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A cartoon is a type of
illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as poster A poster is a temporary promotion of an idea, product, or even ...

illustration
, sometimes animated, typically in a non- realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images intended for
satire Satire is a of the , , and s, usually in the form of and less frequently , in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corpora ...
,
caricature A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings (compare to: cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is ty ...

caricature
, or
humor Humour (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World ...

humor
; or a motion picture that relies on a sequence of illustrations for its animation. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a ''
cartoonist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons (individual images) or comics (sequential images). Cartoonists include the artists ...

cartoonist
'', and in the second sense they are usually called an ''
animator An animator is an artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional p ...

animator
''. The concept originated in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, and first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting,
fresco Fresco (plural ''frescos'' or ''frescoes'') is a technique of Mural, mural painting executed upon freshly laid ("wet") lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the ...

fresco
,
tapestry Tapestry is a form of , traditionally by hand on a . Tapestry is -faced weaving, in which all the threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike most woven textiles, where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. In tapestry weavi ...

tapestry
, or
stained glass File:Oostende Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk Rosette.jpg, 300px, Outside-view of a stained glass of the Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk from Ostend (Belgium), built between 1899 and 1908 The term stained glass refers to coloured glass as a material and to ...

stained glass
window. In the 19th century, beginning in ''
Punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat) A punch is a striking blow with the fist. It is used in most martial arts and combat sports, most notably boxing Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing boxing glove, protec ...
'' magazine in 1843, cartoon came to refer – ironically at first – to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers. Then it also was used for
political cartoon A political cartoon, a type of editorial cartoon, is a cartoon graphic with caricatures of public figures, expressing the artist's opinion. An artist who writes and draws such images is known as an editorial cartoonist. They typically combine a ...
s and
comic strip A comic strip is a , often , arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often , with text in and . Traditionally, throughout the 20th and into the 21st century, these have been published in s and s, with daily ...
s. When the medium developed, in the early 20th century, it began to refer to
animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most an ...
films which resembled print cartoons.


Fine art

A cartoon (from and —words describing strong, heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size drawing made on sturdy
paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition ...

paper
as a design or ''
modello A modello (plural modelli), from Italian, is a preparatory study or model, usually at a smaller scale, for a work of art or architecture, especially one produced for the approval of the commissioning patron. The term gained currency in art circles ...

modello
'' for a
painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, ...

painting
,
stained glass File:Oostende Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk Rosette.jpg, 300px, Outside-view of a stained glass of the Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk from Ostend (Belgium), built between 1899 and 1908 The term stained glass refers to coloured glass as a material and to ...

stained glass
, or
tapestry Tapestry is a form of , traditionally by hand on a . Tapestry is -faced weaving, in which all the threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike most woven textiles, where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. In tapestry weavi ...

tapestry
. Cartoons were typically used in the production of
fresco Fresco (plural ''frescos'' or ''frescoes'') is a technique of Mural, mural painting executed upon freshly laid ("wet") lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the ...

fresco
es, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp
plaster Plaster is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements. In English, "plaster" usually means a material used for the interiors of buildings, while "rend ...
over a series of days (''giornate''). In media such as stained tapestry or stained glass, the cartoon was handed over by the artist to the skilled craftsmen who produced the final work. Such cartoons often have pinpricks along the outlines of the design so that a bag of soot patted or "pounced" over a cartoon, held against the wall, would leave black dots on the plaster ("pouncing"). Cartoons by
painter Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, ...

painter
s, such as the
Raphael Cartoons The Raphael Cartoons are seven large cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is typically drawn, sometimes animated, in an unrealistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage us ...
in London, and examples by
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
, are highly prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons, usually colored, were followed with the eye by the
weavers Weaver or Weavers may refer to: Activities * A person who engages in weaving fabric Animals * Various birds of the family Ploceidae * Crevice weaver spider family * Orb-weaver spider family * Weever (or weever-fish) Places * Weaver, Alaba ...

weavers
on the
loom A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension Tension may refer to: Science * Psychological stress * Tension (physics), a force related to the stretching of an ob ...

loom
.


Mass media

In print media, a cartoon is an illustration or series of illustrations, usually humorous in intent. This usage dates from 1843, when ''
Punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat) A punch is a striking blow with the fist. It is used in most martial arts and combat sports, most notably boxing Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing boxing glove, protec ...
'' magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages, particularly sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
. The original title for these drawings was ''Mr Punch's face is the letter Q'' and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians. Cartoons can be divided into gag cartoons, which include editorial cartoons, and comic strips. Modern single-panel ''gag cartoons'', found in magazines, generally consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath, or—less often—a
speech balloon Speech balloons (also speech bubbles, dialogue balloons, or word balloons) are a graphic convention used most commonly in comic books, comics, and cartoons to allow words (and much less often, pictures) to be understood as representing the speec ...

speech balloon
. Newspaper syndicates have also distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman,
Gary Larson Gary Larson (born August 14, 1950) is an American cartoonist. He is the creator of ''The Far Side'', a single-panel cartoon series that was syndicated internationally to more than 1,900 newspapers for fifteen years. The series ended with Larson' ...

Gary Larson
,
George Lichty George Lichty (May 16, 1905 – July 18, 1983) was an American cartoonist, creator of the daily strip, daily and Sunday strip, Sunday cartoon series ''Grin and Bear It''. His work was signed Lichty and often ran without mention of his first name. ...
, Fred Neher and others. Many consider '''' cartoonist
Peter Arno Peter Arno (born Curtis Arnoux Peters, Jr.) (January 8, 1904 – February 22, 1968) was a U.S. cartoonist. He contributed cartoons and 99 covers to ''The New Yorker'' from 1925, the magazine's first year, until 1968, the year of his death. In 2015 ...
the father of the modern gag cartoon (as did Arno himself). The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes
Charles Addams Charles Samuel Addams (January 7, 1912 – September 29, 1988) was an American artist and cartoonist known for his black humor, darkly humorous and macabre characters. He signed his cartoons under the pen name Chas Addams. Some of the recurring ...
, Charles Barsotti, and
Chon Day Chauncey Addison Day, better known as Chon Day, (April 6, 1907 – Jan 1, 2000)https://www.lambiek.net/artists/d/day_chon.htm was an American cartoonist whose cartoons appeared in ''The New Yorker ''The New Yorker'' is an American weekly magaz ...
.
Bill Hoest Bill Hoest (February 7, 1926 – November 7, 1988) was an American cartoonist best known as the creator of the gag panel series, ''The Lockhorns'', distributed by King Features Syndicate to 500 newspapers in 23 countries, and ''Laugh Parade'' for '' ...
,
Jerry Marcus Jerry Marcus (June 27, 1924, Brooklyn, New York Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. It is the most populous Administrative division ...
, and
Virgil Partch Virgil Franklin Partch (October 17, 1916 – August 10, 1984), who generally signed his work Vip,Virgil Fr ...
began as magazine gag cartoonists and moved to syndicated
comic strips A comic strip is a sequence of drawings, often cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically in a non- realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usuall ...
. Richard Thompson illustrated numerous feature articles in ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'' before creating his ''
Cul de Sac A dead end, also known as a cul-de-sac (, from French for 'bag-bottom'), no through road or no exit road, is a street with only one inlet or outlet. The term "dead end" is understood in all varieties of English, but the official terminology ...
'' comic strip. The sports section of newspapers usually featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester "Chet" Brown's '' All in Sport''. ''
Editorial cartoons A political cartoon, a type of editorial cartoon, is a cartoon graphic with caricatures of public figures, expressing the artist's opinion. An artist who writes and draws such images is known as an editorial cartoonist. They typically combine art ...
'' are found almost exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they also employ humor, they are more serious in tone, commonly using
irony Irony (), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device In rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emoti ...

irony
or
satire Satire is a of the , , and s, usually in the form of and less frequently , in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corpora ...
. The art usually acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social or political topics. Editorial cartoons often include speech balloons and sometimes use multiple panels.
Editorial cartoonist An editorial cartoonist, also known as a political cartoonist, is an artist who draws editorial cartoon A political cartoon, a type of editorial cartoon, is a cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically i ...
s of note include
Herblock Herbert Lawrence Block, commonly known as Herblock (October13, 1909October7, 2001), was an Americans, American editorial cartoonist and author best known for his commentaries on national domestic and foreign policy.Harvey, "Herblock" (2004) Dur ...
, David Low,
Jeff MacNelly Jeffrey Kenneth "Jeff" MacNelly (September 17, 1947 – June 8, 2000) was an American editorial cartoonist and the creator of the comic strip ''Shoe (comic strip), Shoe''. After ''Shoe'' had been established in papers, MacNelly created the single ...
, Mike Peters, and
Gerald Scarfe Gerald Anthony Scarfe, (born 1 June 1936) is an English cartoonist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons (individual ...

Gerald Scarfe
. ''Comic strips'', also known as ''cartoon strips'' in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, and are usually a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence. In the United States, they are not commonly called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or " funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as
comic book A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with t ...
s and
graphic novel A graphic novel is a book made up of comics a medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), t ...

graphic novel
s—are usually referred to as "
cartoonist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons (individual images) or comics (sequential images). Cartoonists include the artists ...

cartoonist
s". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter, adventure and drama are also represented in this medium. Some noteworthy cartoonists of humorous comic strips are
Scott Adams Scott Raymond Adams (born June 8, 1957) is an American artist and creator of the ''Dilbert'' comic strip and the author of several nonfiction works of satire, commentary, and business. His ''Dilbert'' series came to national prominence throug ...

Scott Adams
,
Steve BellSteve Bell may refer to: * Steve Bell (news anchor) (1935–2019), first anchor of the ABC News program ''World News This Morning'', previously reporter for WOWT-TV * Steve Bell (cartoonist) (born 1951), English cartoonist * Steve Bell (musician) (b ...
,
Charles Schulz Charles Monroe "Sparky" Schulz (; November 26, 1922 – February 12, 2000) was an American cartoonist and creator of the comic strip ''Peanuts ''Peanuts'' is a print syndication, syndicated daily strip, daily and Sunday strip, Sunday America ...
, ,
Mort Walker Addison Morton Walker (September 3, 1923 – January 27, 2018) was an American comic strip A comic strip is a sequence of drawings, often cartoons A cartoon is a type of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation ...

Mort Walker
and
Bill Watterson William Boyd Watterson II (born July 5, 1958) is a retired American cartoonist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons (in ...
.


Political

Political cartoons are like illustrated editorial that serve visual commentaries on political events. They offer subtle criticism which are cleverly quoted with humour and satire to the extent that the criticized does not get embittered. The pictorial satire of
William Hogarth William Hogarth (; 10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching, c. ...
is regarded as a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th century England. George Townshend produced some of the first overtly political cartoons and caricatures in the 1750s. The medium began to develop in the latter part of the 18th century under the direction of its great exponents,
James Gillray James Gillray (13 August 1756Gillray, James and Draper Hill (1966). ''Fashionable contrasts''. Phaidon. p. 8.Baptism register for Fetter Lane (Moravian) confirms birth as 13 August 1756, baptism 17 August 1756 1June 1815) was a British caricatur ...
and
Thomas Rowlandson Thomas Rowlandson (; 13 July 175721 April 1827) was an English artist and caricaturist of the Georgian Era, noted for his political satire and social observation. A prolific artist and printmaker, Rowlandson produced both individual social an ...

Thomas Rowlandson
, both from London. Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and
caricature A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings (compare to: cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is ty ...

caricature
, and has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon. By calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account for their behaviour, many of Gillray's satires were directed against
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of
revolutionary France The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...
and
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
.
George Cruikshank George Cruikshank (27 September 1792 – 1 February 1878) was a British caricaturist A caricaturist is an artist who specializes in drawing caricatures.https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/caricaturist List of caricaturists ...
became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray, from 1815 until the 1840s. His career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications. By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many other countries featured cartoons commenting on the politics of the day.
Thomas Nast Thomas Nast (; ; September 27, 1840December 7, 1902) was a German-born American caricaturist A caricaturist is an artist who specializes in drawing caricatures.https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/caricaturist List of caricaturis ...
, in New York City, showed how realistic German drawing techniques could redefine American cartooning. His 160 cartoons relentlessly pursued the criminal characteristic of the Tweed machine in New York City, and helped bring it down. Indeed, Tweed was arrested in Spain when police identified him from Nast's cartoons. In Britain, Sir
John Tenniel Sir John Tenniel (; 28 February 182025 February 1914)Johnson, Lewis (2003), "Tenniel, John", ''Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online'', Oxford University Press. Web. Retrieved 12 December 2016. was an English illustrator, graphic humorist and polit ...

John Tenniel
was the toast of London. In France under the
July Monarchy The July Monarchy (french: Monarchie de juillet, officially the Kingdom of France, french: Royaume de France) was a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberal ...
,
Honoré Daumier Honoré-Victorin Daumier (; February 26, 1808February 10, 1879) was a French painter, sculptor, and printmaker, whose many works offer commentary on the social and political life in France, from the Revolution of 1830 to the fall of the second Napo ...
took up the new genre of political and social
caricature A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings (compare to: cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is ty ...
, most famously lampooning the rotund . Political cartoons can be humorous or satirical, sometimes with piercing effect. The target of the humor may complain, but can seldom fight back. Lawsuits have been very rare; the first successful lawsuit against a cartoonist in over a century in Britain came in 1921, when , the leader of the
National Union of Railwaymen The National Union of Railwaymen was a trade union of railway workers in the United Kingdom. The largest railway workers' union in the country, it was influential in the national trade union movement. History The NUR was an Industrial union ...
(NUR), initiated libel proceedings against the magazine of the
British Communist Party The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was the largest communist party A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term ''communist party'' was popularized by th ...
. Thomas claimed defamation in the form of cartoons and words depicting the events of "Black Friday", when he allegedly betrayed the locked-out Miners' Federation. To Thomas, the framing of his image by the far left threatened to grievously degrade his character in the popular imagination. Soviet-inspired communism was a new element in European politics, and cartoonists unrestrained by tradition tested the boundaries of libel law. Thomas won the lawsuit and restored his reputation.


Scientific

Cartoons such as ''
xkcd ''xkcd'', sometimes styled ''XKCD'', is a webcomic Webcomics (also known as online comics or Internet comics) are comics published on a website or mobile app. While many are published exclusively on the web, others are also published in mag ...
'' have also found their place in the world of
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
,
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
, and
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
. For example, the cartoon ''Wonderlab'' looked at daily life in the chemistry lab. In the U.S., one well-known cartoonist for these fields is Sidney Harris. Many of
Gary Larson Gary Larson (born August 14, 1950) is an American cartoonist. He is the creator of ''The Far Side'', a single-panel cartoon series that was syndicated internationally to more than 1,900 newspapers for fifteen years. The series ended with Larson' ...

Gary Larson
's cartoons have a scientific flavor.


Comic books

Books with cartoons are usually magazine-format "comic books," or occasionally reprints of newspaper cartoons. In Britain in the 1930s adventure magazines became quite popular, especially those published by
DC Thomson DC Thomson is a media company based in Dundee, Scotland. It is best known for publishing ''The Dundee Courier'', ''Evening Telegraph (Dundee), The Evening Telegraph'', ''The Sunday Post'', ''Oor Wullie'', ''The Broons'', ''The Beano'', ''The ...
; the publisher sent observers around the country to talk to boys and learn what they wanted to read about. The story line in magazines, comic books and cinema that most appealed to boys was the glamorous heroism of British soldiers fighting wars that were exciting and just. D.C. Thomson issued the first ''The Dandy Comic'' in December 1937. It had a revolutionary design that broke away from the usual children's comics that were published broadsheet in size and not very colourful. Thomson capitalized on its success with a similar product ''
The Beano ''The Beano'' is the longest running British children's comic magazine, published by DC Thomson in Dundee, Scotland. The comic first appeared on 30 July 1938, and was published weekly. In September 2009, ''The Beanos 3,500th issue was published ...
'' in 1938. On some occasions, new gag cartoons have been created for book publication, as was the case with ''
Think Small Think Small was one of the most famous ads in the advertising campaign for the Volkswagen Beetle, art-directed by Helmut Krone. The copy for Think Small was written by Julian Koenig at the Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) advertising agency, agency in 19 ...
'', a 1967 promotional book distributed as a giveaway by
Volkswagen Volkswagen (;English: , . shortened to VW ) is a German motor vehicle manufacturer headquartered in Wolfsburg Wolfsburg ( , , ) is the fifth largest city in the Germany, German state of Lower Saxony, located on the river Aller (Germany), ...

Volkswagen
dealers.
Bill Hoest Bill Hoest (February 7, 1926 – November 7, 1988) was an American cartoonist best known as the creator of the gag panel series, ''The Lockhorns'', distributed by King Features Syndicate to 500 newspapers in 23 countries, and ''Laugh Parade'' for '' ...
and other cartoonists of that decade drew cartoons showing Volkswagens, and these were published along with humorous automotive essays by such humorists as H. Allen Smith, Roger Price and
Jean Shepherd Jean Parker Shepherd Jr. (July 26, 1921 – October 16, 1999), often referred to by the nickname Shep, was an American storyteller, humorist A humorist (American English, American) or humourist (British English, British spelling) is an inte ...
. The book's design juxtaposed each cartoon alongside a photograph of the cartoon's creator.


Animation

Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies, ''cartoon'' came to refer to
animation Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *Noise figure, in telecommunication ...

animation
, and the word ''cartoon'' is currently used in reference to both animated cartoons and gag cartoons. While ''animation'' designates any style of illustrated images seen in rapid succession to give the impression of movement, the word "cartoon" is most often used as a descriptor for television programs and short films aimed at children, possibly featuring
anthropomorphized Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, l ...
animals,
superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character that possesses Superpower (ability), ''superpowers'', abilities beyond those of ordinary people, and fits the role of the hero, typically using his or her powers to help the World peace, world b ...

superhero
es, the adventures of child protagonists or related themes. In the 1980s, ''cartoon'' was shortened to ''toon'', referring to characters in animated productions. This term was popularized in 1988 by the combined live-action/animated film ''
Who Framed Roger Rabbit ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' is a 1988 American live-action/animated comedy Comedy (from the el, wikt:κωμῳδία, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction that consists of discourses or works intended to be humorous or amu ...
'', followed in 1990 by the animated TV series ''
Tiny Toon Adventures ''Tiny Toon Adventures'' is an American animated comedy television series that was broadcast from September 14, 1990 to December 6, 1992 as the first collaborative effort of Warner Bros. Animation and Steven Spielberg's Amblin Entertainment after ...
''.


See also

*
Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum The Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum is a research library of American cartoons and comic art affiliated with the Ohio State University library system in Columbus, Ohio. Formerly known as the Cartoon Research Library and the Cartoon Library & ...
*
Caricature A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings (compare to: cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is ty ...

Caricature
*
Comics a medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or d ...

Comics
*
Comics studies Comics studies (also comic(s) art studies, sequential art studies or graphic narrative studies) is an academic field that focuses on comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other ...
*''
Histoire de M. Vieux Bois History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 millio ...
'' *
List of comic strips The following is a list of comic strips. Dates after names indicate the time frames when the strips appeared. There is usually a fair degree of accuracy about a start date, but because of rights being transferred or the very gradual loss of appeal o ...
*
List of cartoonists This is a list of cartoonists, visual artists who specialize in drawing cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically in a non- realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the ...
* List of editorial cartoonists *
Teen humor comics Teen humor comics are a genre of comics that humorously depict contemporary American Adolescence, teenagers. When teen culture and buying power emerged in the early 1940s, comics publishers were quick to glut the newsstands with light-hearted, inno ...


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Dan Becker, History of Cartoons

Marchand collection
cartoons and photos

with British and American cartoons
''Harper's Weekly''
150 cartoons on elections 1860-1912; Reconstruction topics; Chinese exclusion; plus American Political Prints from the Library of Congress, 1766–1876




current editorial cartoons
* {{Authority control Visual arts genres Film and video terminology Film genres 1843 introductions