A charter township is a form of local government in the
U.S. state In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its s ...
of Michigan. Townships in Michigan are organized governments. A charter township has been granted a charter, which allows it certain rights and responsibilities of home rule that are generally intermediate between those of a city (a semi-autonomous jurisdiction in Michigan) and a
village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe both hamlets and smaller towns), with a population typically ranging from a few hundred to ...
. Unless it is a home-rule village, a village is subject to the authority of any township in which it is located.


Following World War II, suburbanization increased the population in many formerly outlying communities. In 1947, the state legislature created a special charter township status, which grants additional powers and streamlined administration in order to provide greater protection for townships against annexation of land by cities and villages. As of November 2014, there were 118 charter townships in Michigan (Alpena Township was chartered on February 26, 2018). A township with a population of 2,000 or more may incorporate as a charter township and become a municipal corporation. It possesses all the powers of a non-charter township, in addition to those specified by the Charter Township Act of 1947.


Legislative authority is exercised by an elected township board of seven members, consisting of the supervisor, the township clerk, the township treasurer, and four trustees. They must be residents of the township and eligible to vote in elections. All members of the board serve four-year terms. Unlike the boards for general law townships, which may have either five or seven members, a charter township must have seven members. If a general law township with a five-member board elects to become a charter township, two additional members are to be elected in the next general election.General Law or Charter Township? The Decision is Yours...
Prepared by the Michigan Townships Association, February 2005 Charter townships may appoint either a township superintendent or township manager, who can be assigned responsibilities for managing township functions. (This is comparable to cities that hire a city manager to oversee the day-to-day operations of the city). Otherwise, executive authority lies with the supervisor and various committees.


A charter township may establish a variety of municipal services, such as a police force, fire department, and assessors, and may also acquire property. It may borrow money and issue bonds, with the approval of a majority of township voters in an election. Similarly, a charter township cannot levy taxes without the approval of a majority of the township population voting in an election. This is one significant difference from home-rule municipalities, in which the municipal authority can levy taxes without specific approval from voters.


A charter township is mostly exempt from
annexation Annexation (Latin ''ad'', to, and ''nexus'', joining), in international law, is the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state, usually following military occupation of the territory. It is generally held to be an illegal act ...
from contiguous cities or villages providing that the township meets certain requirements: *Has state equalized valuation of at least $25,000,000 *Has a minimum population density of 150 people per square mile (58/km2) *Provides fire protection service by contract or otherwise *Is governed by a comprehensive zoning ordinance or master plan *Provides solid waste disposal services to township residents, within or without the township, by contract, license, or
municipal ownership A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a government entity which is established or nationalised by the ''national government'' or ''provincial government'' by an executive order or an act of legislation in order to earn profit for the government ...
*Provides water or sewer services, or both, by contract or otherwise *Provides police protection through contract with the sheriff in addition to normal sheriff patrol, through an intergovernmental contract, or through its own police department

Annexation and 425 Agreements

A charter township may still be subject to annexation under certain conditions, such as for the purpose of eliminating isolated islands of township or by vote of a majority of the residents of a portion of township. Temporary land transfers, which can involve charter townships, have provision under
Public Act Proposed bills are often categorized into public bills and private bills. A public bill is a proposed law which would apply to everyone within its jurisdiction. This is unlike a private bill which is a proposal for a law affecting only a single ...
425 of 1984. Under this statute, a charter township, for example, can have land transferred to a city in exchange for revenue sharing of the transferred parcels. These agreements, known as
425 Agreement The legislature of the State of Michigan enacted Public Act 425 of 1984 which is also known by the title ''Intergovernmental Conditional Transfer Of Property By Contract Act''. It became effective March 29, 1985, and was subsequently amended in 19 ...
s, can last up to 50 years, and the land can either be completely transferred to the city or returned to the township upon fulfillment of the agreement.

See also

Coterminous municipality A coterminous municipality, sometimes also known as a coterminous city or a coterminous town-village, is a form of local government in some U.S. states in which a municipality and one or more civil townships are coterminous and have partial or c ...
Paper township The term paper township refers to a civil township under Ohio law that nominally exists for certain purposes but does not act as a functioning unit of civil government. Such townships usually exist on paper as a legal fiction due to municipal an ...


External links

The Charter Township Act of 1947Michigan Township Association
{{Terms for types of country subdivisions Local government in Michigan Townships in the United States