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Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
that produce
ovule In seed plant The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or l ...

ovule
s and ultimately develop into the
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
and
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
s. The gynoecium is the innermost whorl of a flower; it consists of (one or more) ''
pistils Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds. The gynoecium is the innermost whorl (botany), whorl of a flower; it consists of (one or mo ...
'' and is typically surrounded by the
pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the ga ...

pollen
-producing
reproductive organs A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new in ...
, the
stamen The stamen (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ve ...
s, collectively called the
androecium The stamen (plural ''stamina'' or ''stamens'') is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium., p. 10 Morphology and terminology A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and ...

androecium
. The gynoecium is often referred to as the "
female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of ...

female
" portion of the flower, although rather than directly producing female
gamete A gamete ( /ˈɡæmiːt/; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply ...
s (i.e.
egg cell The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents. Reproducti ...
s), the gynoecium produces
megaspore Megaspores, also called macrospores, are a type of spore )'', growing on a thinned hybrid black poplar ''(Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible before dispersion of their sp ...

megaspore
s, each of which develops into a female
gametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all ...
which then produces egg cells. The term gynoecium is also used by botanists to refer to a cluster of
archegonia Image:Archegonium.jpg, 240px, Diagram of archegonium anatomy An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ''ἀρχή'' ("beginning") and ''γόνος'' ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of cert ...
and any associated modified leaves or stems present on a
gametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all ...
shoot in
moss Mosses are small, non-vascular plant, non-vascular flowerless plants in the taxonomic phylum, division Bryophyta (, ) ''sensu stricto''. Bryophyta (''sensu lato'', Wilhelm Philippe Schimper, Schimp. 1879) may also refer to the parent group bryo ...

moss
es,
liverworts The Marchantiophyta () are a division of non-vascular land plant The Embryophyta (), or land plants, are the most familiar group of green plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae ...
, and
hornwort Hornworts are a group of bryophyte Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematics) Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the ways th ...
s. The corresponding terms for the male parts of those plants are clusters of
antheridia An antheridium is a haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes (called ''antherozoids'' or sperm). The plural form is antheridia, and a structure containing one or more antheridia is called an androecium. Androecium is also th ...

antheridia
within the androecium. Flowers that bear a gynoecium but no stamens are called ''pistillate'' or ''carpellate''. Flowers lacking a gynoecium are called
staminate The stamen (plural ''stamina'' or ''stamens'') is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium., p. 10 Morphology and terminology A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament an ...
. The gynoecium is often referred to as
female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of ...

female
because it gives rise to female (egg-producing) gametophytes; however, strictly speaking
sporophyte 350px, Sporophytes of moss during spring A sporophyte () is the diploid Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Most eukaryo ...
s do not have a sex, only gametophytes do. Gynoecium development and arrangement is important in systematic research and identification of angiosperms, but can be the most challenging of the floral parts to interpret.


Introduction

Unlike most animals, plants grow new organs after
embryogenesis An embryo is the early stage of development of a . In general, in s that , embryonic development is the part of the life cycle that begins just after and continues through the formation of body structures, such as tissues and organs. Each embr ...
, including new roots, leaves, and flowers. In the flowering plants, the gynoecium develops in the central region of the flower as a carpel or in groups of fused carpels.
Recent Advances and Challenges on Big Data Analysis in Neuroimaging
'. Frontiers Media SA; 17 May 2017. . p. 158–.
After fertilization, the gynoecium develops into a fruit that provides protection and nutrition for the developing seeds, and often aids in their dispersal. The gynoecium has several specialized tissues.
Molecular basis of fruit development
'. Frontiers Media SA; 26 March 2014. . p. 27–.
The tissues of the gynoecium develop from genetic and hormonal interactions along three-major axes. These tissue arise from
meristem The meristem is a type of tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa du ...
s that produce cells that differentiation into the different tissues that produce the parts of the gynoecium including the pistil, carpels, ovary, and ovals; the carpel margin meristem (arising from the carpel
primordium 250px, Root primordia (brown spots) as seen on the butt of a freshly cut pineapple crown intended for vegetative reproduction. A primordium (; plural: primordia; synonym: anlage) in embryology, is an Organ (anatomy), organ or tissue in its earli ...
) produces the
ovules In seed plant The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or l ...

ovules
, ovary septum, and the transmitting track, and plays a role in fusing the apical margins of carpels.
Fruit Ripening: From Present Knowledge to Future Development
'. Frontiers Media SA; 12 August 2019. . p. 155–.


Pistil

The gynoecium may consist of one or more separate pistils. A pistil typically consists of an expanded basal portion called an
ovary The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilized by a sperm. There is an ovary () found on each side of the b ...
, an elongated section called a style and an apical structure called a
stigma Stigma or plural stigmata, stigmas may refer to: * Social stigma, the disapproval of a person based on physical or behavioral characteristics that distinguish them from others Symbolism * Stigmata, bodily marks or wounds resembling the crucifix ...
that receives pollen. * The ovary (from Latin ''ovum'', meaning egg) is the enlarged basal portion which contains ''placentas'', ridges of tissue bearing one or more ovules (integumented megasporangia). The placentas and/or ovule(s) may be born on the gynoecial appendages or less frequently on the floral apex. The chamber in which the ovules develop is called a ''
locule A locule (plural locules) or loculus (plural loculi) (meaning "little place" in Latin) is a small cavity or compartment within an organ or part of an organism (animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are organisms that form the Animalia ...
'' (or sometimes cell). * The style (from Ancient Greek ''στῦλος'', ''stylos'', meaning a pillar) is a pillar-like stalk through which pollen tubes grow to reach the ovary. Some flowers, such as those of ''
Tulipa Tulips (''Tulipa'') are a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification ...

Tulipa
'', do not have a distinct style, and the stigma sits directly on the ovary. The style is a hollow tube in some plants, such as
lilies ''Lilium'' is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. They are the true lilies. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much o ...

lilies
, or has transmitting tissue through which the pollen tubes grow. * The stigma (from Ancient Greek , ''stigma'', meaning mark or puncture) is usually found at the tip of the style, the portion of the carpel(s) that receives
pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the ga ...

pollen
(male
gametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all ...
s). It is commonly sticky or feathery to capture pollen. The word "pistil" comes from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
''pistillum'' meaning
pestle Mortar and pestle is a set of two simple tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tool ...

pestle
. A sterile pistil in a male flower is referred to as a ''pistillode''.


Carpels

The pistils of a flower are considered to be composed of one or more ''
carpels '' stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
''. A carpel is the female reproductive part of the flower—composed of ovary, style, and stigma—and usually interpreted as modified leaves that bear structures called
ovule In seed plant The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or l ...

ovule
s, inside which egg cells ultimately form. A pistil may consist of one carpel (with its ovary, style and stigma); or it may comprise several carpels joined together to form a single ovary, the whole unit called a pistil. The gynoecium may present as one or more uni-carpellate pistils or as one multi-carpellate pistil. (The number of carpels is denoted by terms such as ''tricarpellate'' (three carpels).) Carpels are thought to be
phylogenetically In biology, phylogenetics (from Greek language, Greek wikt:φυλή, φυλή/wikt:φῦλον, φῦλον () "tribe, clan, race", and wikt:γενετικός, γενετικός () "origin, source, birth") is a part of systematics that addresse ...
derived from ovule-bearing leaves or leaf homologues (
megasporophyll A sporophyll is a leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves ar ...
s), which evolved to form a closed structure containing the ovules. This structure is typically rolled and fused along the margin. Although many flowers satisfy the above definition of a carpel, there are also flowers that do not have carpels because in these flowers the ovule(s), although enclosed, are borne directly on the shoot apex. Different remedies have been suggested for this problem. An easy remedy that applies to most cases is to redefine the carpel as an appendage that encloses ovule(s) and may or may not bear them.


Types

If a gynoecium has a single carpel, it is called ''monocarpous''. If a gynoecium has multiple, distinct (free, unfused) carpels, it is ''apocarpous''. If a gynoecium has multiple carpels "fused" into a single structure, it is ''syncarpous''. A syncarpous gynoecium can sometimes appear very much like a monocarpous gynoecium. The degree of connation ("fusion") in a syncarpous gynoecium can vary. The carpels may be "fused" only at their bases, but retain separate styles and stigmas. The carpels may be "fused" entirely, except for retaining separate stigmas. Sometimes (e.g.,
Apocynaceae Apocynaceae (from ''Apocynum ''Apocynum'', commonly known as dogbane or Indian hemp, is a small genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, includ ...
) carpels are fused by their styles or stigmas but possess distinct ovaries. In a syncarpous gynoecium, the "fused" ovaries of the constituent carpels may be referred to collectively as a single compound ovary. It can be a challenge to determine how many carpels fused to form a syncarpous gynoecium. If the styles and stigmas are distinct, they can usually be counted to determine the number of carpels. Within the compound ovary, the carpels may have distinct locules divided by walls called ''septa''. If a syncarpous gynoecium has a single style and stigma and a single locule in the ovary, it may be necessary to examine how the ovules are attached. Each carpel will usually have a distinct line of placentation where the ovules are attached.


Pistil development

Pistils begin as small primordia on a floral apical meristem, forming later than, and closer to the (floral) apex than sepal, petal and stamen primordia. Morphological and
molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In ...
studies of pistil ontogeny reveal that carpels are most likely homologous to leaves. A carpel has a similar function to a
megasporophyll A sporophyll is a leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves ar ...
, but typically includes a stigma, and is fused, with ovules enclosed in the enlarged lower portion, the ovary. In some
basal angiosperm '', from the Nymphaeales The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants. In particular, the most basal (phylogenetics), basal angiosperms were called the ANITA grade which is made up ...
lineages,
Degeneriaceae ''Degeneria'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...
and
Winteraceae Winteraceae is a primitive family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to main ...
, a carpel begins as a shallow cup where the ovules develop with laminar placentation, on the upper surface of the carpel. The carpel eventually forms a folded, leaf-like structure, not fully sealed at its margins. No style exists, but a broad stigmatic crest along the margin allows pollen tubes access along the surface and between hairs at the margins. Two kinds of fusion have been distinguished: postgenital fusion that can be observed during the development of flowers, and congenital fusion that cannot be observed i.e., fusions that occurred during phylogeny. But it is very difficult to distinguish fusion and non-fusion processes in the evolution of flowering plants. Some processes that have been considered congenital (phylogenetic) fusions appear to be non-fusion processes such as, for example, the de novo formation of intercalary growth in a ring zone at or below the base of primordia. Therefore, "it is now increasingly acknowledged that the term 'fusion,' as applied to phylogeny (as in 'congenital fusion') is ill-advised."


Gynoecium position

Basal angiosperm groups tend to have carpels arranged spirally around a conical or dome-shaped
receptacle Receptacle may refer to: Biology * Receptacle (botany), a plant anatomical part * Seminal receptacle, a sperm storage site in some insects Electrical engineering * Auxiliary car power outlet, formerly known as ''Cigarette lighter receptacle'', a ...
. In later lineages, carpels tend to be in whorls. The relationship of the other flower parts to the gynoecium can be an important systematic and taxonomic character. In some flowers, the stamens, petals, and sepals are often said to be "fused" into a "floral tube" or ''
hypanthium In angiosperms, a hypanthium or floral cup is a structure where basal portions of the calyx, the corolla, and the stamens form a cup-shaped tube. It is sometimes called a floral tube, a term that is also used for corolla tube and calyx tube. I ...
''. However, as Leins & Erbar (2010) pointed out, "the classical view that the wall of the inferior ovary results from the "congenital" fusion of dorsal carpel flanks and the floral axis does not correspond to the ontogenetic processes that can actually be observed. All that can be seen is an intercalary growth in a broad circular zone that changes the shape of the floral axis (receptacle)." And what happened during evolution is not a phylogenetic fusion but the formation of a unitary intercalary meristem. Evolutionary developmental biology investigates such developmental processes that arise or change during evolution. If the hypanthium is absent, the flower is ''hypogynous'', and the stamens, petals, and sepals are all attached to the receptacle below the gynoecium. Hypogynous flowers are often referred to as having a ''superior ovary''. This is the typical arrangement in most flowers. If the hypanthium is present up to the base of the style(s), the flower is ''epigynous''. In an epigynous flower, the stamens, petals, and sepals are attached to the hypanthium at the top of the ovary or, occasionally, the hypanthium may extend beyond the top of the ovary. Epigynous flowers are often referred to as having an ''inferior ovary''. Plant families with epigynous flowers include
orchids Orchidaceae ( ), commonly called the orchid family, is a diverse and widespread family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social ...

orchids
,
asters ''Aster'' is a genus of perennial plant, perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Its Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscription has been narrowed, and it now encompasses around 180 species, all but one of which are restricted to Eur ...

asters
, and evening primroses. Between these two extremes are ''perigynous'' flowers, in which a hypanthium is present, but is either free from the gynoecium (in which case it may appear to be a cup or tube surrounding the gynoecium) or connected partly to the gynoecium (with the stamens, petals, and sepals attached to the hypanthium part of the way up the ovary). Perigynous flowers are often referred to as having a ''half-inferior ovary'' (or, sometimes, ''partially inferior'' or ''half-superior''). This arrangement is particularly frequent in the rose family and . Occasionally, the gynoecium is born on a stalk, called the
gynophoreA gynophore is the stalk of certain flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological ...
, as in ''Isomeris arborea''. Image:Spathoglottis flwrs reduced.jpg, Flowers and fruit (capsules) of the ground orchid, '' plicata'', illustrating an inferior ovary. Image:Hegi ovary.png, Illustration showing longitudinal sections through hypogynous (a), perigynous (b), and epigynous (c) flowers


Placentation

Within the ovary, each ovule is born by a placenta or arises as a continuation of the floral apex. The placentas often occur in distinct lines called lines of
placentation In biology, placentation refers to the formation, type and structure, or arrangement of the placenta The placenta is a temporary fetal organ that begins developing from the blastocyst shortly after implantation. It plays critical roles in faci ...
. In monocarpous or apocarpous gynoecia, there is typically a single line of placentation in each ovary. In syncarpous gynoecia, the lines of placentation can be regularly spaced along the wall of the ovary (''parietal placentation''), or near the center of the ovary. In the latter case, separate terms are used depending on whether or not the ovary is divided into separate locules. If the ovary is divided, with the ovules born on a line of placentation at the inner angle of each locule, this is ''axile placentation''. An ovary with ''free central placentation'', on the other hand, consists of a single compartment without septae and the ovules are attached to a central column that arises directly from the floral apex (axis). In some cases a single ovule is attached to the bottom or top of the locule (''basal'' or ''apical placentation'', respectively).


The ovule

In flowering plants, the ''ovule'' (from Latin ''ovulum'' meaning small egg) is a complex structure born inside ovaries. The ovule initially consists of a stalked, integumented ''megasporangium'' (also called the ''nucellus''). Typically, one cell in the megasporangium undergoes
meiosis Meiosis (; , because it is a reductional division) is a special type of of in organisms used to produce the , such as or . It involves two rounds of division that ultimately result in four cells with only one copy of each (). Additionall ...

meiosis
resulting in one to four megaspores. These develop into a megagametophyte (often called the embryo sac) within the ovule. The megagametophyte typically develops a small number of cells, including two special cells, an egg cell and a binucleate central cell, which are the
gamete A gamete ( /ˈɡæmiːt/; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply ...
s involved in
double fertilization Double fertilization is a complex fertilization Fertilisation or fertilization (see American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C -ize .28-isation.2C -ization.29, spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisatio ...

double fertilization
. The central cell, once fertilized by a sperm cell from the pollen becomes the first cell of the
endosperm The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's fir ...
, and the egg cell once fertilized become the
zygote A zygote (, ) is a eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are ...

zygote
that develops into the
embryo An embryo is the early stage of development of a multicellular organism A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms ar ...

embryo
. The gap in the integuments through which the pollen tube enters to deliver sperm to the egg is called the
micropyleMicropyle may refer to: * Micropyle (botany) a minute opening in the integument of an ovule of a seed plant. * Micropyle (zoology), a differentiated area of surface in an egg, through which a sperm enters {{Disambiguation ...
. The stalk attaching the ovule to the placenta is called the funiculus.


Role of the stigma and style

Stigmas can vary from long and slender to globe-shaped to feathery. The stigma is the receptive tip of the carpel(s), which receives pollen at
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
and on which the pollen grain . The stigma is adapted to catch and trap pollen, either by combining pollen of visiting insects or by various hairs, flaps, or sculpturings. The style and stigma of the flower are involved in most types of self incompatibility reactions. Self-incompatibility, if present, prevents
fertilization Fertilisation or fertilization (see American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C -ize .28-isation.2C -ization.29, spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes ...

fertilization
by pollen from the same plant or from genetically similar plants, and ensures outcrossing. The primitive development of carpels, as seen in such groups of plants as ''
Tasmannia ''Tasmannia'' is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. The 40 species of ''Tasmannia'' are native to Australia, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Borneo, and the Philippines. The Winteraceae are magnoliids, and are associated ...
'' and '' Degeneria'', lack styles and the stigmatic surface is produced along the carpels margins.Armen Takhtajan.
Flowering Plants
'. Springer Science & Business Media; 6 July 2009. . p. 22–.
Image:Marijuana Pistil.jpg, Stigmas and style of ''Cannabis sativa'' held in a pair of forceps File:Crocus macro crop.jpg, Stigma of a ''
Crocus ''Crocus'' (English plural: crocuses or croci) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life an ...

Crocus
'' flower.


See also

*
Chalaza The chalaza (; from Greek "hailstone"; plural ''chalazas'' or ''chalazae'', ) is a structure inside bird and reptile eggs and plant ovules. It attaches or suspends the yolk or nucellus within the larger structure. In animals In the eggs of ...


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * {{Authority control Plant reproductive system
Plant morphology ''Plant morphology'' is the field in botany that studies the diversity in forms, with the naked eye or slight optical magnification. This is opposed to plant anatomy (see :Plant anatomy) that needs to cut into plants to be able to study its subject, ...
Plant sexuality