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A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
or movement. The exact definition varies between different countries and political cultures. The term originated in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
, where it can refer to a meeting of members of a political party to nominate candidates, plan policy, etc, in the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with ...

United States Congress
, or other similar representative organs of government. It has spread to certain
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
countries, including
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
and
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...

South Africa
, where it generally refers to a regular meeting of all
members of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, bicameral parliaments, this term implies members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title ...
who belong to a
parliamentary party A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is comm ...
: in such a context, a party caucus can be quite powerful, as it has the ability to elect or dismiss the party's
parliamentary leader A parliamentary leader is a political title or a descriptive term used in various countries to the person leading a caucus A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party A political party is an organization that ...
.


Etymology

The word ''caucus'' first came into use in the British colonies of North America, in reference to clubs or private meetings at which political matters were discussed. The ''
Boston Gazette The ''Boston Gazette'' (1719–1798) was a newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. ...
'' of May 5, 1760, includes the statement: "It is reported, that certain Persons ... are called by the Name of the New and Grand Corcas." A February 1763 entry in the diary of
John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific stud ...

John Adams
of
Braintree, Massachusetts Braintree (), officially the Town of Braintree, is a municipality in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. Although officially known as a town, Braintree is a city, with a mayor-council government, mayor-co ...
, demonstrates that the word already held its modern connotations of a "
smoke-filled room In United States, U.S. political jargon, a smoke-filled room (sometimes called a smoke-filled back room) is a secret political gathering or Round Table movement, round-table-style decision-making process. The phrase is generally used to suggest an ...
", where candidates for public election were pre-selected in private: Similarly, William Gordon wrote in 1788: However, the word's origins remain uncertain. There are three main theories:J. L. Bell, ""Boston 1775: Colonial Boston Vocabulary: 'caucus,' part 2"
/ref> ;Native American origins :
James Hammond Trumbull James Hammond Trumbull (December 20, 1821 – August 5, 1897) was an American scholar and philologist. He was born in Stonington, Connecticut. He studied at Tracy's Academy in Norwich and at Yale University from 1838, but ill-health prevented his ...

James Hammond Trumbull
suggested to the
American Philological Association The Society for Classical Studies (SCS), formerly known as the American Philological Association (APA), founded in 1869, is a non-profit North American scholarly organization devoted to all aspects of Greek and Roman civilization. It is the preem ...
that the word comes from an
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
word for "counsel", ''cau´-cau-as´u''. It might also derive from the Algonquian ''cawaassough'', meaning an advisor, talker, or orator. This explanation was favoured by
Charles Dudley Warner Charles Dudley Warner (September 12, 1829 – October 20, 1900) was an American essayist, novelist, and friend of Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name A pen name, also call ...
. ;Drinking associations :The ''
American Heritage Dictionary American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or A ...
'' suggests that the word possibly derives from medieval
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
''caucus'', meaning "drinking vessel", such as might have been used for the
flip Flip, FLIP, or flips may refer to: People * Flip (nickname), a list of people * Lil' Flip (born 1981), American rapper * Flip Wilson, American comedian Arts and entertainment Fictional characters * Flip (Little Nemo), Flip (''Little Nemo''), a ca ...
drunk at
Caucus Club The Boston Caucus was an informal political organization that had considerable influence in Boston in the years before and after the American Revolution. This was perhaps the first use of the word ''caucus'' to mean a meeting of members of a movemen ...
of colonial
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the and city of the of in the and 21st . The city proper covers with an estimated population of 692,600 in 2019, also making it the most populous city in . It is the seat of (although the c ...

Boston
(see John Adams quotation above). The appearance of the term coincides with the spreading in England – and therefore also in America – of the inns called ''cocues'' because they were places to drink the new cheap liquor called "gin" or "cuckoo liquor" since it was obtained from the distillation of so-called "cuckoo barley", namely barley sown very late in the spring and therefore unsuitable for the distillation of beer. That caucuses were places where people drank abundantly is also attested by Obadiah Benjamin Franklin Bloomfield in his autobiography: "Richard had set out hospitably ..A caucus had been accordingly held by these worthies, and it was resolved nem. con. that they should first make a drunkard of him, and then pluck him, aye, even of the last feather." ;Shipbuilding :A third theory is that the word is a corruption of "caulkers" (i.e. persons who apply
caulk Caulk or, less frequently, caulking is a material used to Seal (mechanical), seal joints or seams against leakage in various structures and piping. The oldest form of caulk consisted of fibrous materials driven into the wedge-shaped seams bet ...
), in the sense of shipbuilders. This derivation was suggested by John Pickering in 1816 in ''A Vocabulary; or, Collection of Words and Phrases Which Have Been Supposed to Be Peculiar to the U.S. of America''. It was later adopted by
Noah Webster Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education". ...

Noah Webster
; and also appears in an article of 1896 on the origins of the caucus – in all cases citing the passage by William Gordon quoted above (though Gordon does not in fact draw a direct connection between shipbuilding and the caucus). An analogical Latin-type plural "cauci" is occasionally used.


In the United States

In United States politics and government, ''caucus'' has several distinct but related meanings. Members of a
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
or subgroup may meet to coordinate members' actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates for various offices.


Caucuses to select election candidates

There is no provision for the role of political parties in the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or organ ...

United States Constitution
. In the first two presidential elections, the
Electoral College An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example: * to be ...
handled nominations and elections in 1789 and 1792 which selected
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
. After that, Congressional party or a state legislature party caucus selected the party's presidential candidates. Nationally, these caucuses were replaced by the party convention starting in 1832 following the lead of the
Anti-Masonic Party The Anti-Masonic Party, also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement, was the first third party in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
1831 convention. The term ''caucus'' is frequently used to discuss the procedures used by some states to select
presidential nominee In United States politics and government, the term presidential nominee has two different meanings: # A candidate for president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of t ...
s such as the
Iowa caucuses The Iowa caucuses are biennial electoral events for members of the Democratic and Republican parties in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or ...
, the first of the modern
primary Primary or primaries may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music Groups and labels * Primary (band), from Australia * Primary (musician), hip hop musician and record producer from South Korea * Primary Music, Israeli record label Works * ...

primary
presidential election cycle, and the Texas caucuses. Since 1980 such caucuses have become, in the aggregate, an important component of the nomination process.


Congressional caucuses

Another meaning is a sub grouping of officials with shared affinities or ethnicities who convene, often but not always to advocate, agitate, lobby or to vote collectively, on policy. At the highest level, in
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...

Congress
and many state legislatures,
Democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...
and
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
members organize themselves into a caucus (occasionally called a "conference"). There can be smaller caucuses in a legislative body, including those that are multi- partisan or even
bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interac ...
. Of the many
Congressional caucus A congressional caucus is a group of members of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entit ...
es, one of the best-known is the
Congressional Black Caucus The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) is a caucus A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common ...
, a group of
African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that ...
members of Congress. Another prominent example is the
Congressional Hispanic Caucus The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC) is an organization of 38 Democratic members of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States a ...
, whose members voice and advance issues affecting
Hispanics The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazon ...
in the United States, including
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, ...

Puerto Rico
. In a different vein, the Congressional Internet Caucus is a bipartisan group of Members who wish to promote the growth and advancement of the Internet. Other congressional caucuses such as the Out of Iraq Caucus, are openly organized tendencies or
political faction A political faction is a group of individuals that share a common political purpose but differs in some respect to the rest of the entity. A faction within a group or political party may include fragmented sub-factions, "parties within a party," ...
s (within the
House Democratic Caucus The House Democratic Caucus is a congressional caucus composed of all Democratic Representatives in the United States House of Representatives and is responsible for nominating and electing the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party l ...

House Democratic Caucus
, in this case), and strive to achieve political goals, similar to a European "
platform Platform may refer to: Technology * Computing platform, a framework on which applications may be run * Platform game, a genre of video games * Car platform, a set of components shared by several vehicle models * Weapons platform, a system or s ...
", but generally organized around a single issue.


In Commonwealth nations


Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa

The term is also used in certain
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
nations, including
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
and
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...

South Africa
. However, when used in these countries, "caucus" is more usually a collective term for all members of a party in Parliament, otherwise called a
parliamentary group A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council. Parliamentary group ...
, rather than a word for a regular meeting of these
Members of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) p ...
. Thus, the Australian Federal Parliamentary Labor Party is commonly called "the Labor Caucus". The word was used in New Zealand from at least the 1890s, when organized political parties began to emerge: the largest of them, the
Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, ...
, used it to refer to its parliamentary members. It was introduced to Australia in 1901 by
King O'Malley King O'Malley (2 July 1858? – 20 December 1953) was an Australian politician who served in the House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies in many countries and sub-national entitles. In many count ...

King O'Malley
, an American-born
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
member of the first
Federal Parliament The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament, also called the Commonwealth Parliament) is the legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind o ...

Federal Parliament
. In New Zealand, the term is now used by all political parties, but in Australia, it continues to be used only by the
Labor Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
. For the Australian
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
,
National National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ...
and
Green Green is the between and on the . It is evoked by light which has a of roughly 495570 . In systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by a combination of yellow and ; in the , used on television and computer screens, ...
parties, the usual equivalent term is "party room". In
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...

South Africa
all parties use the term "caucus". In Canada, "caucus" refers to all members of a particular party in Parliament, including senators, or a
provincial Provincial may refer to: Government & Administration * Provincial capitals, an administrative sub-national capital of a country * Provincial city (disambiguation) * Provincial minister (disambiguation) * Provincial Secretary, a position in Canadi ...

provincial
legislature. These members elect among themselves a
caucus chair A caucus chair is a person who chairs the meetings of a caucus A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. I ...
who presides over their meetings. This person is an important figure when the party is in
opposition Opposition may refer to: Arts and media * Opposition (Altars EP), ''Opposition'' (Altars EP), 2011 EP by Christian metalcore band Altars * The Opposition (band), a London post-punk band * ''The Opposition with Jordan Klepper'', a late-night tele ...
, and is an important link between
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
and the
backbench In Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a member of parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, bicameral parliaments, this ...
when the party is in
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
. In such contexts, a party caucus can be quite powerful, as it can elect or dismiss the party's parliamentary leader. The caucus system is a departure from the Westminster tradition in giving members of the upper house a say in the election of the party leader, who may become head of government. The caucus also determines some matters of policy, parliamentary tactics, and disciplinary measures against disobedient MPs. In some parties, the caucus also has the power to elect MPs to Cabinet when the party is in government. For example, this is traditionally so in the
Australian Labor Party The Australian Labor Party (ALP), also simply known as Labor and historically spelt Labour, is the major , one of two in , along with the . It has been in in the since the . The ALP is a federal party, with in each . They are currently i ...
and the
New Zealand Labour Party The New Zealand Labour Party ( mi, Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa), or simply Labour (), is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West G ...
.


United Kingdom


Contemporary usage

In contrast to other
Anglosphere The Anglosphere is a group of English-speaking nations that share common cultural and historical ties to the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, ...
nations, the term is never used for all members of a party in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
Parliament: the usual term for that concept, both in the UK and in the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 Counties of Ireland, counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern ...

Republic of Ireland
, is "parliamentary party". On the rare occasions when the term "caucus" is encountered in modern UK politics, it is generally used to mean a subgroup,
faction Faction or factionalism may refer to: * Political faction, a group of people with a common political purpose * Faction (literature), a type of historical novel based on fact * Faction (''Planescape''), political factions in the game ''Planescape ...
or
pressure group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and ultimately policy. They play an important role in the development of political and social systems. Motives for actio ...
within a political party in a similar manner to congressional caucuses in the United States. For example, in 2019 the One Nation Conservatives and Blue Collar Conservatives were established as factions within the
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...

Conservative Party
, both being described as "caucuses".


Historic usage

The word "caucus" had a wide currency in the UK in the late 19th century, in reference to a highly structured system of management and control within a political party, specifically the
Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, ...
. It was originally a pejorative term, used by detractors of the system with overtones of corrupt American practices; but the name was soon adopted by the Liberals themselves. The system had originated at a local level in
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Ro ...

Birmingham
in preparation for the 1868 general election, when, under the
1867 Reform Act 250px, Contemporary cartoon of Disraeli outpacing Gladstone (left) at Epsom Derby, The Derby, parodying the perceived victor in debates in a split Liberal Party (UK), Liberal-led Commons while Disraeli's fellow Conservative Party (UK), Conservative ...
, the city had been allocated three parliamentary seats, but each elector had only two votes. In order to spread votes evenly, the secretary of the Birmingham Liberal Association, William Harris (later dubbed the "father of the Caucus") devised a four-tier organizational structure (of
ward Ward may refer to: Division or unit * Hospital#Departments or wards, Hospital ward, a hospital division, floor, or room set aside for a particular class or group of patients, for example the psychiatric ward * Prison ward, a division of a pen ...
committees, general committee, executive committee, and management committee) through which Liberal voters in different wards could be instructed in the precise combinations in which to cast their votes. In 1877 the newly formed
National Liberal Federation The National Liberal Federation (1877–1936) was the union of all English and Welsh (but not Scottish) Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Associations. It held an annual conference which was regarded as being representative of the opinion of the party's ...
was given a similar structure, on the initiative of
Joseph Chamberlain Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal Party (UK), Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading new Imperialism, imp ...

Joseph Chamberlain
, and again worked out in detail by Harris. Shortly afterwards the term "caucus" was applied to this system by ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' newspaper, which referred to "the 'caucus' with all its evils", and by the
Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...

Conservative
prime minister,
Benjamin Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881), was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is e ...

Benjamin Disraeli
. In 1880
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, following a meeting with Disraeli, wrote disapprovingly in a private note of "that American system called caucus". The Liberal Caucus was also vilified by
socialists Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, s ...
and
trade unionists A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Cu ...
, who (prior to the establishment of the
Independent Labour Party The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a British political party of the left, established in 1893, when the Liberal Party (UK), Liberals appeared reluctant to endorse working-class candidates, representing the interests of the majority. A sitt ...
) sought a route to parliamentary representation through the Liberal Party via the
Labour Representation League The Labour Representation League (LRL), organised in November 1869, was a forerunner of the United Kingdom, British Labour Party (UK), Labour Party. Its original purpose was to voter registration, register the working class to vote, and get worke ...
and the
Labour Electoral AssociationThe Labour Electoral Association was a political organisation in the United Kingdom which aimed to get working men elected to Parliament. Foundation The issue of political representation for workers had become increasingly important for the Trades U ...
, but found their way barred by the party's management structures.
Moisey Ostrogorsky Moisey Yakovlevich Ostrogorsky (also Moisei Ostrogorsky; russian: Моисей Яковлевич Острогорский, Moisey Yakovlevich Ostrogorskiy; be, Майсей Якаўлевiч Aстрaгорскi, Majsiej Jakaŭlievič Astrahorski ...
devoted some nine chapters of his ''Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties'' (1902) to discussion of the development and operation of the "Caucus" in this sense.


In organizations

In Convention (meeting), conventions, where the membership from different parts of the organization may gather, each separate group within the organization may meet prior to the convention as a caucus. Each caucus may decide how the group would vote on various issues that may come up at the convention. Unless the votes are made binding, however, each delegate is still free to vote in any fashion.


In alternative dispute resolution

The term ''caucus'' is also used in mediation, facilitator, facilitation and other forms of alternative dispute resolution to describe circumstances wherein, rather than meeting at a common table, the disputants retreat to a more private setting to process information, agree on negotiation strategy, confer privately with counsel or with the mediator, or simply gain "breathing room" after the often emotionally difficult interactions that can occur in the common area where all parties are present. The degree to which caucuses are used can be a key defining element, and often an identifier, of the mediation model being used. For example, "facilitative mediation" tends to discourage the use of caucuses and tries to keep the parties talking at a single table, while "evaluative mediation" may allow parties to separate more often and rely on the mediator to shuttle information and offers back and forth.Further details in Julie MacFarlane, ''Dispute Resolution: Readings and Case Studies'', 2003:356-62, excerpts from C. Moore, ''The Mediation Process'', 2nd ed. 1996:319-26


See also

*Committee *Parliamentary group *United States presidential election


References


External links


COCaucus.org
* {{Authority control Types of organization Political terminology