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A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a
university system A university system is a set of multiple affiliated universities and colleges that are usually geographically distributed. Typically, all member universities in a university system share a common component among all of their various names. Usually, ...
. In most
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is usually a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title such as ''president'' (e.g. "president & vice-chancellor"). The chancellor may serve as chairperson of the governing body; if not, this duty is often held by a chairperson who may be known as a pro-chancellor. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president,
principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
or
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
. In the United States, the head of a university is most commonly a university president. In U.S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa.


Chancellor


Australia and New Zealand

In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairperson of a university's governing body; thus, as well as having ceremonial duties, the chancellor participates in the governance of the university (but not its active management). The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor (known as the pro-chancellor in some universities). The chancellor and deputy chancellor are frequently drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary (it is one of the few jobs considered compatible with judicial service). Some universities have a visitor who is senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor (as is still the case in the UK), but nowadays, such appeals are generally prohibited by legislation, and the position has only ceremonial functions (unlike the chancellor and deputy chancellor, who frequently preside at functions such as graduations, the visitor rarely attends university functions). The vice-chancellor usually serves as the chief executive of the university.
Macquarie University Macquarie University () is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the ...

Macquarie University
in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of ''Emeritus Deputy Chancellor'', a post created for
John Lincoln John Francis Lincoln (30 July 1916 – 14 November 2011) was an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian cont ...
upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000. The position was not merely an honorary title, as it also retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011.


Canada and United Kingdom

Canadian and Scottish universities have a titular chancellor similar to those in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
, with day-to-day operations typically handled by a ''principal''. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the
University of Edinburgh The University of Edinburgh ( sco, University o Edinburgh, gd, Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann; abbreviated as ''Edin.'' in ) is a in , . Granted a by King in 1582 and officially opened in 1583, it is one of Scotland's and the in continuous op ...
is
Anne, Princess Royal Anne, Princess Royal, (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 ...

Anne, Princess Royal
, whilst the current chancellor of the
University of Aberdeen , mottoeng = The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom , established = , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the t ...
is
Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay
Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay
. In Canada, the vice-chancellor usually carries the joint title of "
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
and vice-chancellor" or "
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals generally carry the title of "
principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
is reserved to the third-ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of
St Andrews St Andrews ( la, S. Andrea(s); sco, Saunt Aundraes; gd, Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife Fife (, ; gd, Fìobha, ; sco, Fife) is a council area{{Unreferenced, date=May 2019, bot=noref (GreenC bot) A council area is o ...
,
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
,
Aberdeen Aberdeen (; sco, Aiberdeen, ; gd, Obar Dheathain ; la, Aberdonia) is a city in northeast Scotland. It is the List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, third most populous city in Scotland, one of Scotland's 32 Local government in ...
,
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically enc ...
and
Dundee Dundee (; sco, Dundee; gd, Dùn Dè or ''Dùn Dèagh'' ) is Scotland's List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, fourth-largest city and the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United ...
, which is also considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews. The position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities (Scotland) Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor, effectively a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university. The Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, and is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals (usually every three years to enable every undergraduate who obtains a degree to vote at least once). An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the (Lord) Rector is elected by both students and staff. In England, a Chancellor is generally an titular position without day-to-day managerial responsibilities, such as at
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
, where the Vice-Chancellor runs the administration and is the de facto university leader.


Finland

In Finland, if the university has a chancellor (Finnish: ''Kansleri'', Swedish: ''Kansler''), they are the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are mainly to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university. As the
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
of the university (Finnish: ''rehtori'', Swedish: ''rektor'') remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social, political and even historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their often arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new
professors Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, hig ...

professors
and
docent Docent is a title at some European universities to denote a specific academic appointment within a set structure of academic ranks at or below the full professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic ...

docent
s. The chancellor of
University of Helsinki The University of Helsinki ( fi, Helsingin yliopisto, sv, Helsingfors universitet, la, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the Capital c ...
(the oldest, largest and most prestigious in Finland) has also the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the
Council of State A Council of State is a governmental body in a country, or a subdivision of a country, with a function that varies by jurisdiction. It may be the formal name for the cabinet or it may refer to a non-executive advisory body associated with a head o ...
when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite their role as the chancellor of only one university, they are often regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when they exercise their rights in the Council of State. In the
history of Finland History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary ...
the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the
Swedish Empire The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries/states refer to slightly ...

Swedish Empire
, and later the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
. Historically the chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, and in the vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector. The remaining universities with chancellors are University of Helsinki and
Åbo Akademi University Åbo Akademi University ( sv, Åbo Akademi , ) is the only exclusively Swedish language multi-faculty university in Finland (or anywhere outside Sweden). It is located mainly in Turku (Åbo is the Swedish name of the city) but has also activitie ...
.


France

In France, chancellor () is one of the titles of the
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
(), a senior civil servant of the
Ministry of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Publ ...
serving as manager of a regional educational district (). In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards
academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including Bach ...
s to the university's graduates, oversees the
legality Legality can be defined as an act, agreement, or contract that is consistent with the law or state of being lawful or unlawful in a given jurisdiction. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, legality is 1 : attachment to or observance of law ...
of the universities' executive acts and channels funding from the ministry. The rector has no executive function in any university but remains a member ''ex officio'' of the board of every public university in his district.


Germany and Poland

In Poland, the chancellor (kanclerz) is the head of many universities' administration and the leader of the non-academic staff while the rector is the academic head. The main academic bodies of the university consists of: rektor (the head of the university), prorector (deputy rektor), dziekan (the head of the faculty), prodziekan (deputy dziekan), senat (the main council of the university). In universities with presidential constitution, the university's president holds both the functions of chancellor and rector. Similarly, in Germany the chancellor (Kanzler) is the head of the administration, and regularly is recruited not from a scholarly but from an administrative background. The chancellor is a member of the governing body of the university (Hochschulleitung), which is directed by either a rector (Rektor) or a president (Präsident), whose precise role may vary among universities.


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the
Chief Executive of Hong Kong The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the representative of the Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic ...
(and before 1997,
Governor of Hong Kong The Governor of Hong Kong was the representative of the British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. * ...
) acts as the chancellor of all chartered universities, which includes all eight public universities and Hong Kong Metropolitan University. Day-to-day operation is in the hands of either a vice-chancellor (older and established institutions) or a president (in newer institutions), depending on the institution.


Turkey, Russia, and Ukraine

In Turkey, Russia, and Ukraine, the chancellor is the head of the university and is called "rector." Some universities in Russia and Ukraine have figurehead "presidents."


India

In India, almost all universities have a chancellor as their titular head whose function is largely ceremonial. The governor of the state, appointed as the union's representative of state by the president, is the honorary chancellor of all State owned universities. The de facto head of any government university is the vice-chancellor. In private non-profit universities, normally the head of the foundation who has established the university is the chancellor of the university and is the head of the university. For private university unlike the chancellor who heads the conventional Indian 'state university', the private university is headed by a president or chairman of private organization and have other posts like vice-chancellors, deans of faculties, registrar and controller of examinations.


Ireland

In Ireland, the four universities all have a chancellor as their figurehead leader. However, the day-to-day operations of the universities are under the directorship of a president (a
provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...
in the case of
Trinity College, Dublin , name_Latin = Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin , motto = ''Perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical langua ...

Trinity College, Dublin
). The
National University of Ireland The National University of Ireland (NUI) ( ga, Ollscoil na hÉireann) is a federal university system of ''constituent universities'' (previously called ''university college, constituent colleges'') and ''recognised colleges'' set up under t ...
's constituent universities do not have a chancellor each; rather, the president of each constituent university has the title of
Pro-Vice-Chancellor A pro-vice-chancellor (or pro vice-chancellor, PVC) or deputy vice-chancellor (DVC) is a deputy to the vice-chancellor of a university. In the older English universities, and Commonwealth universities following their tradition, PVCs were typicall ...
of the NUI. In
Dublin City University Dublin City University (abbreviated as DCU) ( ga, Ollscoil Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary educat ...
and the
University of Limerick The University of Limerick (UL) ( ga, Ollscoil Luimnigh) is a institution in , . Founded in 1972 as the , , it became a in 1989 in accordance with the . It was the first university established since Irish independence in 1922, followed by the ...
, the chancellor is also the chairman of the university's governing authority.


Malaysia

In Malaysia, the chancellor position is given to dignitaries such as royalty or prominent politicians by universities to represent the universities in the political arena. For example, the chancellor of
University of Malaya The University of Malaya (UM) ( ms, Universiti Malaya, UM) is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, h ...
, the oldest university in Malaysia is
Sultan Nazrin Shah Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a Royal and noble ranks, position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun ', meaning "authority" or ...
, the
Sultan of Perak The Sultan of Perak is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states The monarchies of Malaysia refer to the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority ...
. His father,
Sultan Azlan Shah Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuff Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullahu-lah ( ms, سلطان عزلن محب الدين شاه ابن المرحوم سلطان يوسف عز الدين شاه غفر الله له, label= Jawi, scr ...
also served as chancellor at the same university until his death in 2014. The chancellor of
Universiti Putra Malaysia University Putra Malaysia (UPM; formally known as Universiti Pertanian Malaysia or College of Agriculture Malaya or School of Agriculture) is recognised by the independent government assessments as one of Malaysia's leading research universiti ...

Universiti Putra Malaysia
is the current
Sultan of Selangor Sultan of Selangor is the title of the constitutional ruler of Selangor, Malaysia who is the head of state and head of the Islamic religion in Selangor. The current monarch, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah ascended the throne on the death of his ...
,
Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj Ibni Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj (born 24 December 1945) is the ninth and current Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it ...

Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah
, while the current
Yang di-Pertuan Besar In Malay, Yang di-Pertuan Besar, literally ''"He Who Is Made Great"'' or ''"Great Ruler"'', is a royal title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official p ...
of
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspa ...
, Tunku Muhriz is the chancellor of
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia The National University of Malaysia ( ms, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, abbreviated as UKM), is a public university located in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor which is at south of Kuala Lumpur. Its teaching hospital, Universiti Kebangsaan Malay ...
. The chancellor of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, a university situated in the state of Johor, is the current
Sultan of Johor The Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the sovereign ruler of the Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia ...
, Sultan Ibrahim. Datin Seri
Jeanne Abdullah Tun Jeanne Abdullah née Danker (born 29 July 1953) is married to the former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. She married Abdullah Badawi while he was in office. She is his second wife after the death of Badawi's first wif ...
, the wife of the former
Prime Minister of Malaysia The prime minister of Malaysia ( ms, Perdana Menteri Malaysia) is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-gov ...
,
Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Tun Abdullah bin Ahmad Badawi ( Jawi: عبدالله بن أحمد بداوي; born 26 November 1939) is a Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and feder ...
was appointed as the new chancellor of
Open University Malaysia Open University Malaysia, abbreviated as OUM, is the 7th Malaysian private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grant ...
to take over the role from the first chancellor, the late YBhg Datin Paduka Seri
Endon Mahmood Tun Endon binti Mahmood Ambak (24 December 1940 – 20 October 2005) was the first wife of the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia The prime minister of Malaysia ( ms, Perdana Menteri Malaysia) is the head of government The head of governm ...

Endon Mahmood
(Abdullah Badawi's first wife). Recently, UCSI in
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , su ...

Kuala Lumpur
has given recognition to Tan Sri Datuk Seri Panglima Dr. Abdul Rahman Arshad as its first chancellor.


Pakistan

In Pakistan, chancellor is normally the figurehead of the university, who is normally the provincial governor where that university exists. Day-to-day business of the university is run by the vice chancellor.


Philippines

In the Philippines, the
De La Salle University De La Salle University ( fil, Pamantasang De La Salle or Unibersidad ng De La Salle), also referred to as DLSU, De La Salle or La Salle, is a private university, private, Catholic Church, Catholic coeducational research university run by the I ...
designates the head of its university as the chancellor. For the University of the Philippines, the entire system is headed by a president, while the eight constituent universities under the system is each headed by a chancellor. The chancellor designates the different vice-chancellors for different areas of concern of the university: academic affairs, finance, and community affairs, among others. Some more universities like
University of Santo Tomas The University of Santo Tomas (also known as UST, and officially as Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Manila) is a Private university, private, Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines. Founded on April 28, 1611, by Span ...

University of Santo Tomas
and other colleges, institutions have chancellors. Its chancellor is the incumbent Master of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans); meanwhile, the vice chancellor is the prior provincial of the Dominican Province of the Philippines. Their roles are largely ceremonial. The University of Santo Tomas is governed mainly by its
rector magnificus A rector (‘ruler’, from meaning ’ruler’) is a senior official in an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary sch ...
in overseeing its academic, financial and other affairs. On the other hand, the San Beda System has the prior or the abbot of Our Lady of Montserrat Abbey (Manila) as its chancellor for its constituent units while a rector-president heads each constituent unit. Other universities in the Philippines (such as state universities like Mindanao State University where each constituent campus is headed by chancellor) are mostly headed by their respective university presidents. Meanwhile, private (esp. Catholic) institutions are headed by a rector.


Bangladesh

Chancellor is a titular position in Bangladesh always held by the incumbent
President of Bangladesh The president of Bangladesh ( bn, বাংলাদেশের রাষ্ট্রপতি — ) officially the President of the People's Republic of Bangladesh ( bn, গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশে ...
under the Private Universities Act 1992. The position in public universities is not fixed for the president under any acts or laws (since the erection of a state university in Bangladesh requires an act to be passed in itself), but it has been the custom so far to name the incumbent president of the country as chancellor of all state universities thus established. The day-to-day business of the university is run by the vice chancellor. The vice chancellor has a deputy called the pro-vice-chancellor.


Nepal

In Nepal, universities have a chancellor as ceremonial head. The de facto head of the university is the vice-chancellor. The chancellor is primarily responsible for attending the convocation programmes and accepting the resignation and appointment letter of a new vice-chancellor. Generally, the prime minister is considered the chancellor, and in his absence, the minister of education acts as the chancellor.


United States

In the United States, heads of colleges and universities are typically called "
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
." A multi-campus
university system A university system is a set of multiple affiliated universities and colleges that are usually geographically distributed. Typically, all member universities in a university system share a common component among all of their various names. Usually, ...
may be headed by a chancellor who serves as systemwide chief, with presidents governing individual institutions. This is more commonly seen in university systems which were belatedly formed by grouping together already-extant colleges or universities in the 20th century, such as the
State University of New York The State University of New York (SUNY ) is a system of public colleges and universities in New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publishe ...
, the
City University of New York The City University of New York (CUNY ) is the public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (E ...
, and the
California State University The California State University (Cal State or CSU) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ow ...
. In many
state university system A state university system in the United States is a group of public universities A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a n ...
s which began with a single flagship campus in the 18th or 19th centuries and gradually delegated operational authority to
satellite campus A satellite campus or branch campus or regional campus is a campus A campus is traditionally the land on which a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A ...
es during the 20th century, the titles are reversed. This is the case in
Arkansas Arkansas () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, home to more than three million people as of 2018. Its name is from the Osage language, a Dhegihan languages, Dhegiha Siouan la ...
,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
,
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...
,
Illinois Illinois ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...
,
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...
,
Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...
, and
Wisconsin Wisconsin () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...
. Outside of university systems, presidents are the functional chief executive officers of most standalone U.S. universities. However, a few universities, such as
Syracuse University Syracuse University (Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a Private university, private research university in Syracuse, New York. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church i ...

Syracuse University
and the
University of Pittsburgh The University of Pittsburgh, familiarly known as Pitt, is a Public university, public Commonwealth System of Higher Education, state-related research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The university is composed of 17 undergraduate and gra ...
, have a chancellor as their chief executive officer. There are occasional other uses of the title "chancellor."
The College of William & Mary The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M, and officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia) is a public university, public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued ...
uses the term "chancellor" in the British sense, as a figurehead leader, but the actual executive of the school is the "president," not a "vice-chancellor." Some schools, such as
Lubbock Christian University Lubbock Christian University (LCU) is a private Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''C ...
, give the ceremonial title of "chancellor" to a retiring university president.
The Catholic University of America The Catholic University of America (CUA) is a private university, private research university in Washington, D.C. It is a pontifical university of the Catholic Church in the United States and the only institution of higher education founded by U ...
is headed by a
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
(formerly "rector"), with the
Archbishop of Washington
Archbishop of Washington
serving as chancellor, a ceremonial position but one which does require the archbishop to represent the university before the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
. This scenario, while not always exactly duplicated, is typical in other Catholic universities due to the Catholic hierarchy. In some schools run by Catholic religious orders, the rector of the community supersedes the president when the latter is a member of that religious order. The title "chancellor" is sometimes used in
K-12 K-1 is a martial arts Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat Combat (French language, French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violence, violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed ( ...
education in a sense similar to
superintendent of schools In education in the United States Education in the United States of America is provided in public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the ...
, particularly in urban school districts. The
New York City Schools Chancellor The New York City Schools Chancellor (formally "Chancellor of the New York City Department of Education") is the head of the New York City Department of Education The New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) is the department of the go ...
is the chief executive officer of the
New York City Department of Education The New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) is the department of the government of New York City that manages the city's public school system. The City School District of the City of New York (or the New York City Public Schools) is t ...
, which manages the city's public school system (the largest in the United States). The leader of the
District of Columbia Public Schools The District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) is the local public school system for the District of Columbia ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument ...
system is also referred to as the chancellor.


University president

University president is the title of the highest-ranking officer within the
academic administration Academic administration is a branch of university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Disciplin ...
of a university, within university systems that prefer that appellation over other variations such as chancellor or
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
. The relative seniority varies between institutions.


France

In France, the president is the elected chair of the board and chief executive officer in universities. The president is always elected by the board among the professors of the university. The president serves a four-year term which is renewable once. The chancellor is a servant of the
Ministry of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Publ ...
who supervises regional educational districts. There is no hierarchical relation between the president and the chancellor.


United Kingdom

In Northern Ireland, the president is the chief academic and administrative officer of the university and is usually also the vice-chancellor of the university. The private London-based liberal-arts university
Richmond, The American International University in London Richmond, The American International University in London, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Spring ...
utilises the same system as in the United States but also with a ceremonial chancellor as figurehead.


United States

In most stand-alone universities and colleges in the United States, the chief executive officer is called the president, while the second-most senior officer is called the
provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...
, vice president of academic affairs, dean of faculties, or some other similar title. In the United States, the executive and ceremonial roles are not split, which means that a university president assumes an enormous burden in terms of the sheer breadth of their duties and responsibilities. The president is expected to preside over all major ceremonies, including graduations and presentations of awards and honors, while also reporting to the board of trustees and personally handling certain high-level executive functions: external relations (especially public relations and fundraising) and long-range planning and strategy (especially the creation and termination of university degrees, programs, and policies). Most other decisions are delegated to their second in command, especially operational day-to-day decisions. The provost often has the final say on resource allocation decisions, difficult
tenure Tenure is a category of academic appointment existing in some countries. A tenured post is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program disco ...
decisions, whether to initiate recruiting of star faculty from other institutions, and whether to initiate defensive measures against such recruiting of the institution's own star faculty. University presidents typically ascend to the position from academic careers (i.e., after earning tenure and becoming professors and then deans), and it is highly unusual for a university to recruit a president who lacks a strong track record in academic research or university administration. The average salary for college presidents in private, non-profit institutions in 2015 was $569,932, 9 percent higher than in 2014.


Vice-chancellor

A "vice-chancellor" (commonly called a "VC") serves as the chief executive of a university in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Kenya, other
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
countries, and some universities in Hong Kong. In Scotland, Canada, and Ireland, the chief executive of a university is usually called
principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
or
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, with ''vice-chancellor'' being an honorific associated with this title, allowing the individual to bestow degrees in absence of the chancellor. Strictly speaking, the VC is only a deputy to the chancellor of the university, but the chancellor is usually a prominent public figure who acts as a ceremonial figurehead only (e.g., the chancellor of the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
for 36 years was
Prince Philip Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,Multiple sources: * * * * later Philip Mountbatten; 10 June 1921 – 9 April 2021), was the husband of Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexand ...
), while the vice-chancellor acts as the day-to-day chief executive. An assistant to a vice-chancellor is called a
pro-vice-chancellor A pro-vice-chancellor (or pro vice-chancellor, PVC) or deputy vice-chancellor (DVC) is a deputy to the vice-chancellor of a university. In the older English universities, and Commonwealth universities following their tradition, PVCs were typicall ...
or deputy vice-chancellor; these were traditionally academics who were elected to take on additional responsibilities in addition to their regular teaching and research for a limited time, but are now increasingly commonly permanent appointments. In some universities (e.g. in Australian universities:
Deakin University Deakin University is an elite public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the so ...
,
Macquarie University Macquarie University () is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the ...

Macquarie University
), there are several deputy vice-chancellors subordinate to the vice-chancellor, with ''pro-vice-chancellor'' being a position at executive level ranking below ''deputy vice-chancellor''. There are a few exceptions within England. For example, the charter of the
University of Manchester , mottoeng = Knowledge, Wisdom, Humanity , established = 2004 – University of Manchester Predecessor institutions: 1956 – UMIST , mottoeng = By Knowledge and Work , established = 1824 , closed = 2004 (merge ...

University of Manchester
provides for the vice-chancellor to also use the title ''president'', and the first vice-chancellor, Alan Gilbert (2004–10), used ''president'' as his main title. The
University of Warwick , mottoeng = Mind moves matter , established = , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an or ...
now officially uses "vice-chancellor and president" (VCP), although the holder is usually still known as the vice-chancellor in all but official documents. The chief executives of the constituent colleges of the
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
, many of which are now functionally independent universities, generally use the title ''principal'', although the chief executive of
Imperial College , mottoeng = Scientific knowledge, the crowning glory and the safeguard of the empire , established = 1907 by royal charter , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the ...

Imperial College
has the title ''rector'', the
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
' head is titled ''director'' and
Birkbeck College , mottoeng = Advice comes over nightTranslation used by Birkbeck. , established = 1823 – London Mechanics' Institute 1866 – Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution 1907 – Birkbeck College , type = Public univer ...
is headed by the ''master.''


Australia

The executive head of an Australian university is the vice-chancellor, who serves as the university equivalent of a chief executive officer. The vice-chancellor is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the university and reports directly to the University Council, which the chancellor heads. Assisting the vice-chancellor, the roles of deputy vice-chancellors and pro vice-chancellors have emerged to better manage the administrative overhead of the position.


Canada and Scotland

Canadian university vice-chancellors almost always carry the title of "
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
(or equivalent) and vice-chancellor"; likewise, in Scotland, they hold the position of "
principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
and vice-chancellor" (as do a few Canadian universities such as Queen's and McGill). In the Scottish practice, the one individual may have two sets of official robes, reflecting a continuing division of responsibilities between the two posts. The vice-chancellor's robes, therefore, should not be worn in the presence of the chancellor but should only be worn when deputizing for the chancellor.


India

In India, most central and state level universities have a titular head called chancellor who is either an eminent person appointed by the Government of India (in central universities) or provincial governor (in state universities). The head of a university is the vice-chancellor, the highest paid official of the university. Next in command are more than one pro-vice-chancellor in charge of academic as well as administrative and financial affairs. In deemed universities and institutes of national importance, the head of the institution is either called
director general A director general or director-general (plural: ''directors general'', ''directors-general'', ''director generals'' or ''director-generals'' ) or general director is a senior executive (government), executive officer, often the chief executive offi ...

director general
or
director Director may refer to: Literature * Director (magazine), ''Director'' (magazine), a British magazine * The Director (novel), ''The Director'' (novel), a 1971 novel by Henry Denker * The Director (play), ''The Director'' (play), a 2000 play by Nanc ...
, the latter designation being more commonly used in academic terms in the subcontinent.


Bangladesh

The
President of Bangladesh The president of Bangladesh ( bn, বাংলাদেশের রাষ্ট্রপতি — ) officially the President of the People's Republic of Bangladesh ( bn, গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশে ...
is the titular chancellor of all universities in Bangladesh, public or private. The vice chancellor is the executive head, and his deputy, the pro-vice chancellor holds a full-time administrative office.


Nepal

The
Prime Minister of Nepal The prime minister of Nepal ( ne, नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री) is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign stat ...
is the titular chancellor of most universities in Nepal, public or private. The vice chancellor is the executive head, and along with Registrar holds a full-time administrative office.


Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, all the government universities are administered by the vice-chancellor.


Sudan

In Sudan and South Sudan, universities are administered by the vice-chancellor.


Kenya

In
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
, chancellors are titular heads of public universities, either appointed by the head of state (president) directly, or, in newly introduced legislation, at the recommendation of senate and alumni of the university. The day-to-day running of universities is the responsibility of the vice-chancellors. "Rector" and "president" are not commonly used terms in university administration. The vice-chancellor is assisted by a number of high ranking University officials known as Deputy Vice-chancellor, popularly referred to as DVC. The DVC's head specific departments of the university such as Finance and Administration, etc.


Malaysia

In Malaysia, all the government universities are administered by the vice-chancellor.


Nigeria

In
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
, chancellors are ceremonial heads of public universities (mostly traditional monarchs), appointed by the head of state (president), governor of a state (in the case of state-owned universities) or assumed by the owner of a private university. The day-to-day running of universities is the responsibility of the vice-chancellors. There are also Pro-Chancellors who are Government appointees that head the Universities' Governing Councils. The University Governing Council is the highest administrative organ of a Nigerian public Universities. They approve projects, contracts, recruitments, promotions and are regarded as employer of university workers. They also appoint the Principal officers of the University including the Vice Chancellor. They exercise all these functions on behalf of the "Visitor." The visitor is the President of the Federation (for Federal Universities) and State Governors for State-owned Universities.


Ireland

In Ireland, day-to-day operations of the universities are under the directorship of a president (a
provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...
in the case of
Trinity College Dublin , name_Latin = Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin , motto = ''Perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Ital ...

Trinity College Dublin
). However, the president of each constituent university of the
National University of Ireland The National University of Ireland (NUI) ( ga, Ollscoil na hÉireann) is a federal university system of ''constituent universities'' (previously called ''university college, constituent colleges'') and ''recognised colleges'' set up under t ...
also has the title of
pro-vice-chancellor A pro-vice-chancellor (or pro vice-chancellor, PVC) or deputy vice-chancellor (DVC) is a deputy to the vice-chancellor of a university. In the older English universities, and Commonwealth universities following their tradition, PVCs were typicall ...
of the NUI.


Philippines

In the Philippines,
University of Santo Tomas The University of Santo Tomas (also known as UST, and officially as Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Manila) is a Private university, private, Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines. Founded on April 28, 1611, by Span ...

University of Santo Tomas
the day-to-day head of the university, as mandated by their duty as the
Prior Prior (or prioress) is an ecclesiastical {{Short pages monitor