"). ;
Flashback Flashback or flashbacks may refer to: * Flashback (narrative), in literature and dramatic media, an interjected scene or point that takes the narrative back in time from the current point * Flashback (psychology), in which a memory is suddenly and ...
:A scene or sequence inserted into a scene set in the narrative present that images some event set in the past. ;
Flash forward ''Flash Forward'' is a Disney Channel Original Series produced in Canada for preteens and teenagers which was originally previewed on both Disney Channel and American Broadcasting Company, ABC from 1995 to 1996 with its main run starting from 1997 ...
:A scene or sequence inserted into a scene set in the narrative present that images some event set in the future. ;Focus :The optical clarity or precision of an image relative to normal human vision. Focus in photographic images is usually expressed in terms of depth. ;Framing :The placement of subjects and other visual content with respect to the boundaries of the image. ;Hand-held shot :A shot where the camera is hand-carried, either with or without a
Steadicam Steadicam is a brand of camera stabilizer A camera stabilizer, or camera–stabilizing mount, is a device designed to hold a camera A camera is an optical instrument used to capture an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image ...
. If done without a steadicam, the effect is a shaky image which conveys an amateurish or urgent affect. ; Inter-title :A piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of (i.e. inter-) the photographed action at various points. Most commonly used in silent movies to convey elements of dialogue and other commentary. ;Iris in/out :An editorial transition popular during the silent period utilizing a diaphragm placed in front of the lens and which, when opened (iris in) or closed (iris out), functions like a fade in or fade out. A partially opened iris can also be used to focus attention on a detail of the scene in the manner of
vignetting In photography and optics, vignetting is a reduction of an image's brightness or saturation (color theory), saturation toward the wikt:periphery, periphery compared to the image center. The word ''wikt:vignette, vignette'', from the same roo ...
. ;
Jump cut A jump cut is a cut in film editing Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film stock, film which increasingly invo ...
:An editorial transition between two shots in which the illusion of temporal continuity is radically disrupted. ;Key light :The main light on a subject, usually placed at a 45 degree angle to the camera-subject axis. In high-key lighting, the key light provides all or most of the light in the scene. In low-key lighting, the key light provides much less of the total illumination. ;
Long shot In photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. ...

Long shot
:A shot in which the human figure would be relatively insignificant compared to its surroundings. ;
Master shot A master shot is a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of mo ...
:A shot, often a
medium shot In a movie a medium shot, mid shot (MS), or waist shot is a camera angle Shot (filmmaking), shot from a medium distance. Use Medium shots are favored in sequences where dialogues or a small group of people are acting, as they give the viewer a p ...
or
longer
longer
, which shows all the important action in a scene. In editing, the master can be used to a greater or lesser extent as the 'skeleton' of the edit, which is fleshed out by replacing parts of the master with tighter coverage such as
closeup
closeup
s and cutaways. ;Match cut :One of various editorial devices used to preserve a sense of spatio-temporal integrity or continuity between cuts. ;Medium close-up :A shot depicting the human figure from approximately the chest up. ;Medium shot :A shot depicting the human figure from approximately the waist up. ; Mise en scène :Everything that has been placed in front of or is revealed by the camera while shooting. ;
Over the shoulder shot The over the shoulder shot (OTS) is a camera angle The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera A movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an ...
:A shot where the camera is placed above the back of the shoulder and head of a subject. This shot is most commonly used to present conversational back and forth between two subjects. With the camera placed behind one character, the shot then frames the sequence from the perspective of that character ;Pan :A shot in which the camera is made to pivot horizontally left or right (about its vertical axis) while filming. Pans are always described in terms of "panning left" or "panning right". It is incorrect to discuss pans in terms of vertical, "up"/"down" movement, which is properly called tilting. ;
Point of view shot A point of view shot (also known as POV shot, first-person shot or a subjective camera) is a short film scene that shows what a character (the subject) is looking at (represented through the camera A camera is an optical instrument used ...
:(Often abbreviated as 'POV'). A shot which shows an image from the specific point of view of a character in the film. ; Racking focus :A shot employing shallow focus in which the focal distance changes so that the background is gradually brought into focus while the foreground is gradually taken out of focus or visa versa. ;Reverse angle :In a dialogue scene, a shot of the second participant understood as the opposing or "reverse" view of the shot showing the first participant. ;Scene :A unit of narration generally composed of a series of shots that takes place in a single location and concerns a central action. ;Shot :* 1.) The image produced by a motion picture camera from the time it begins shooting until the time is stops shooting :* 2.) (in an edited film) the uninterrupted record of time and space depicted between editorial transitions. ;Static Frame :The camera focus and angle stay completely still, usually with a locked off tripod, and the scene continues motion. Not to be confused with a still frame where the scene is also static or frozen. ;
Steadicam Steadicam is a brand of camera stabilizer A camera stabilizer, or camera–stabilizing mount, is a device designed to hold a camera A camera is an optical instrument used to capture an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image ...
:A lightweight, highly-mobile camera transportation and stabilization device developed by inventor / cinematographer
Garrett Brown Garrett Brown (born April 6, 1942) is an American inventor, best known as the creator of the Steadicam. Brown's invention allows camera operators to film while walking without the normal shaking and jostles of a handheld camera. The Steadicam was ...

Garrett Brown
which permits hand-held filming with an image steadiness comparable to tracking or dolly shots. The device involves 1.) a vest redistributing the weight of the camera to the hips of the cameraman and, 2.) a spring-loaded arm working to minimize the effects of camera movement. A video tap simultaneously frees the camera operator from the eyepiece, who is then free to travel through any walkable terrain while filming. ;Story board :A series of drawings and captions (sometimes resembling a comic strip) that shows the planned shot divisions and camera movements of the film. ;Tilt :A shot in which the camera is made to pivot vertically up or down (about its horizontal transverse axis) while filming. ;
Tracking shot A tracking shot is any shot Shot may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media *Shot (album), ''Shot'' (album), by The Jesus Lizard *''Shot, Illusion, New God'', an EP by Gruntruck *''Shot Rev 2.0'', a video album by The Sisters of Mercy *Shot ...
/traveling shot :A shot in which the camera moves alongside or parallel to its subject. Traditionally tracking shots are filmed while the camera is mounted on a track dolly and rolled on dedicated tracks comparable to railroad tracks, In recent years, however, parallel camera moves performed with a
Steadicam Steadicam is a brand of camera stabilizer A camera stabilizer, or camera–stabilizing mount, is a device designed to hold a camera A camera is an optical instrument used to capture an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image ...
,
gimbal A gimbal is a pivoted support that permits rotation of an object about an axis. A set of three gimbals, one mounted on the other with orthogonal pivot axes, may be used to allow an object mounted on the innermost gimbal to remain independent of ...

gimbal
, etc. may also be called a tracking shot. Tracking shots often "follow" a subject while it is in motion: for instance, a person walking on a sidewalk seen from the perspective of somebody walking on a parallel path several feet away. Shots taken from moving vehicles that run parallel to another moving object are also referred to as tracking or traveling shots. A tracking shot may also be curved, moving around its subject in a semi-circular rotation, known specifically as an arc or arc shot. ;Truck :Truck-right, truck-left, truck-in, truck-out (see
Dolly shot A tracking shot is any Shot (filmmaking), shot where the film camera, camera follows backward, forward or moves alongside the subject being recorded. In cinematography, the term refers to a shot in which the camera is mounted on a camera dolly t ...
) ; Two shot : A shot in which the frame encompasses two people, typically but not exclusively a medium shot. ; Whip pan :A type of pan shot in which the camera pans so quickly that the resulting image is badly blurred. It is sometimes used as an editorial transition and is also known as a ''swish pan'' or "flash pan." ; Wipe :An optical editorial transition in which an image appears to be pushed or "wiped" to one aside of the screen to make way for the next. ;
Zoom Zoom may refer to: Technology Computing * Zoom (software), videoconferencing application * Page zooming, the ability to magnify or shrink a portion of a page on a computer display * Zooming user interface, a graphical interface allowing for ima ...
:A shot taken from a stationary position using a special
zoom lens A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length The focal length of an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundam ...
that magnifies or de-magnifies the center of the image. This creates an illusion that the camera is moving toward or away from its subject by making the subject more or less prominent in the frame. Not to be confused with ''dollying'' in which the camera itself actually physically moves closer to or further away from its subject.


Cinematography


Movement and expression

Movement can be used extensively by film makers to make meaning. It is how a scene is put together to produce an image. A famous example of this, which uses "dance" extensively to communicate meaning and emotion, is the film,
West Side Story ''West Side Story'' is a Musical theatre, musical conceived by Jerome Robbins with music by Leonard Bernstein, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and a Book (musical theatre), book by Arthur Laurents. Inspired by William Shakespeare's play ''Romeo and ...
. Provided in this alphabetised list of film techniques used in
motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, o ...
filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the pr ...
. There are a variety of expressions: *
Aerial perspective Aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective refers to the effect the atmosphere of Earth, atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as viewed from a distance. As the distance between an object and a viewer increases, the contrast (visio ...
*
Aerial shot This article contains a list of cinematic techniques that are divided into categories and briefly described. Basic definitions of terms ; 180-degree rule :A continuity editorial technique in which a sequence of shots in a scene with two actors ...

Aerial shot
* American shot *
Angle of view The angle of view is the decisive variable for the visual perception of the size or projection of the size of an object. Angle of view and perception of size The perceived size of an object depends on the size of the image projected onto the ...

Angle of view
* Bird's eye shot *
Bird's-eye view A literal bird's eye view, shot by the bird itself A bird's-eye view is an elevated view of an object from above, with a perspective as though the observer were a bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the ...

Bird's-eye view
*
Boom shot Boom Shot is a 1942 song composed by Glenn Miller and Billy May for the 20th Century Fox movie '' Orchestra Wives'' starring George Montgomery and Ann Rutherford Therese Ann Rutherford (November 2, 1917 – June 11, 2012) was a Canadian-Americ ...
*
B-roll In film and television production, B-roll, B roll, B-reel or B reel is supplemental or alternative footage In filmmaking and video production, footage is raw, unedited material as originally filmed by a movie camera or recorded by a (Digital mo ...
*
Camera angle The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera A movie camera (also film camera and cine-camera) is a type of photographic camera that rapidly takes a sequence of photographs, either on an image sensor An image sensor or ...
*
Camera coverageCamera coverage, or coverage, is the amount and kind of footage shot used to capture a scene in filmmaking and video production. The film editor Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. ...
*
Camera dolly A camera dolly is a wheeled cart or similar device used in filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an initial story, idea, or commiss ...
*
Camera operator A camera operator, or depending on the context cameraman or camerawoman, is a professional operator of a film camera A movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an ...

Camera operator
* Camera tracking *
Close-up A close-up or closeup in filmmaking, television production, photography, still photography, and the comic strip medium is a type of shot (filmmaking), shot that tightly film frame, frames a person or object. Close-ups are one of the standard sh ...

Close-up
*
Crane shot In filmmaking Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process by which a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, ...

Crane shot
*
Dolly zoom In the video inset, the object moves with the camera and it does not zoom, so the FOV does not change; thus there is no dolly effect A dolly zoom (also known as a Alfred Hitchcock, Hitchcock shot, Vertigo (film), ''Vertigo'' shot, Jaws (film), ' ...
*
Dutch angle The Dutch angle, also known as Dutch tilt, canted angle, or oblique angle, is a type of camera shot which involves setting the camera at an angle on its roll axis so that the shot is composed with vertical lines at an angle to the side of the fr ...
*
Establishing shot An establishing shot in filmmaking and television production sets up, or establishes, the context for a scene by showing the relationship between its important figures and objects. It is generally a long or extreme-long shot at the beginning of ...
*
Film frame In filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an initial story, idea, or commission. It then continues through , , pre-production, shooti ...
*
Filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the pr ...
* Follow shot *
Forced perspective Forced perspective is a technique which employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther away, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is. It manipulates human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread sp ...
*
Freeze-frame shot In film and video, a freeze frame is when a single frame of content shows repeatedly on the screen—"freezing" the action. This can be done in the content itself, by printing (on film) or recording (on video) multiple copies of the same source fr ...
* Full frame * Full shot * Hanging miniature *
Head shot A head shot or headshot is a modern (usually digital) portrait A portrait is a portrait painting, painting, portrait photography, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is pred ...

Head shot
*
High-angle shot Example of high-angle shot in photography A high-angle shot is a Cinematic techniques, cinematic technique where the camera looks down on the subject from a high angle and the point of focus often gets "swallowed up". High-angle shots can make th ...
*
Long shot In photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. ...

Long shot
*
Long take In filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Pa ...
*
Low-angle shot 150px, A Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer photographed from a low angle looks more imposing. In cinematography, a low-angle shot, is a shot (film), shot from a camera angle positioned low on the vertical axis, anywhere below the eye line, lo ...
*
Master shot A master shot is a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of mo ...
*
Medium shot In a movie a medium shot, mid shot (MS), or waist shot is a camera angle Shot (filmmaking), shot from a medium distance. Use Medium shots are favored in sequences where dialogues or a small group of people are acting, as they give the viewer a p ...
* Money shot *
Multiple-camera setup The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or simply multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production Video production is the process of producing video Video is an electronic Electronic may re ...
*
One shot (music video) This is a list of one shot music video A music video is a short film, of variable length, that integrates a song or album packaged in book form, like a photograph album An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collecti ...
*
Over the shoulder shot The over the shoulder shot (OTS) is a camera angle The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera A movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an ...
*
Panning (camera) Overview from above, looking down on the camera panning left and right of the subject In cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classic ...
*
Point of view shot A point of view shot (also known as POV shot, first-person shot or a subjective camera) is a short film scene that shows what a character (the subject) is looking at (represented through the camera A camera is an optical instrument used ...
* Rack focusing * Reaction shot *
Shot (filmmaking) In filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an initial story, idea, or commission. It then continues through , , pre-production, shooti ...
*
Shot reverse shot Shot/reverse shot (or shot/countershot) is a film technique where one character is shown looking at another character (often off-screen), and then the other character is shown looking back at the first character (a or ). Since the characters are ...
*
Single-camera setup The single-camera setup, or single-camera mode of production, also known as portable single camera, is a method of filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion ...
* SnorriCam * Stalker vision *
Tilt (camera) 200px Tilting is a cinematographic technique in which the camera A camera is an optical instrument used to capture an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour s ...
*
Top-down perspective A variety of computer graphic techniques have been used to display video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, contr ...
*
Tracking shot A tracking shot is any shot Shot may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media *Shot (album), ''Shot'' (album), by The Jesus Lizard *''Shot, Illusion, New God'', an EP by Gruntruck *''Shot Rev 2.0'', a video album by The Sisters of Mercy *Shot ...
* Trunk shot * Two shot *
Video production Video production is the process of producing video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and contro ...
*
Walk and talk Walk and talk is a storytelling technique used in filmmaking and television production in which a number of characters have a conversation while walking somewhere. Walk and talk often involves a walking character who is then joined by another chara ...
* Whip pan *
Worm's-eye view A worm's-eye view is a view of an object from below, as though the observer An observer is one who engages in observation or in watching an experiment. Observer may also refer to: Computer science and information theory * In information theory ...


Lighting technique and aesthetics

* Background lighting *
Cameo lighting Cameo lighting in film is a Stage lighting instrument, spotlight that accentuates a single person and maybe a few props in a Scene (film), scene. It creates an 'angelic' shot, such as one where God is shining down and a light shines down onto this ...
*
Fill light A typical shoulder or back-side lamp to create contrast between the background and center object so as to give a three-dimensional appearance.">Backlighting (lighting design)">shoulder or back-side lamp to create contrast between the background and ...
*
Flood lighting
Flood lighting
*
High-key lighting High-key lighting is a style of lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perc ...
*
Key light {{unreferenced, date=March 2008 A typical three-point setup with a shoulder or back-side lamp to create contrast between the background and center object so as to give a three-dimensional appearance The key light is the first and usually most impor ...
ing *
Lens flare Lens flare refers to a phenomenon wherein light is scattered or flared in a lens system, often in response to a bright light, producing a sometimes undesirable artifact within the image. This happens through light scattered by the imaging mec ...

Lens flare
*
Low-key lighting Low-key lighting is a style of lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, per ...
*
Mood lighting
Mood lighting
*
Rembrandt lighting Rembrandt lighting is a standard lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, pe ...

Rembrandt lighting
*
Stage lighting Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theater, dance, opera, and other performance arts.
Stage lighting
*
Soft light Hard and soft light are different types of lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perc ...

Soft light
To achieve the results mentioned above, a Lighting Director may use a number or combination of Video Lights. These may include the Redhead or Open-face unit, The Fresnel Light, which gives you a little more control over the spill, or The Dedolight, which provides a more efficient light output and a beam which is easier to control.


Editing and transitional devices

* A-roll *
B-roll In film and television production, B-roll, B roll, B-reel or B reel is supplemental or alternative footage In filmmaking and video production, footage is raw, unedited material as originally filmed by a movie camera or recorded by a (Digital mo ...
*
Cross-cutting Cross-cutting is an editing technique most often used in films to establish action occurring at the same time, and usually in the same place. In a cross-cut, the camera will cut away from one action to another action, which can suggest the simulta ...
* Cutaway * Dissolve *
Establishing shot An establishing shot in filmmaking and television production sets up, or establishes, the context for a scene by showing the relationship between its important figures and objects. It is generally a long or extreme-long shot at the beginning of ...
*
Fast cutting Fast cutting is a film editing Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film stock, film which increasingly involves the ...
*
Flashback Flashback or flashbacks may refer to: * Flashback (narrative), in literature and dramatic media, an interjected scene or point that takes the narrative back in time from the current point * Flashback (psychology), in which a memory is suddenly and ...
* Insert * J cut ("Split edit") *
Jump cut A jump cut is a cut in film editing Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film stock, film which increasingly invo ...
* Keying * L cut ("Split edit") *
Master shot A master shot is a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of mo ...
*
Match cut In film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. T ...
* Montage *
Point of view shot A point of view shot (also known as POV shot, first-person shot or a subjective camera) is a short film scene that shows what a character (the subject) is looking at (represented through the camera A camera is an optical instrument used ...
*
Screen direction In film editing, video editing and post production, screen direction is the direction that actors or objects appear to be moving on the screen from the perspective (visual), point of view of the camera or audience. A rule of film editing and film gr ...
* Sequence shot *
Smash cut A smash cut is a technique in film and other moving picture media where one scene abruptly cuts to another for aesthetic, narrative, or emotional purpose. To this end, the smash cut usually occurs at a crucial moment in a scene where a cut would n ...
*
Slow cutting Slow cutting is a film editing technique which uses shots of long duration. Though it depends on context, it is estimated that any shot longer than about fifteen seconds will seem rather slow to many modern-day viewers, especially those who are ...
* Split screen *
SMPTE timecode SMPTE timecode ( or ) is a set of cooperating standards to label individual frames of video or film with a timecode. The system is defined by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers The Society of Motion Picture and Televi ...
*
Shot reverse shot Shot/reverse shot (or shot/countershot) is a film technique where one character is shown looking at another character (often off-screen), and then the other character is shown looking back at the first character (a or ). Since the characters are ...
* Wipe


Special effects (FX)

*
3D computer graphics 3D computer graphics, sometimes called CGI, 3DCG or three-dimensional computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers. Today, computer graphics is a core technology in digital photography, film, ...
*
3D film 3D films are motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pi ...

3D film
for movie history *
Bluescreen
Bluescreen
/
Chroma key Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a visual-effects and post-production 275px, A video editing suite Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, audio production Sound design is the art and practi ...

Chroma key
*
Bullet time Bullet time (also known as frozen moment, dead time, flow motion or time slice) is a visual effect Visual effects (sometimes abbreviated VFX) is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live-action shot in ...
*
Computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out seque ...
*
Digital compositing Digital compositing is the process of digitally assembling multiple images to make a final image, typically for print, motion pictures A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simula ...
* Optical effects *
Stereoscopy Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the depth perception, illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. The word ''stereoscopy'' derives . Any stere ...
for 3D technical details *
Stop motion Stop motion is an animation, animated filmmaking technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion or change when the series ...

Stop motion
*
Stop trick Stop may refer to: Places *Stop, Kentucky, an unincorporated community in the United States * Stop (Rogatica), a village in Rogatica, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina Facilities * Bus stop * Truck stop, a type of rest stop for truck drive ...


Sound

Sound is used extensively in filmmaking to enhance presentation, and is distinguished into
diegetic Diegesis (; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 ...
and non-diegetic sound: *Diegetic sound is heard by both the characters and audience. Also called "literal sound" or "actual sound". Examples include **Voices of characters; **Sounds made by objects in the story, e.g. heart beats of a person **
Source music Diegetic music or source music is music in a drama (e.g., film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beau ...
, represented as coming from instruments in the story space. **Basic sound effects, e.g. dog barking, car passing; as it is in the scene **Music coming from reproduction devices such as record players, radios, tape players etc. * Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from a source outside the story space, i.e. its source is neither visible on the screen, nor has been implied to be present in the action. Also called "non-literal sound" or "commentary sound". Examples include: **Narrator's commentary; **Sound effects added for dramatic effect; **Mood music **
Film score A film score is original music written specifically to accompany a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is th ...


Sound effects

In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point, without the use of dialogue or music. The term often refers to a process, applied to a recording, without necessarily referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, the segregations between recordings of dialogue, music, and sound effects can be quite distinct, and it is important to understand that in such contexts, dialogue, and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects, though the processes applied to them, such as
reverberation Reverberation (also known as reverb), in acoustics Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist ...
or
flanging Flanging is an audio signal processing, audio effect produced by mixing two identical audio signal, signals together, one signal delayed by a small and gradually changing period, usually smaller than 20 milliseconds. This produces a swept comb ...
, often are. Necessary incidental units of sound, footsteps, keys, a polishing sound, are created in the foley studio.


Techniques in interactive movies

New techniques currently being developed in
interactive movieAcross the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, there is little agreement over the meaning of the term "interactivity", but most d ...
s, introduce an extra dimension into the experience of viewing movies, by allowing the viewer to change the course of the movie. In traditional linear movies, the author can carefully construct the plot, roles, and characters to achieve a specific effect on the audience.
Interactivity Across the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science Information science (also known as information studies) is an academic field which is primarily concerned with analysis, collection, Categorization, classificatio ...
, however, introduces non-linearity into the movie, such that the author no longer has complete control over the story, but must now share control with the viewer. There is an inevitable trade-off between the desire of the viewer for freedom to experience the movie in different ways, and the desire of the author to employ specialized techniques to control the presentation of the story.
Computer technology Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c.d. ...
is required to create the illusion of freedom for the viewer, while providing familiar, as well as, new cinematic techniques to the author.


See also

* Glossary of motion picture terms *
Film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, sta ...
* Outline of film


References


External links


Interactive Movies
a
FilmSound.orgCinematic Technique Blog

Audiovisual Compendium of Film Terminology
{{Film crew Filmmaking