Etymologymocked the futility of caucuses in "A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale", Chapter 3 of '' Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'' (1865): when the "Caucus-race" of running in a circle stops, everyone is declared a winner by the Dodo and Alice is told to hand out prizes to all others, receiving her own thimble as her prize. The origin of the word ''caucus'' is debated, but it is known to have first come into use in the British colonies of North America. A February 1763 entry in the diary of of Braintree, Massachusetts, is one of the earliest appearances of ''Caucas'', already with its modern connotations of a " smoke-filled room" where candidates for public election are pre-selected in private:
This day learned that the Caucas Clubb meets at certain Times in the Garret of Tom Daws, the Adjutant of the Boston Regiment. He has a large House, and he has a moveable Partition in his Garrett, which he takes down and the whole Clubb meets in one Room. There they smoke tobacco till you cannot see from one End of the Garrett to the other. There they drink Flip (cocktail), Phlip I suppose, and there they choose a Moderator, who puts Questions to the Vote regularly, and Selectman, Assessors, Collectors, Wardens, Fire Wards, and Representatives are Regularly chosen before they are chosen in the Town ...An article in ''Great Leaders and National Issues of 1896'', surveying famous presidential campaigns of the past, begins with an unsourced popular etymology of the origin of the caucus:
The Origin of the "Caucus"No wholly satisfactory etymology has been documented. James Hammond Trumbull suggested to the American Philological Association that it comes from an Algonquian languages, Algonquian word for "counsel", 'cau´-cau-as´u'. The word might also derive from the Algonquian ''cawaassough'', meaning an advisor, talker, or orator. This explanation was favoured by Charles Dudley Warner. The ''American Heritage Dictionary'' suggests that it possibly derived from medieval Latin ''caucus'', meaning "drinking vessel", such as might have been used for the Flip (cocktail), flip drunk at Caucus Club of colonial Boston. In fact, the appearance of the term coincides with the spreading in England – and therefore also in America – of the inns they called ''cocues'' because they were places to drink the new cheap liquor called "gin" or "cuckoo liquor" since it was obtained from the distillation of so-called "cuckoo barley", namely barley sown very late in the spring and therefore unsuitable for the distillation of beer. That these were places where people drank abundantly is also attested by Obadiah Benjamin Franklin Bloomfield in his autobiography: "Richard had set out hospitably [...] A caucus had been accordingly held by these worthies, and it was resolved nem. con. that they should first make a drunkard of him, and then pluck him, aye, even of the last feather." An Plural form of words ending in -us, analogical Latin-type plural "cauci" is occasionally used.
The presidential nominating convention is a modern institution. In the early days of the Republic a very different method was pursued in order to place the candidates for the highest office in the land before the people.
In the first place, as to the origin of the "caucus." In the early part of the eighteenth century a number of Caulk, caulkers connected with the shipping business in the North End of Boston held a meeting for consultation. That meeting was the germ of the political caucuses which have formed so prominent a feature of our government ever since its organization. The anti-Britain episode happened on March 5, 1770 and on that occasion five Bostonians were killed by the English musketry; but this interpretation seems to be contradicted, besides by the abovementioned John Adams, also by William Gordon (1728–1807), who lived the whole course of the American Revolution and shortly thereafter published his history of those events: "The word caucus, and its derivative caucusing, are often used in Boston […] The word is not of novel invention. More than fifty years ago, Mr. Samuel Adams's father, and twenty others, one or two from the north end of the town, where all the ship business is carried on, used to meet, make a caucus, and lay their plan for introducing certain persons into places' of trust and power."
In the United StatesImage:2008 Wash State Democratic Caucus 15.jpg, Precincts from Washington State's 46th Legislative District caucus in a school lunchroom (2008). In United States politics and government, ''caucus'' has several distinct but related meanings. Members of a or subgroup may meet to coordinate members' actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates for various offices.
Caucuses to select election candidatesThere is no provision for the role of political parties in the United States Constitution. In the first two presidential elections, the Electoral College (United States), Electoral College handled nominations and elections in 1789 and 1792 which selected George Washington. After that, Congressional party or a state legislature party caucus selected the party's presidential candidates. Nationally, these caucuses were replaced by the party convention starting in 1832 following the lead of the Anti-Masonic Party 1831 convention. The term ''caucus'' is frequently used to discuss the procedures used by some states to select presidential nominees such as the Iowa caucuses, the first of the modern United States presidential election, presidential election cycle, and the Texas caucuses. Since 1980 such caucuses have become, in the aggregate, an important component of the nomination process.
Congressional caucusesAnother meaning is a sub grouping of officials with shared affinities or ethnicities who convene, often but not always to advocate, agitate, lobby or to vote collectively, on policy. At the highest level, in United States Congress, Congress and many state legislatures, Democratic Party (United States), Democratic and Republican Party (United States), Republican members organize themselves into a caucus (occasionally called a "conference"). There can be smaller caucuses in a legislative body, including those that are multi-Partisan (political), partisan or even Bicameralism, bicameral. Of the many Congressional caucuses, one of the best-known is the Congressional Black Caucus, a group of African-American members of Congress. Another prominent example is the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, whose members voice and advance issues affecting Hispanics in the United States, including Puerto Rico. In a different vein, the Congressional Internet Caucus is a bipartisan group of Members who wish to promote the growth and advancement of the Internet. Other congressional caucuses such as the Out of Iraq Caucus, are openly organized tendencies or political factions (within the House Democratic Caucus, in this case), and strive to achieve political goals, similar to a European "platform (European politics), platform", but generally organized around a single issue.
In Commonwealth nations
Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South AfricaThe term is also used in certain nations, including , , and . However, when used in these countries, "caucus" is more usually a collective term for all members of a party in Parliament, otherwise called a parliamentary group, rather than a word for a regular meeting of these Member of Parliament, Members of Parliament. Thus, the Australian Federal Parliamentary Labor Party is commonly called "the Australian Labor Party Caucus, Labor Caucus". The word was used in New Zealand from at least the 1890s, when organized political parties began to emerge: the largest of them, the New Zealand Liberal Party, Liberal Party, used it to refer to its parliamentary members. It was introduced to Australia in 1901 by King O'Malley, an American-born Australian Labor Party, Labour member of the first Parliament of Australia, Federal Parliament. In New Zealand, the term is now used by all political parties, but in Australia, it continues to be used only by the Australian Labor Party, Labor Party. For the Australian Liberal Party of Australia, Liberal, National Party of Australia, National and Australian Greens, Green parties, the usual equivalent term is "party room". In all parties use the term "caucus". In Canada, "caucus" refers to all members of a particular party in Parliament, including senators, or a province, provincial legislature. These members elect among themselves a caucus chair who presides over their meetings. This person is an important figure when the party is in Opposition (parliamentary), opposition, and is an important link between Cabinet (government), cabinet and the backbencher, backbench when the party is in government. In such contexts, a party caucus can be quite powerful, as it can elect or dismiss the party's parliamentary leader. The caucus system is a departure from the Westminster system, Westminster tradition in giving members of the upper house a say in the election of the party leader, who may become head of government. The caucus also determines some matters of policy, parliamentary tactics, and disciplinary measures against disobedient MPs. In some parties, the caucus also has the power to elect MPs to Cabinet when the party is in government. For example, this is traditionally so in the Australian Labor Party and the New Zealand Labour Party.
United Kingdom;Historic The word "caucus" had a wide currency in the United Kingdom in the late 19th century, in reference to a highly structured system of management and control within a political party, specifically the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party. It was originally a pejorative term, used by detractors of the system with overtones of corrupt American practices; but the name was soon adopted by the Liberals themselves. The system had originated at a local level in Birmingham in preparation for the 1868 United Kingdom general election, 1868 general election, when, under the Reform Act 1867, 1867 Reform Act, the city had been allocated three Electoral district, parliamentary seats, but each elector had only two votes. In order to spread votes evenly, the secretary of the Birmingham Liberal Association, William Harris (Birmingham Liberal), William Harris (later dubbed the "father of the Caucus") devised a four-tier organizational structure (of electoral ward, ward committees, general committee, executive committee, and management committee) through which Liberal voters in different wards could be instructed in the precise combinations in which to cast their votes. In 1877 the newly formed National Liberal Federation was given a similar structure, on the initiative of Joseph Chamberlain, and again worked out in detail by Harris. Shortly afterwards the term "caucus" was applied to this system by ''The Times'' newspaper, which referred to "the 'caucus' with all its evils", and by the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative prime minister, Benjamin Disraeli. In 1880 Queen Victoria, following a meeting with Disraeli, wrote disapprovingly in a private note of "that American system called caucus". The Liberal Caucus was also vilified by Socialism, socialists and Trade unions in the United Kingdom, trade unionists, who (prior to the establishment of the Independent Labour Party) sought a route to parliamentary representation through the Liberal Party via the Labour Representation League and the Labour Electoral Association, but found their way barred by the party's management structures. Moisey Ostrogorsky devoted some nine chapters of his ''Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties'' (1902) to discussion of the development and operation of the "Caucus" in this sense. ;Contemporary On the rare occasions when the term "caucus" is encountered in modern UK politics, it is generally used to mean a subgroup, political faction, faction or pressure group within a political party. For example, in 2019 the One Nation Conservatives (caucus), One Nation Conservatives and Blue Collar Conservativism, Blue Collar Conservatives were established as factions within the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party, both being described as "caucuses". In contrast to other Commonwealth nations, the term is never used for all members of a party in Parliament: the usual term for that concept, both in the UK and in the Republic of Ireland, is "parliamentary party".
In organizationsIn Convention (meeting), conventions, where the membership from different parts of the organization may gather, each separate group within the organization may meet prior to the convention as a caucus. Each caucus may decide how the group would vote on various issues that may come up at the convention. Unless the votes are made binding, however, each delegate is still free to vote in any fashion.
In alternative dispute resolutionThe term ''caucus'' is also used in mediation, facilitator, facilitation and other forms of alternative dispute resolution to describe circumstances wherein, rather than meeting at a common table, the disputants retreat to a more private setting to process information, agree on negotiation strategy, confer privately with counsel or with the mediator, or simply gain "breathing room" after the often emotionally difficult interactions that can occur in the common area where all parties are present. The degree to which caucuses are used can be a key defining element, and often an identifier, of the mediation model being used. For example, "facilitative mediation" tends to discourage the use of caucuses and tries to keep the parties talking at a single table, while "evaluative mediation" may allow parties to separate more often and rely on the mediator to shuttle information and offers back and forth.Further details in Julie MacFarlane, ''Dispute Resolution: Readings and Case Studies'', 2003:356-62, excerpts from C. Moore, ''The Mediation Process'', 2nd ed. 1996:319-26
See also*Committee *Parliamentary group *United States presidential election