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The canon law of the Catholic Church (Latin for "canon law": ''ius canonicum'') is the
system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal e ...
of
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
s and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church. It was the first modern Western
legal system The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influ ...
and is the oldest continuously functioning legal system in the West, while the unique traditions of
Eastern Catholic canon law The Eastern Catholic canon law is the law of the 23 Catholic ''sui juris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eu ...
govern the 23
Eastern Catholic The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as ''Uniates'', are twenty-three East ...
particular church A particular church ( la, ecclesia particularis) is an ecclesiastical community of faithful headed by a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted wit ...
es ''
sui iuris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
.'' Positive ecclesiastical laws, based directly or indirectly upon immutable divine law or
natural law Natural law ( la, ius naturale, ''lex naturalis'') is a system of law based on a close observation of human nature Human nature is a concept that denotes the fundamental disposition A disposition is a quality of character, a habit A habit (or ...
, derive formal authority in the case of universal laws from
promulgation Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statutoryA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules an ...
by the supreme legislator—the
supreme pontiff The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
, who possesses the totality of legislative, executive, and judicial power in his person, or by the
College of Bishops College of Bishops, also known as the Ordo of Bishops, is a term used in the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian ...
acting in communion with the pope—while particular laws derive formal authority from promulgation by a legislator inferior to the supreme legislator, whether an ordinary or a delegated legislator. The actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, but all-encompassing of the human condition. It has all the ordinary elements of a mature legal system: laws, courts, lawyers, judges, Edward N. Peters
"A Catechist's Introduction to Canon Law"
CanonLaw.info, accessed June-11-2013
a fully articulated
legal code A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of Codification ...
for the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint John ...
Manual of Canon Law, pg. 49 as well as a
code In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter (alphabet), letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form, sometimes data compression, shortened or secrecy, secret, ...
for the
Eastern Catholic Churches The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christi ...
, principles of legal interpretation, and coercive penalties. It lacks civilly-binding force in most secular jurisdictions. Those who are versed and skilled in canon law, and professors of canon law, are called canonistsVere & Trueman, ''Surprised by Canon Law'' olume 1 2004, pg. 3 (or colloquially, canon lawyers). Canon law as a sacred science is called canonistics. The jurisprudence of canon law is the complex of legal principles and traditions within which canon law operates, while the
philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of Catholic canon law The philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of Catholic canon law are the fields of philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowled ...
are the areas of philosophical, theological, and legal scholarship dedicated to providing a theoretical basis for canon law as legal system and as true law.


Definitions

The term "canon law" (''ius canonicum'') was only regularly used from the twelfth century onwards.Berman, ''Law and Revolution'', pg. 202. The term ''ius ecclesiasticum'', by contrast, referred to the secular law, whether imperial, royal, or feudal, that dealt with relations between the state and the Catholic Church. The term ''
corpus iuris canonici The ''Corpus Juris Canonici'' ( lit. 'Body of Canon Law') is a collection of significant sources of the canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastic ...
'' was used to denote canon law as legal system beginning in the thirteenth century. Other terms sometimes used synonymously with ''ius canonicum'' include ''ius sacrum'', ''ius ecclesiasticum'', ''ius divinum'', and ''ius pontificium'', as well as ''sacri canones'' (sacred canons). is the
positive law Positive laws ( la, links=no, ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action. Positive law also describes the establishment of specific rights for an individual or group. Etymologically, the name derives from the verb ''to posit'' ...
that emanates from the
legislative power A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday l ...
of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
in its effort to govern its members in accordance with the
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...

Gospel
of
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
.Rev. James Socias (gen. edit.), ''Our Moral Life in Christ''. (Chicago: Midwest Theological Forum, 2003), 84. Fernando della Rocca used the term "ecclesiastical-positive law" in contradistinction to ''civil''-positive law, in order to differentiate between the human legislators of church and state, all of which issue "positive law" in the normal sense. Examples of ecclesiastical positive law are fasting during the
liturgical season The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgy, liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including Calendar of saints, celebration ...

liturgical season
of
Lent Lent (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...

Lent
, and religious workers (monks, nuns, etc.) requiring permission from their superiors to publish a book.


Etymology of "canon"

The word "canon" comes from the Greek ''kanon'', which in its original usage denoted a straight rod, was later used for a measuring stick, and eventually came to mean a rule or norm.Berman, ''Law and Revolution'', pg. 199 In 325, when the first ecumenical council,
Nicaea I The First Council of Nicaea (; gr, Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect ...
, was held, ''kanon'' started to obtain the restricted juridical denotation of a law
promulgated Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statute, statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final Enactment of a bill, approval. In some jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions, this additional step is necessary b ...
by a
synod A synod () is a council of a Ecclesia (church), church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. The word ''wikt:synod, synod'' comes from the meaning "assembly" or "meeting" and is analogous with the L ...

synod
or
ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote a ...
, as well as that of an individual bishop.


Sources of canon law

The term source or fountain of canon law (''fons iuris canonici'') may be taken in a twofold sense: a) as the formal cause of the existence of a law, and in this sense we speak of the ''fontes essendi'' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...
: "sources of being") of canon law or lawgivers; b) as the material channel through which laws are handed down and made known, and in this sense the sources are styled ''fontes cognoscendi'' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...
: "sources of knowing"), or depositaries, like sources of history.A COMMENTARY ON THE NEW CODE OF CANON LAW
BY THE REV. P. CHAS. AUGUSTINE O.S.B., D.D., ''Volume I: Introduction and General Rules (can. 1-86), SECOND EDITION'' (St. Louis: B. HERDER BOOK CO., 1918).


Legal history and codification

The
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
has the oldest continuously functioning legal system in the West, much later than
Roman law Roman law is the system of , including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of , from the (c. 449 BC), to the ' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor . Roman law forms the basic framework for , the most widely used legal s ...
but predating the evolution of modern European
civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United ...
traditions. What began with rules ("canons") adopted by the
Apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, parti ...

Apostles
at the
Council of Jerusalem The Council of Jerusalem or Apostolic Council was held in Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυ ...
in the first century has developed into a highly complex legal system encapsulating not just norms of the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
, but some elements of the
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
(
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the , which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the or Tanakh, a collection of ancient religious Hebrew writings by the . The second division of Christian Bibles is the , w ...
),
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
,
Visigothic The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is ...
,
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languag ...
, and Celtic legal traditions. As many as 36 collections of canon law are known to have been brought into existence before 1150. The history of Latin canon law can be divided into four periods: the ''ius antiquum'', the ''ius novum'', the ''ius novissimum'' and the '' Codex Iuris Canonici''.Manual of Canon Law, pg. 13, #8 In relation to the Code, history can be divided into the ''ius vetus'' (all law before the 1917 Code) and the ''ius novum'' (the law of the code, or ''ius codicis''). The Eastern Catholic canon law of the
Eastern Catholic Churches The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christi ...
, which had developed some different disciplines and practices, underwent its own process of codification, resulting in the
Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (Latin: ''Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium'', abbreviated CCEO) is the title of the 1990 codification of the common portions of the Canon law (Catholic Church), Canon Law for the 23 Eastern Catholic ch ...
promulgated in 1990 by
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic ...

Pope John Paul II
. St. Raymond of Penyafort (1175–1275), a Spanish
Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the C ...
priest, is the
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set ...
of canonists, Dr. Edward N. Peters
CanonLaw.info Home Page
accessed June-11-2013
due to his important contributions to canon law in codifying the ''
Decretales Gregorii IX The ''Decretals of Gregory IX'' (Latin, ''Decretales Gregorii IX''), also collectively called the ''Liber extra'', are a source of medieval Canon Law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances a ...
.'' Other saintly patrons include St. Ivo of Chartres and the
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism, ...
St. Robert Bellarmine.


''Ius antiquum''

The period of canonical history known as the ''ius antiquum'' ("ancient law") extends from the foundation of the Church to the time of
Gratian Gratian (; la, Flavius Gratianus; 18 April 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor, emperor of the Western Roman Empire, western part of the Roman Empire from 367 to 383. The eldest son of Valentinian I, Gratian accompanied his father on severa ...
(mid-12th century).Wigmore, ''Panorama'', p. 951 This period can be further divided into three periods: the time of the apostles to the death of
Pope Gelasius I Pope Gelasius I was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern O ...

Pope Gelasius I
(A.D. 496), the end of the 5th century to the spurious collection of the 9th century, and the last up to the time of Gratian (mid-12th century). In the
Early Church The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religio ...
, the first canons were decreed by
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chur ...

bishop
s united in "
Ecumenical Ecumenism (), also spelled oecumenism, is the concept and principle in which Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion b ...
" councils (the Emperor summoning all of the known world's bishops to attend with at least the acknowledgement of the
Bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chur ...

Bishop
of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...
) or "local" councils (bishops of a region or territory). Over time, these canons were supplemented with
decretal Decretals ( la, litterae decretales) are letters of a pope that formulate decisions in canon law (Catholic Church), ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church.McGurk. ''Dictionary of Medieval Terms''. p. 10 They are generally given in answer to con ...
s of the Bishops of Rome, which were responses to doubts or problems according to the maxim, "''Roma locuta est, causa finita est''" ("Rome has spoken, the case is closed"). A common misconception, the Catholic Encyclopedia links this saying to St Augustine who actually said something quite different: "''jam enim de hac causa duo concilia missa sunt ad sedem apostolicam; inde etiam rescripta venerunt; causa finita est''" (which roughly translate to: "there are two councils, for now this matter as brought to the Apostolic See, whence also letters are come to pass, the case was finished") in response to the heretical
Pelagianism Pelagianism is a heterodox Christian theological position which holds that the original sin did not taint human nature and that humans have the free will Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action un ...
of the time. In the first millennium of the Roman Church, the canons of various ecumenical and local councils were supplemented with
decretal Decretals ( la, litterae decretales) are letters of a pope that formulate decisions in canon law (Catholic Church), ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church.McGurk. ''Dictionary of Medieval Terms''. p. 10 They are generally given in answer to con ...
s of the
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
s; these were gathered together into collections.


''Ius novum''

The period of canonical history known as the ''Ius novum'' ("new law") or ''middle period'' covers the time from
Gratian Gratian (; la, Flavius Gratianus; 18 April 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor, emperor of the Western Roman Empire, western part of the Roman Empire from 367 to 383. The eldest son of Valentinian I, Gratian accompanied his father on severa ...
to the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in (or Trento, in northern ), was the 19th of the . Prompted by the , it has been described as the embodiment of the ."Trent, Council of" in Cross, F. L. (ed.) ''Th ...

Council of Trent
(mid-12th century–16th century). The spurious conciliar canons and papal decrees were gathered together into collections, both unofficial and official. In the year 1000, there was no book that had attempted to summarize the whole body of canon law, to systematize it in whole or in part. The first truly systematic collection was assembled by the
Camaldolese The Camaldolese ( la, Ordo Camaldulensium) monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European la ...
monk
Gratian Gratian (; la, Flavius Gratianus; 18 April 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor, emperor of the Western Roman Empire, western part of the Roman Empire from 367 to 383. The eldest son of Valentinian I, Gratian accompanied his father on severa ...
in the 11th century, commonly known as the ''
Decretum Gratiani The ''Decretum Gratiani'', also known as the ''Concordia discordantium canonum'' or ''Concordantia discordantium canonum'' or simply as the ''Decretum'', is a collection of Canon law (Catholic Church), canon law compiled and written in the 12th ...
'' ("Gratian's Decree") but originally called ''The Concordance of Discordant Canons'' (''Concordantia Discordantium Canonum''). Before Gratian there was no "jurisprudence of canon law" (system of legal interpretation and principles). Gratian is the founder of canonical jurisprudence, which merits him the title "Father of Canon Law". Gratian also had an enormous influence on the history of
natural law Natural law ( la, ius naturale, ''lex naturalis'') is a system of law based on a close observation of human nature Human nature is a concept that denotes the fundamental disposition A disposition is a quality of character, a habit A habit (or ...
in his transmission of the ancient doctrines of natural law to
Scholasticism Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people ...
. Canon law greatly increased from 1140 to 1234. After that it slowed down, except for the laws of local councils (an area of canon law in need of scholarship), and secular laws supplemented. In 1234
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
Gregory IX Pope Gregory IX ( la, Gregorius IX; born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 March 1227 to his death. He is known for issuing the ''Decretals of Grego ...

Gregory IX
promulgated the first official collection of canons, called the '''' or ''Liber Extra''. This was followed by the ''Liber Sextus'' (1298) of
Boniface VIII Pope Boniface VIII ( la, Bonifatius PP. VIII; born Benedetto Caetani, c. 1230 – 11 October 1303) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations b ...

Boniface VIII
, the ''Clementines'' (1317) of
Clement V Pope Clement V ( la, Clemens Quintus; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled ''de Guoth'' and ''de Goth''), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman ...
, the '' Extravagantes Joannis XXII'' and the ''
Extravagantes Communes The term ''Extravagantes'' (from the Latin ''extra'', outside; ''vagari'', to wander) is applied to the Canon law (Catholic Church), canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, to designate some papal decretals not contained in certain canonical collec ...
'', all of which followed the same structure as the ''Liber Extra''. All these collections, with the ''
Decretum Gratiani The ''Decretum Gratiani'', also known as the ''Concordia discordantium canonum'' or ''Concordantia discordantium canonum'' or simply as the ''Decretum'', is a collection of Canon law (Catholic Church), canon law compiled and written in the 12th ...
'', are together referred to as the ''
Corpus Iuris Canonici The ''Corpus Juris Canonici'' ( lit. 'Body of Canon Law') is a collection of significant sources of the canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a ...
''. After the completion of the ''Corpus Iuris Canonici'', subsequent
papal The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Chr ...

papal
legislation was published in periodic volumes called '' Bullaria''. In the thirteenth century, the Roman Church began to collect and organize its canon law, which after a millennium of development had become a complex and difficult system of interpretation and cross-referencing. The official collections were the ''Liber Extra'' (1234) of Pope
Gregory IX Pope Gregory IX ( la, Gregorius IX; born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 March 1227 to his death. He is known for issuing the ''Decretals of Grego ...

Gregory IX
, the ''Liber Sextus'' (1298) of
Boniface VIII Pope Boniface VIII ( la, Bonifatius PP. VIII; born Benedetto Caetani, c. 1230 – 11 October 1303) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations b ...

Boniface VIII
and the ''Clementines'' (1317), prepared for
Clement V Pope Clement V ( la, Clemens Quintus; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled ''de Guoth'' and ''de Goth''), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman ...
but published by
John XXII Pope John XXII ( la, Ioannes PP. XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations ...
. These were addressed to the universities by papal letters at the beginning of each collection, and these texts became textbooks for aspiring canon lawyers. In 1582 a compilation was made of the Decretum, Extra, the Sext, the Clementines and the ''
Extravagantes The term ''Extravagantes'' (from the Latin ''extra'', outside; ''vagari'', to wander) is applied to the Canon law (Catholic Church), canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, to designate some papal decretals not contained in certain canonical collec ...
'' (that is, the decretals of the popes from
Pope John XXII Pope John XXII ( la, Ioannes PP. XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was head of the Catholic Church from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334. He was the second and longest-reigning Avignon Papacy, Avignon Pope, elec ...

Pope John XXII
to
Pope Sixtus IV Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sisti ...

Pope Sixtus IV
).


''Ius novissimum''

The third canonical period, known as the ''ius novissimum'' ("newest law"), stretches from the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in (or Trento, in northern ), was the 19th of the . Prompted by the , it has been described as the embodiment of the ."Trent, Council of" in Cross, F. L. (ed.) ''Th ...

Council of Trent
to the
promulgation Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statutoryA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules an ...
of the
1917 Code of Canon Law The 1917 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1917 CIC, from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also referred to as the Pio-Benedictine Code,Dr. Edward Peters accessed June-9-2013 was the first official comprehensive codification Codification m ...
which took legal effect in 1918. The start of the ''us novissimum'' is not universally agreed upon, however. Dr. Edward N. Peters argues that the ''ius novissimum'' actually started with the '' Liber Extra'' of
Gregory IX Pope Gregory IX ( la, Gregorius IX; born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 March 1227 to his death. He is known for issuing the ''Decretals of Grego ...

Gregory IX
in 1234.


''Ius codicis''

The fourth period of canonical history is that of the present day, initiated by the promulgation of the 1917 Code of Canon Law on 27 May 1917. Benedict XV, in his bull of promulgation, refers to the ''motu proprio'' ''Arduum sane'', which was issued by Pius X, March 17, 1904, and gave rise to the 1917 Code. In that memorable pronouncement the late Pontiff stated the reasons which prompted him as the supreme Pastor of souls, who has the care of all the churches, to provide for a new codification of ecclesiastic laws, with a view " to put together with order and clearness all the laws of the Church thus far issued, removing all those that would be recognized as abrogated or obsolete, adapting others to the necessities of the times, and enacting new ones in conformity with the present needs." It is sometimes referred to as the ''ius codicis'' ("law of the code") or, in comparison with all law before it, the ''ius novum'' ("new law"). From time to time, the
Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts The Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts is a dicastery A dicastery (from gr, δικαστήριον, dikastērion, law-court, from δικαστής, 'judge, juror') is a department of the Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Cur ...
issues
authentic interpretationRegarding the canon law (Catholic Church), canon law of the Catholic Church, Canonist, canonists provide and obey rules for the interpretation and acceptation of words, in order that legislation is correctly understood and the extent of its obligatio ...
s regarding the code. The pope occasionally amends the text of the codes.


Pio-Benedictine law

By the 19th century, the body of canonical legislation included some 10,000 norms. Many of these were difficult to reconcile with one another due to changes in circumstances and practice. The situation impelled
Pope Pius X Pope Pius X ( it, Pio X; born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; 2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church as Pope from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing Modernism in the Catholic Churc ...

Pope Pius X
to order the creation of the first Code of Canon Law, a single volume of clearly stated laws. Under the aegis of the Cardinal
Pietro Gasparri Pietro Gasparri, GCTE (5 May 1852 – 18 November 1934) was a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people ...

Pietro Gasparri
, the Commission for the Codification of Canon Law was completed under
Benedict XV Pope Benedict XV (Ecclesiastical Latin, Latin: ''Benedictus XV''; it, Benedetto XV), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, name=, group= (; 21 November 185422 January 1922), was head of the Catholic Church from 1914 until his death ...

Benedict XV
, who promulgated the Code on 27 May 1917,De Meester, ''Compendium'' Tomus Primus, p. 52 effective on 29 May 1918. The work having been begun by
Pius X Pope Pius X ( it, Pio X; born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; 2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . A ...

Pius X
, it was sometimes called the "Pio-Benedictine Code" but more often the 1917 Code to distinguish it from the later 1983 Code which replaced it. In its preparation, centuries of material was examined, scrutinized for authenticity by leading experts, and harmonized as much as possible with opposing canons and even other codes, from the
Code of Justinian The Code of Justinian ( la, Codex Justinianus, or ) is one part of the ''Corpus Juris Civilis The ''Corpus Juris'' (or ''Iuris'') ''Civilis'' ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, i ...
to the
Napoleonic Code The Napoleonic Code (, lit. "Code Napoleon"), officially the Civil Code of the French (; simply referred to as ) is the French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), of ...
.


Johanno-Pauline law

In the succeeding decades, some parts of the 1917 Code were retouched, especially under
Pope Pius XII Pope Pius XII ( it, Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (; 2 March 18769 October 1958), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion C ...
. In 1959,
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
announced, together with his intention to call the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
, that the 1917 Code would be completely revised. In 1963, the commission appointed to undertake the task decided to delay the project until the council had been concluded. After the
Second Ecumenical Council The First Council of Constantinople ( la, Concilium Constantinopolitanum; grc-gre, Σύνοδος τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate ...
of the Vatican (Vatican II) closed in 1965, it became apparent that the Code would need to be revised in light of the documents and theology of Vatican II. When work finally began, almost two decades of study and discussion on drafts of the various sections were needed before
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic ...

Pope John Paul II
could promulgate the revised edition, which came into force on 27 November 1983, having been promulgated via the
apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is law which has been promulgation, promulgated (or "enactment of a bill, enacted") by a legislature or other Government, governing body o ...
'' Sacrae Disciplinae Leges'' of 25 January 1983. Containing 1752 canons, it is the law currently binding on the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint John ...
. This codification is referred to as the
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehens ...
to distinguish it from the 1917 Code. Like the preceding codification, it applies to Roman Catholics of the Latin Church. As the currently-in-force law for the Latin Church, it constitutes a major part of the ''Ius vigens'' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...
: "active law").


Eastern Catholic canon law

Eastern Catholic canon law The Eastern Catholic canon law is the law of the 23 Catholic ''sui juris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eu ...
is the law of the 23 Catholic ''
sui iuris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
''
particular church A particular church ( la, ecclesia particularis) is an ecclesiastical community of faithful headed by a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted wit ...
es of the
Eastern Catholic The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as ''Uniates'', are twenty-three East ...
tradition. Oriental canon law includes both the common tradition among all Eastern Catholic Churches, now chiefly contained in the ''
Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (Latin: ''Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium'', abbreviated CCEO) is the title of the 1990 codification of the common portions of the Canon Law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring ...
'', as well as the particular law proper to each individual ''
sui iuris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
'' particular Eastern Catholic Church. Originating with the canons of particular councils and the writings of the Eastern Church Fathers, oriental canon law developed in concert with Byzantine Roman laws, leading to the compilation of nomocanons. Oriental canon law is distinguished from Latin canon law, which developed along a separate line in the remnants of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
under the direct influence of the Roman Pontiff, and is now chiefly codified in the 1983 ''Code of Canon Law''.


Nomocanons

A nomocanon (nomokanon) is a collection of
ecclesiastical law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dist ...
, consisting of the elements from both the
civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United ...
(nomoi) and the
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
(kanones). Collections of this kind were found only in Eastern law. The Greek Church has two principal nomocanonical collections, the "Nomocanon of John Scholasticus" of the sixth century and the "Nomocanon in 14 titles", which dates from the reign of the Byzantine
Emperor Heraclius Heraclius ( la, Flavius Heraclius Augustus, el, Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, ''Flavios Iraklios''; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Byzantine emperor from 610 to 641. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Herac ...
(), made by fusion of the ''Collectio tripartita'' (collection of Justinian's imperial law) and "Canonic syntagma" (ecclesiastical canons). The latter was long held in esteem and passed into the Russian Church, but it was by degrees supplanted by the "Nomocanon of Photios I of Constantinople, Photios" in 883. Photius compiled systematically the canons of the East which amount to a counterpart of Gratian in the West. His 2-part collection, a chronological collection of synodal canons and his nomocanon revision with updated civil laws, became a classical source of ancient canon law for the Greek Church.


Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches

For Eastern Catholics two sections of
Eastern Catholic canon law The Eastern Catholic canon law is the law of the 23 Catholic ''sui juris ''Sui iuris'', also spelled as ''sui juris'' ( or ), is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eu ...
had already, Eastern canonical reforms of Pius XII, under Pope Pius XII, been put in the form of short canons. These parts were revised as part of the application of
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
's decision to carry out a general revision of the Church's canon law; as a result a distinct Code for members of the
Eastern Catholic Churches The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christi ...
came into effect for the first time on 1 October 1991 (Apostolic Constitution ''Sacri Canones'' of 18 October 1990). The ''
Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (Latin: ''Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium'', abbreviated CCEO) is the title of the 1990 codification of the common portions of the Canon Law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring ...
'', as it is called, differs from the Latin ''
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehens ...
'' in matters where Eastern and Latin traditions diverge, such as terminology, discipline concerning hierarchical offices, and administration of the sacraments.


Jurisprudence of canon law

The institutions and practices of canon law paralleled the legal development of much of Europe, and consequently both modern
civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United ...
and common law (legal system), common law bear the influences of canon law. Much of the legislative style was adapted from that of Roman Law especially the Justinian I, Justinianic ''Corpus Iuris Civilis''. After the 'fall' of the Roman Empire and up until the revival of Roman Law in the 11th century canon law served as the most important unifying force among the local systems in the Civil Law tradition. The Catholic Church developed the inquisitorial system in the Middle Ages. The canonists introduced into post-Roman Europe the concept of a Rule according to higher law, higher law of ultimate justice, over and above the momentary law of the state. The primary canonical sources of law are the
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehens ...
,Dr. Edward Peters
CanonLaw.info
accessed June-9-2013
the
Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (Latin: ''Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium'', abbreviated CCEO) is the title of the 1990 codification of the common portions of the Canon Law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring ...
, and ''Pastor Bonus.'' Other sources include
apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is law which has been promulgation, promulgated (or "enactment of a bill, enacted") by a legislature or other Government, governing body o ...
s, motu proprio, ''motibus propriis'', particular law, and—with the approbation of the competent legislator—Custom (Catholic canon law), custom. A law must be Promulgation (Catholic canon law), promulgated for it to have legal effect. A later and contrary law obrogation, obrogates an earlier law. Canonists have formulated interpretive Regulæ Juris, rules of law for the magisterial (non-legislatorial) Interpretation (Catholic canon law), interpretation of canonical laws. An authentic interpretation is an official interpretation of a law issued by the law's legislator, and has the force of law.


Philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of Catholic canon law

Although canonical jurisprudential theory generally follows the principles of Aristotelianism, Aristotelian-Treatise on Law, Thomistic philosophy of law, legal philosophy, Thomas Aquinas never explicitly discusses the place of canon law in his ''Treatise on Law'' However, Aquinas himself was influenced by canon law. While many canonists apply the Treatise on Law, Thomistic definition of law (''lex'') to canon law without objection, some authors dispute the applicability of the Thomism, Thomistic definition to canon law, arguing that its application would impoverish ecclesiology (Catholic Church), ecclesiology and corrupt the very supernatural end of canon law. In the decades following the
Second Vatican Council The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
, many canonists called for a more theological, rather than philosophical, conception of canon law,Errázuriz, "Justice in the Church", pg. 71 acknowledging the "triple relationship between theology, philosophy, and canon law". Some authors conceive of canon law as ''essentially'' theological and the discipline of canon law as a theological subdiscipline, but Msgr. Carlos José Errázuriz contends that "in a certain sense, all postconciliar canonical scholarship has shown a theological concern in the widest sense, that is, a tendency to determine more clearly the place of the juridical in the mystery of the Church." The fundamental theory of canon law is a discipline covering the basis of canon law in the very nature of the church. Fundamental theory is a newer discipline that takes as is object "the existence and nature of what is justice, juridical in the Catholic Church, Church of Jesus Christ." The discipline seeks to better explain the nature of law in the church and engages in theological discussions in post-Vatican II, conciliar Catholicism and seeks to combat "postconciliar antijuridicism".


Canonistics, faculties, and institutes

The academic degrees in canon law are the J.C.B. (''Iuris Canonici Baccalaureatus'', Bachelor of Canon Law, normally taken as a graduate degree), J.C.L. (''Iuris Canonici Licentiatus'', Licentiate of Canon Law) and the J.C.D. (''Iuris Canonici Doctor'', Doctor of Canon Law), and those with a J.C.L. or higher are usually called "canonists" or "canon lawyers". Because of its specialized nature, advanced degrees in civil law or theology are normal prerequisites for the study of canon law. Canon law as a field is called Canonistics.


Canon law and Church office

Under the
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehens ...
, all seminary students are required to take courses in canon law. Some ecclesiastical officials are required to have the doctorate (Doctor of Canon Law, JCD) or at least the licentiate (Licentiate of Canon Law, JCL) in canon law in order to fulfill their functions: judicial vicars; judges; promoters of justice;1983 CIC, can. 1435 defender of the bond, defenders of the bond; canonical advocates. In addition, vicars general and episcopal vicars are to be doctors, or at least licensed in canon law or theology. Ordinarily, bishops are to have an advanced degree (doctorate or at least licentiate) in scripture, theology, or canon law.1983 CIC, can. 378 §1 °5


Faculties and institutes of canon law


Related terms

*Apostolic Administrator *Apostolic vicariate *Benefice *Bishop (Catholic Church) *Canon Episcopi *Canonical Acts *Canonical admonitions *Catholic Church hierarchy *Confirmation of bishops *Consanguinity *Devil's advocate *Ecclesiastical court *Epiclesis *Oratory (worship), Oratory *Particular church *Prefecture *Prelate *Privilege (canon law) *Rector (ecclesiastical), Rector *Religious law *Roman Catholic (term) *Secular clergy *Sede vacante *Simony *Team of priests in solidum, Team of priests ''in solidum'' *Territorial abbot


References


Citations


Sources

''Arranged alphabetically by author:'' *Thomas Aquinas, Aquinas, Thomas. "St. Thomas Aquinas: ''Summa Theologiæ,'' Volume 28: Law and Political Theory (Ia2æ. 90-97); Latin text. English translation, Introduction, Notes, Appendices & Glossary [by] Thomas Gilby O.P.", Blackfriars (Cambridge: Eyre and Spottiswoode Limited, 1966). *Harold J. Berman, Berman, Harold J., ''Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition'' (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983). *Pope Benedict XVI, Benedict XVI, Pope. ''Address of His Holiness Benedict XVI for the Inauguration of the Judicial Year of the Tribunal of the Roman Rota'', Clementine Hall, 21 January 2012. https://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/speeches/2012/january/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20120121_rota-romana.html Accessed 29 March 2016. *Caparros, Ernest. ''Exegetical Commentary on the Code of Canon Law, Volume I: Prepared under the Responsibility of the Martín de Azpilcueta Institute, Faculty of Canon Law, University of Navarre'' (Chicago, Illinois: Midwest Theological Forum, 2004) Edited by Ángel Marzoa, Jorge Miras and Rafael Rodríguez-Ocaña (English language edition General editor: Ernest Caparros; Review coordinator: Patrick Lagges). *Della Rocca, Fernando, ''Manual of Canon Law'' (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1959) translated by Rev. Anselm Thatcher, O.S.B. *De Meester, A., D.J.C., ''Iuris Canonici et Iuris Canonico-Civilis Compendium: Nova Editio ad normam Codicis Iuris Canonici'' Tomus Primus (Brugis: Societatis Sancti Augustini, 1921). *Epstein, David G., Bruce A. Markell, & Lawrence Panoroff, ''Cases and Materials on Contracts: Making and Doing Deals: Third Edition'' (St. Paul, MN: West/Thomson Reuters, 2011). *Errázuriz M., Carlos José. ''Justice in the Church: A Fundamental Theory of Canon Law'' (Montreal: Wilson & Lefleur Ltée, 2009) trans. Jean Gray in collaboration with Michael Dunnigan. *Friedman, Lawrence M. ''American Law: An Introduction'' (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984). *Mary Ann Glendon, Glendon, Mary Anne, Michael Wallace Gordon, Christopher Osakwe, ''Comparative Legal Traditions: Text, Materials and Cases (American Casebook Series)'' (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1985). *Howe, William Wirt. ‘’Studies in the Civil Law, and its Relation to the Law of England and America.’’ (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1896). *Jordan, William Chester. ''The Penguin History of Europe: Europe in the High Middle Ages'' (London: Penguin Books, 2002). *McCormick, Anne O'Hare. ''Vatican Journal: 1921-1954'' (New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1957). *Mylne, Robert Scott. ''The Canon Law'' (Published by Forgotten Books 2013; originally published 1912). PIBN 1000197046. *Orsy, Ladislas. ''Towards a Theological Conception of Canon Law'' (essay published in Jordan Hite, T.O.R., & Daniel J. Ward, O.S.B., ''Readings, Cases, Materials in Canon Law: A Textbook for Ministerial Students, Revised Edition'' (Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1990). *Edward N. Peters, Peters, Dr. Edward N., translator, ''The 1917 or Pio-Benedictine Code of Canon Law: in English Translation with Extensive Scholarly Apparatus'' (Ignatius Press, 2001) *Edward N. Peters, Peters, Dr. Edward N., JD, Doctor of Canon Law, JCD, Ref. Sig. Ap.,
CanonLaw.info
' *Rommen, Heinrich A. ''The Natural Law: A Study in Legal and Social History and Philosophy'' (St Louis: B. Herder Book Co., 1947 [1959]) translated by Thomas R. Hanley, O.S.B. *Suzzallo, Henry, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., Editor in Chief, ''Collier's Encyclopedia, The National Encyclopedia: Volume 2'' (New York, P. F. Collier & Son Corporation, 1935). * *Vere, Pete, & Michael Trueman, ''Surprised by Canon Law: 150 Questions Catholics Ask About Canon Law'' (Cincinnati, Ohio: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2004). *Wigmore, John Henry, ''A Panorama of the World's Legal Systems'' Library Edition (Washington, D.C.: Washington Law Book Company, 1936). *Wormser, René A., ''The Story of the LAW and the Men Who Made It—From the Earliest Times to the Present: Revised and Updated Edition of'' The Law (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962). *''Black's Law Dictionary, 5th Edition'' (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1979).
''Catechism of the Catholic Church''
at Vatican.va
''1983 Code of Canon Law'' (1983 CIC)
at Vatican.va. Publication details: Latin-English Edition, New English Translation; Prepared under the auspices of the Canon Law Society of America, Washington, DC 20064.


External links


''Sacrea Disciplinae Leges''

Norms of current canon law

Canon Law Wiki

Canon Law Faculties and Institutes
Pontificia Università Gregoriana Facoltà di Diritto Canonico


Texts and translations of post-1917 canonical codifications

With referenced concordances
Codex Iuris Canonici (1983)

Code of Canon Law (1983)

Code of Canon Law (1983)

Codex canonum ecclesiarum orientalium (1990)

"Code of canons of Oriental Churchs" (1990)

Codex Iuris Canonici (1917)
Without concordances
Code de 1917





Historical canon law texts


The Medieval Canon Law Virtual Library''Pseudo-Isidore: An Edition-in-Progress of the False Decretals''
(Friedbourg edition)
''Corpus Iuris Canonici'' (1582)


Catholic canon law societies


Canadian Canon Law Society

Canon Law India

Canon Law Society of America

Canon Law Society of Australia and New Zealand

Canon Law Society of Great Britain & Ireland

Canon Law Society of the Philippines

Midwest Canon Law Society (the United States)

Sociedade Brasileira de Canonistas
{{DEFAULTSORT:Canon Law (Catholic Church) Canon law of the Catholic Church,