Chatusadom or Catustambha ( th|จตุสดมภ์ , literally "Four Pillars" from Sanskrit
''Catur'' "Four" + ''Stambha'' "Pillars") was the Thai system of central executive governance during the Ayutthaya Kingdom
, Thonburi Kingdom
and Rattanakosin Kingdom
from 1455 to 1892. For about four hundred years, it had served as the constitution of central government of Siam
until King Chulalongkorn
organized ''Chatusadom'' into modern ministries
and officially established the Cabinet
on April 1, 1892.
The ''Chatusadom'' system
promulgated the constitution of ''Chatusadom'' in his Palatine Law, or ''Phra aiyakan tamnaeng na phonlaruean'' ( th|พระไอยการตำแหน่งนาพลเรือน), with the promulgation date being 1455. The original written law had been lost, however. ''Chatusadom'' went through subsequent amendments over time and King Rama I
enacted the Palatine Law in the Three Seals Law
, from which the ''Chatusadom'' was mostly studied.
The ''Chatusadom'' bureaucracy was divided into ''Phonlaruean'' ( th|พลเรือน) or Civil Affairs and ''Thahan'' ( th|ทหาร) or Military Affairs. ''Chatusadom'' was led by two Prime Ministers, alternatively Grand Chancellors ( th|อัครมหาเสนาบดี) who held the rank of ''Chao Phraya'';
}) || ''Chao Phraya Chakri'' ( th|เจ้าพระยาจักรี) || ''Krom Mahatthai'' ( th|กรมมหาดไทย) ||
The Seal of the Lion or the ''Rajasiha'' Seal || oversaw ''Phonlaruean'' or Civil Affairs all over the kingdom including the Four Ministries.
| ''Samuha Kalahom'' ( th|สมุหกลาโหม) || ''Chao Phraya Maha Sena'' ( th|เจ้าพระยามหาเสนา), alternatively ''Phraya Kalahom'' ( th|พระยากลาโหม) || ''Krom Kalahom'' ( th|กรมกลาโหม) || Gajasiha
Seal || oversaw Military affairs.
Below ''Samuha Nayok'' in Civil affairs were the Four Ministries, from which ''Chatusadoms name was derived. Each ministry was led by a ''Senabodi'' or Minister who held the rank of ''Phraya'' and each ministry had a Thai and a Sanskrit-derived name.
''Nakhonban'' ( th|นครบาล)
from Sanskrit ''Nagara'' "City" + ''Pala'' "protector" || ''Phraya Yommaraj
'' ( th|พระยายมราช) ||
Riding Lion" Seal || The Police Bureau; guarded cities.
Also occasionally led troops into foreign wars.
| ''Kromma Wang'' ( th|กรมวัง) or
''Thammathikorn'' ( th|ธรรมาธิกรณ์)
from Sanskrit ''Dhamma'' "Law" + ''Adikara'' "authority" || ''Phraya Thammathibodi'' ( th|พระยาธรรมาธิบดี) ||
" Seal || Ministry of Palatial Affairs.
Oversaw the ceremonies of the palace.
Also oversaw Buddhist religious affairs.
| ''Krom Klang'' ( th|กรมคลัง) or
''Kosathibodi'' ( th|โกษาธิบดี)
from Sanskrit ''Kosa'' "Pocket" + ''Adhipati'' "Lord" || ''Phraya Sri Thammaraj'' ( th|พระยาศรีธรรมราช)
also ''Phraya Kosathibodi'' ( th|พระยาโกษาธิบดี),
colloquially as ''Phraya Phraklang'' ( th|พระยาพระคลัง) ||
The Lotus Seal || Ministry of Treasury and Taxation.
In later period when Siam had established trade with foreign nations the Minister also oversaw Trade and Foreign Affairs.
Known to Westerners as "Phraklang" and other derived terms.
| ''Krom Na'' ( th|กรมนา) or
''Kasetrathibodi'' ( th|เกษตราธิบดี)
from Sanskrit ''Ksetra'' "Field" + ''Adhipati'' "Lord" || ''Phraya Pollathep'' ( th|พระยาพลเทพ) || Nine different seals
used in different occasions. || Ministry of Agriculture.
Oversaw land ownership and rice storage.
These four ministers were collectively called ''Vieng-Wang-Klang-Na'' ( th|เวียงวังคลังนา). The ''Senabodi'' ministers of the Four Ministries held the rank of ''Phraya'' in the Ayutthaya period. However, during the late Ayutthaya and Bangkok period the ranks of these ministers rose to ''Chao Phraya''.
History and subsequent amendments
The Four Ministries of ''Chatusadom'' or ''Vieng-Wang-Klang-Na'' had existed in Ayutthaya
before 1455. Each ministry was called ''Krom'' and the ministers held the rank of ''Khun''. The chancellor of the executives in Early Ayutthaya was called ''Senabodi'' ( th|เสนาบดี from Sanskrit ''Senapati'') who oversaw the Ministries. King Trailokanat organized and institutionalized the Four Ministries into bureaucratic apparatus in the Palatine Law of 1455. The Four Ministers were raised to the rank of ''Phraya'' and the Ministries were given Sanskrit-derived names. The executives was led by two prime ministers; the ''Samuha Nayok'' and the ''Samuha Kalahom'', who performed administrative duties on behalf of the king in Civil and Military Affairs, respectively. The officials were divided into Civil and Military divisions. However, as time progressed, the distinction between Civil and Military divisions became blurred and all official including Civil officials were expected to perform military duties especially during the wars. The two prime ministers and four ministers had their own offices and each office had a long list of functionaries.
After King Trailokanat, auxiliary departments were added to the apparatus to meet the demands. King Ramathibodi II
established the ''Krom Phra Suratsawadi'' ( th|กรมพระสุรัสวดี) or the Registration Department in 1518 to specifically oversee the census of manpower for more efficient levy and conscription. After the conclusion of a trade treaty with the Portuguese in 1511, ''Phra Klang Sinka'' ( th|พระคลังสินค้า) or Royal Storage Department was established within the Ministry of Treasury to deal with foreign trades, in which the royal court held the monopoly. In the seventeenth century, the trade with Western nations grew and the ''Kromma Tha'' ( th|กรมท่า) or the Ministry of Pier, formerly a department within the Ministry of Treasury, rose to importance and the term ''Kromma Tha'' became quite synonymous with ''Krom Klang''.
The position of ''Samuha Kalahom'' had grown powerful by the mid-Ayutthaya period as he controlled military forces. ''Okya'' Kalahom Suriyawongse the ''Samuha Kalahom'' usurped the throne and ascended as King Prasat Thong
in 1629. The power imbalance and potential threat from some ministers led the kings to reconsider and amend the ''Chatusadom'' bureaucracy. King Prasat Thong transferred the Cavalry and Elephant Regiments from ''Samuha Kalahom'' to ''Samuha Nayok''. Some kings preferred not to appoint ''Samuha Nayok'' or ''Samuha Kalahom'' to avoid creating powerful nobles, most notably King Narai
, who instead assigned the duties and responsibilities of the two prime ministers to his ministers without officially investing them with titles and honors.
The greatest reform of ''Chatusadom'' came during the reign of King Phetracha
. King Phetracha, who faced rebellions in Nakhon Ratchasima
and Nakhon Si Thammarat
that took nearly three years to quell, sought to reduce the power of regional governors. He expanded the authority of ''Chatusadom'' to the regional level and redefined the two prime ministers. The ''Samuha Nayok'' became the Prime Minister of Northern Siam in both Civil and Military affairs while the ''Samuha Kalahom'' became the Prime Minister of Southern Siam. The division between the two prime ministers went from "functional" to "regional". King Phetracha also assigned the coastal port cities to the ''Kromma Tha''. Siam was then divided among the three ministers and the city governors were to report to the minister of their respective regions. The Minister of Trade or "Phraklang" also grown exceptionally powerful due to participation in foreign trades. By the eighteenth century in the Late Ayutthaya, three most powerful ministers of Siam were the ''Samuha Nayok'', the ''Samuha Kalahom'' and Phraklang the Minister of Trade.
, who ascended the throne in 1733 after a civil war with his nephews, transferred the cities of the ''Samuha Kalahom'' who had declared neutrality in the civil war to ''Chao Phraya'' Chamnan Borrirak the Minister of Trade who was his ardent supporter. The Southern Siamese cities were then transferred from ''Kalahom'' to ''Kromma Tha''. The ''Samuha Kalahom'' became a powerless figure. After the Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, Thonburi and Rattanakosin kingdoms inherited the whole ''Chatusadom'' apparatus of the Late Ayutthaya period. King Rama I
restored the Southern Siamese cities to the authority of ''Samuha Kalahom'' in 1782. The seals of top three ministers were stamped on the Three Seals Law
. King Rama I who was formerly ''Chao Phraya'' Chakri the ''Samuha Nayok'' established the Chakri dynasty
. The ''Samuha Nayok''s of the Rattanakosin period were then not known as "''Chao Phraya'' Chakri", which was the generic titile of ''Samuha Nayok'', but instead known from their individualized title names, most famously ''Chao Phraya'' Bodindecha
By the late nineteenth century, the ''Chatusadom'' system was inadequate for the modernizing Siam. King Chulalongkorn
and Prince Damrong
gradually re-organized and transformed the ''Chatusadom'' ministries into the ministries in modern, Western sense. Firstly, the Phraklang ministry was separated into the Ministry of Finance
and Ministry of Foreign Affairs
in 1875. Each ministry was called ''Krasuang'' ( th|กระทรวง) instead of ''Krom'', which became a term for subordinate departments. The reforms culminated in 1892 when King Chulalongkorn announced the official establishment of modern Cabinet
comprising twelve ministries on April 1, 1892. The ''Krom Mahatthai'' of ''Samuha Nayok'' became the Ministry of Interior
and ''Krom Kalahom'' became the Ministry of Defence
, thus ending the ''Chatusadom'' system.
*List of samuhanayok
*List of samuhakalahom
Category:History of Southeast Asia
Category:History of Thailand