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Caning is a form of
corporal punishment A corporal punishment or a physical punishment is a punishment The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, ...
consisting of a number of hits (known as "strokes" or "cuts") with a single
cane Cane or caning may refer to: *Walking stick or walking cane, a device used primarily to aid walking *Assistive cane, a walking stick used as a mobility aid for better balance *White cane, a mobility or safety device used by many people who are bl ...
usually made of
rattan Rattan, also spelled ratan, is the name for roughly 600 of s belonging to subfamily . The greatest diversity of rattan palm species and genera are in the closed- s of , though they can also be found in other parts of tropical and . Most ...
, generally applied to the offender's bare or clothed
buttock The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the exterior anatomy of most mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European la ...
s (see
spanking Spanking is a common form of corporal punishment involving the act of striking, with either the palm of the hand or an implement, the buttocks of a person to cause them physical pain. Although the term spanking broadly encompasses the use of ei ...

spanking
) or
hand A hand is a prehensile, multi- fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the Elbow-joint, elbow and the wrist. The term forearm is used in anatomy to distinguish it from the arm, ...

hand
s (on the palm). Caning on the
knuckle The knuckles are the joint A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. Bones pr ...

knuckle
s or
shoulder The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle The clavicle, or collarbone, is a slender, S-shaped long bone approximately 6 inches (15 cm) long that serves as a strut between the scapula, shoulder blade and the sternum (bre ...

shoulder
s is much less common. Caning can also be applied to the soles of the feet (
foot whipping Foot whipping or bastinado is a method of corporal punishment Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or ...

foot whipping
or
bastinado Foot whipping or bastinado is a method of corporal punishment Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or ...

bastinado
). The size and flexibility of the cane and the mode of application, as well as the number of the strokes, vary greatly — from a couple of light strokes with a small cane across the seat of a junior schoolboy's trousers, to a maximum of 24, very hard, wounding cuts on the bare buttocks with a large, heavy, soaked rattan as a judicial punishment in some
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
n countries.
Flagellation Flagellation (Latin ''flagellum'', "whip"), flogging or whipping is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whip File:Cat o' nine.JPG, upright=1.35, A leather cat o' nine tails pictured with a U.S dollar bill for ...
was so common in England as punishment (see below) that caning (and
spanking Spanking is a common form of corporal punishment involving the act of striking, with either the palm of the hand or an implement, the buttocks of a person to cause them physical pain. Although the term spanking broadly encompasses the use of ei ...

spanking
and
whipping Flagellation (Latin ''flagellum'', "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, wikt:lash, lashes, Birching, rods, Switch (rod), switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjam ...
) are called "the English vice". Caning can also be done consensually as a part of
BDSM BDSM is a variety of often erotic Eroticism (from the Greek ἔρως, ''eros In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. Th ...

BDSM
. The thin cane generally used for corporal punishment is not to be confused with a
walking stick A walking stick or walking cane is a device used primarily to aid walking, provide postural stability or support, or assist in maintaining a good posture, but some designs also serve as a fashion accessory, or are used for self-defense. Walkin ...

walking stick
, which is sometimes also called a ''cane'' (especially in American English), but is thicker and much more rigid, and likely to be made of stronger wood.


Scope of use

Caning was a common form of judicial
punishment Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of soci ...

punishment
and official school discipline in many parts of the world in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Corporal punishment A corporal punishment or a physical punishment is a punishment The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, ...
(with a cane or any other implement) has now been outlawed in much, but not all, of Europe. However, caning remains legal in numerous other countries in home, school, religious, judicial or military contexts, and is also in common use in some countries where it is no longer legal.


Judicial corporal punishment

Judicial caning, administered with a long, heavy
rattan Rattan, also spelled ratan, is the name for roughly 600 of s belonging to subfamily . The greatest diversity of rattan palm species and genera are in the closed- s of , though they can also be found in other parts of tropical and . Most ...
and much more severe than the canings given in
school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes compuls ...

school
s, was/is a feature of some
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
colonial Colonial or The Colonial may refer to: * Colonial, of, relating to, or characteristic of a colony or colony (biology) Architecture * American colonial architecture * French Colonial * Spanish Colonial architecture Automobiles * Colonial (1920 auto ...

colonial
judicial systems, though the cane was never used judicially in Britain itself (the specified implements there, until abolition in 1948, being the
birch A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus ''Betula'' (), in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams. It is closely related to the beech-oak family Fagaceae. The genus ''Betula'' contains 30 to ...
and the
cat-o'-nine-tails The cat o' nine tails, commonly shortened to the cat, is a type of multi-tailed flail A flail is an agriculture, agricultural tool used for threshing, the process of separating cereal, grains from their husks. It is usually made from two or ...
). In some countries caning is still in use in the post-independence era, particularly in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
(where it is now being used far more than it was under British rule), and in some
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of i ...

Africa
n countries. The practice is retained, for male offenders only, under the criminal law in
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...
,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
and
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coa ...
. (In Malaysia there is also a separate system of religious courts for Muslims only, which can order a much milder form of caning for women as well as men.) Caning in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
is a recent introduction, in the special case of
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision ...
, on Sumatra, which since its 2005 autonomy has introduced a form of sharia law for Muslims, as well as non-Muslims since 2014 (male or female), applying the cane to the clothed upper back of the offender. African countries still using judicial caning include
Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn, Lefatshe la Botswana, label=Setswana; Kalanga language, Kalanga: ''Hango yeBotswana''), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 ...

Botswana
,
Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-larges ...

Tanzania
,
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
(mostly in northern states, but few cases have been reported in southern states) and, for juvenile offenders only,
Swaziland Eswatini ( ; ss, eSwatini ), officially the Kingdom of Eswatini and formerly officially entitled (and still often known) in English as Swaziland ( ; officially renamed in 2018), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country ...

Swaziland
and
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...

Zimbabwe
. Other countries that used it until the late 20th century, generally only for male offenders, included
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
,
Uganda Uganda (Ugandan Languages: Yuganda), officially the Republic of Uganda ( sw, Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic bas ...

Uganda
and
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most ...

South Africa
, while some
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
countries such as
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean C ...

Trinidad and Tobago
use
birching Birching is a form of corporal punishment with a birch rod, typically applied to the recipient's bare buttocks, although occasionally to the back and/or shoulders. Implement A birch rod (often shortened to "birch") is a bundle of leafless tw ...
, another punishment in the British tradition, involving the use of a bundle of branches, not a single cane. In Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei, healthy males under 50 years of age can be sentenced to a maximum of 24 strokes of the ''rotan'' (
rattan Rattan, also spelled ratan, is the name for roughly 600 of s belonging to subfamily . The greatest diversity of rattan palm species and genera are in the closed- s of , though they can also be found in other parts of tropical and . Most ...
) cane on the bare buttocks; the punishment is mandatory for many offences, mostly violent or drug crimes, but also immigration violations, sexual offences and (in Singapore) acts of
vandalism Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. The term includes property damage, such as graffiti and #Defacement, defacement directed towards any property without permission of the own ...

vandalism
. It is also imposed for certain breaches of
prison A prison, also known as a jail or gaol (dated, English language in England, standard English, Australian English, Australian, and Huron Historic Gaol, historically in Canada), penitentiary (American English and Canadian English), detention ...

prison
rules. In
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision ...
caning can be imposed for adultery. The punishment is applied to foreigners and locals alike. Two examples of the caning of foreigners which received worldwide media scrutiny are the canings in Singapore in 1994 of Michael P. Fay, an American student who had vandalised several automobiles, and in the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
in 1996 of Sarah Balabagan, a
Filipina Filipinos ( fil, Mga Pilipino; Baybayin: ᜋᜅ ᜉᜒᜎᜒᜉᜒᜈᜓ) are the people who are native to or citizens of the country of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of t ...
maid convicted of
homicide Homicide is an act of a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structu ...

homicide
. Caning is also used in the
Singapore Armed Forces The Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) is the military component of the Ministry of Defence (Singapore), Ministry of Defence of the Singapore, Republic of Singapore as part of the city-state's Total Defence strategy. The SAF has three services: the S ...
to punish serious offences against military discipline, especially in the case of recalcitrant young conscripts. Unlike judicial caning, this punishment is delivered to the soldier's clothed buttocks. See Military Caning in Singapore. A more moderate variation, where the caning is aimed at the soles of a culprit's bare feet is used as prison punishment in several countries of the world.


School corporal punishment

The frequency and severity of caning in educational settings have varied greatly, often being determined by the written rules or unwritten traditions of the school. The western educational use of caning dates principally to the late nineteenth century. It gradually replaced
birching Birching is a form of corporal punishment with a birch rod, typically applied to the recipient's bare buttocks, although occasionally to the back and/or shoulders. Implement A birch rod (often shortened to "birch") is a bundle of leafless tw ...
-effective only if applied to the bare bottom, with a form of punishment more suited to contemporary sensibilities, once it had been discovered that a flexible rattan cane can provide the offender with a substantial degree of pain even when delivered through a layer of clothing. Caning as a school punishment is strongly associated in the English-speaking world with England, but it was also used in other European countries in earlier times, notably Scandinavia, Germany and the countries of the former Austrian empire. Member states of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is an international international human rights instruments, human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health an ...

Convention on the Rights of the Child
are obliged to "take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse."


Caning in modern-day schools

Caning as a school punishment is still routine in a number of former British territories including Singapore,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...
and Zimbabwe. It is also common in some countries where it is technically illegal, including Thailand, Vietnam, South Korea. Until relatively recently it had also been common in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
(now banned in public schools, and abolished in practice by the vast majority of all independent schools),
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
(banned from 1990), and
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most ...

South Africa
(banned in public and private schools alike from 1996). In the UK, all corporal punishment in private schools was banned in 1999 for England and Wales, 2000 in Scotland, and 2003 in Northern Ireland.


Malaysia

In
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, the Education Ordinance 1957 specifically outlaws the caning of girls in school. However, the caning of girls is rather common. This caning is usually carried out on the palm or clothed bottom. Sometimes, the cane can hit the student's thighs or arms, causing injury, usually in the form of bruises, bleeding, or obvious welts. Students (both male and female) can even be caned publicly for minor mistakes like lateness, poor grades, being unable to answer questions correctly or forgetting to bring a textbook. In November 2007, in response to a perceived increase in indiscipline among female students, the National Seminar on Education Regulations (Student Discipline) passed a resolution recommending allowing the caning of female students at school. The resolution is currently in its consultation process.


Caning in UK Schools (in the past)

In many state and private schools in England, Scotland and Wales, the rattan cane was regularly used across the hands, legs, or
buttocks The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the exterior anatomy of most , located on the posterior of the pelvic region. In humans, the buttocks are located between the lower back and the . They are composed of a layer of e ...

buttocks
of both boys and girls. This was prior to abolition in 1987. In some schools,
corporal punishment A corporal punishment or a physical punishment is a punishment The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, ...
was administered solely by the
headmaster A head teacher, head instructor, headmaster, headmistress, head, chancellor, principal or school director (sometimes another title is used) is the teacher, staff member of a school with the greatest responsibility for the management of the school. ...

headmaster
, while in others the task was delegated to other teachers. The cane was generally administered in a formal ceremony in public/private to the , typically with the student either bending over a desk/chair or touching their toes. Usually there was a maximum of six strokes (known as "six of the best"). Such a caning would typically leave the offender with uncomfortable weals and bruises lasting for many days after the immediate intense pain had worn off. Elsewhere, other implements prevailed, such as the
tawse The tawse, sometimes formerly spelled taws (the plural of Scots language, Scots taw, a thong of a whip) is an implement used for corporal punishment. It was used for School corporal punishment, educational discipline, primarily in Scotland, but ...

tawse
in Scotland and Northern England, ruler, and the
slipper Slippers are light footwear that are easy to put on and off and are intended to be worn indoors, particularly at home. They provide comfort and protection for the feet when walking indoors. History The recorded history of slippers can be traced b ...
. Girls were caned too, but generally less frequently than boys. According to a 1976-1977 survey done by the Inner London Inspection Authority's Inspectors, almost 1 in 5 girls were caned at least once in the authority's schools alone. Caning in all-girls schools were rarer but not unseen. Caning in British
state schools State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic lan ...
in the later 20th century was often, in theory at least, administered by the head teacher only. Canings for
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is an ...

primary school
age pupils at state schools in this period could be extremely rare; one study found that over an eight-year timespan, one head teacher had only caned two boys in total, but made more frequent use of
slippering A slippering is a term for the act of smacking the buttocks, or the hands, with a slipper as a form of corporal punishment. A slippering on the buttocks is a form of spanking; it is a much more common method than slippering on the hands. The verb ...
, while another had caned no pupils at all.


Prefectorial caning

In many English and Commonwealth private schools, authority to punish was traditionally also given to certain senior students (often called
prefect Prefect (from the Latin ''praefectus'', substantive adjectival form of ''praeficere'': "put in front", meaning in charge) is a Magistrate, magisterial title of varying definition, but essentially refers to the leader of an administrative area. ...

prefect
s). In the early 20th century, permission for prefects to cane younger students (mainly secondary-age boys) was also widespread in British public schools. Some private preparatory schools relied heavily on "self-government" by prefects for even their youngest pupils (around eight years old), with caning the standard punishment for even minor offences. The perceived advantages of this were to avoid bothering the teaching staff with minor disciplinary matters, promptness of punishment, and more effective chastisement, as the impact would be better known in the culprit's immediate peer group. Canings from prefects took place for a wide variety of failings, including lack of enthusiasm in sport, or to enforce youngsters' participation in character-building aspects of public school life, such as compulsory cold baths in winter. Some British private schools still permitted caning to be administered by prefects in the 1960s, with opportunities for it provided by complex sets of rules on school uniform and behaviour. In 1969, when the question was raised in Parliament, it was thought that relatively few schools still permitted this. As early as the 1920s, the tradition of prefects at British public schools repeatedly caning new boys for trivial offences was criticised by psychologists as producing "a high state of nervous excitement" in some of the youngsters subjected to it. It was felt that granting untrained and unsupervised older adolescents the power to impose comprehensive thrashings on their younger schoolmates whenever they chose might have adverse psychological effects. Like their British counterparts, South African private schools also gave prefects free rein to administer canings whenever they felt it appropriate, from at least the late 19th century onwards. South African schools continued to use the cane to emphasise sporting priorities well into the late 20th century, caning boys for commonplace gameplay errors such as being caught
offside Offside, off-side or off side may refer to: Sport * Offside (sport), a rule in a number of field team sports designed to help ensure players move together as a team ** Offside (association football) ** Offside (American football) ** Offside (band ...
in an
association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport played with a sphere, spherical Ball (association football), ball between two teams of 11 football player, players. It is played by approximately 250&nbs ...
match, as well as for poor batting performance in
cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action starts when the defending team throws a ball at a ded ...

cricket
, not applauding their school team's performance sufficiently, missing sport practice sessions, or even "to build up team spirit". The use of corporal punishment within the school setting was prohibited by the South African Schools Act of 1996. According to Chapter 2 Section 10 of the act, ''(1) No person may administer corporal punishment at a school to a learner'' and ''(2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a sentence, which could be imposed for assault.''


Reformatory caning

Many approved schools were known for strict discipline, with
corporal punishment A corporal punishment or a physical punishment is a punishment The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, ...
used where deemed necessary, generally a rather more severe version of the
caning Caning is a form of corporal punishment Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted ...

caning
or
strapping Strapping, also known as bundling and banding, is the process of applying a strap to an item to combine, stabilize, hold, reinforce, or fasten it. The strap may also be referred to as ''strapping''. Strapping is most commonly used in the packagin ...
that was common in ordinary secondary schools. Before the 1933 rules, there was a case where several teenage girls aged 13 and above were severely tawsed up to 12 strokes on the seat, with their skirts lifted up. From 1933 to 1970, the cane was frequently used on boy inmates and less routinely for girls inmates, at the British youth reformatories known as approved schools. Per the Approved School Rules 1933, girls under 15 should be caned only on the hands; girls of 15 and over were not to be given caning at all. Boys under 15 could be caned on the hands or the bottom; boys of 15 and over were to be caned only on the clothed buttocks. From 1970, approved schools became "Community Homes with Education" under the Children and Young Persons Act 1969. Girls were as a result sometimes to be caned on the buttocks instead of the hands. In some cases boys or girls of all ages were caned, in spite of a government recommendation that over-16s should no longer be caned. The normal maximum number of strokes was eight for boys and girls of 15 and over, and six for children below that age. Particularly, boys and girls who absconded were given a maximum caning of 8 strokes on the clothed bottom immediately on return to the school, and a 1971 statistical study found that this could be an effective deterrent. Caning is still used on inmates of both genders in the equivalent institutions in some countries, such as
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
and
Guyana Guyana ( or ), officially the Cooperative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern mainland of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be ...

Guyana
.


Caning in children's institutes

Corporal punishment at children's homes was less severe. The ''Administration of Children's Homes Regulations 1951'' (S.O. No 1217) provided that children under 10 should be punished only on their hands either by the headmaster or in his presence and direction. Only girls under 10 and boys under the school leaving age (15 at that time) can be corporally punished. Children under 10 should be punished only on their hands. A boy over 10 but under 15 could be caned up to a maximum of six strokes on the clothed posterior.


Domestic corporal punishment

Parents can cane a child as a punishment for reasons like disobedience or poor results. This is a common practice in some Asian countries such as Singapore, China, Malaysia on both boys and girls. See Domestic Caning in Singapore, Domestic Caning in Malaysia.


Effects

Caning with a heavy judicial rattan as used in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei can leave scars for years if a large number of strokes are inflicted. Most ordinary canings with a typical light rattan (used at home or at school for punishing students), although painful at the time, leave only reddish welts or bruises lasting a few days.
Charles Chenevix TrenchCharles Pocklington Chenevix Trench (29 June 1914 - 26 November 2003) was a British Indian army officer, popular historian and writer. Life He was born in Simla, India as the only son of Sir Richard Chenevix Trench, a member of the Indian Political ...
was caned as a boy at
Winchester College Winchester College is a public school (a fee-charging independent school File:Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level, OWID.svg, Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level (2015) ...

Winchester College
in the early 1930s and later said that "it was, of course, disagreeable, but left no permanent scars on my personality or my person". When caning was still widespread in schools in the United Kingdom, it was perceived that a caning on the hand carried a greater risk of injury than a caning on the buttocks; in 1935 an
Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a Counties of England, county in South West England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is bounded by Cornwall ...
schoolboy won £1 in damages (), plus his medical expenses, from a schoolmaster, when the
county court A county court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of justice in Civil ...

county court
decided that an
abscess An abscess is a collection of pus Pus is an exudate An exudate is a fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound, a process known as exuding or exudation. ''Exudate'' is derived from ''exude'', "to ooze", from the Latin Lati ...

abscess
that developed on his hand was the result of a caning. A headmaster's caning of a 13-year-old schoolboy at an English grammar school in 1987—five strokes for poor exam results—left "severe bruising", and, according to the family doctor, five separate weals. The headmaster who gave the punishment was cleared of the offence of
assault occasioning actual bodily harmAssault occasioning actual bodily harm (often abbreviated to Assault O.A.B.H. or simply ABH) is a statutory offence of aggravated assault An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some sp ...
, with the judge commenting "If you get a beating you must expect it to be with force."


See also

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Birching Birching is a form of corporal punishment with a birch rod, typically applied to the recipient's bare buttocks, although occasionally to the back and/or shoulders. Implement A birch rod (often shortened to "birch") is a bundle of leafless tw ...
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Caning in Brunei Caning is used as a form of judicial corporal punishment in Brunei. This practice is heavily influenced by Brunei's history as a British protectorate from 1888 to 1984. Similar forms of corporal punishment are also used in two of Brunei's neighb ...
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Caning in Malaysia Caning is a form of corporal punishment A corporal punishment or a physical punishment is a punishment The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, ...
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Caning in Singapore Caning Caning is a form of corporal punishment Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individu ...
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Easter whip In the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and some parts of Hungary, the Easter Whip is used as part of a tradition of spanking or whipping on Easter Monday. In the morning, men gently spank women with a special handmade whip or Switch (corporal punishmen ...
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Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
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Flagellation Flagellation (Latin ''flagellum'', "whip"), flogging or whipping is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whip File:Cat o' nine.JPG, upright=1.35, A leather cat o' nine tails pictured with a U.S dollar bill for ...
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Foot whipping Foot whipping or bastinado is a method of corporal punishment Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or ...

Foot whipping
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Judicial corporal punishment Judicial corporal punishment (JCP) is the infliction of corporal punishment Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome ...
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Paddle (spanking) A spanking paddle is an implement used to strike a person on the buttocks. The act of spanking a person with a paddle is known as "paddling". A paddling may be for punishment (normally of a student at school in the United States), or as an initia ...
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School corporal punishment School corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of physical pain or discomfort and psychological humiliation as a response to undesired behavior by a student or group of students. The term corporal punishment derives from the Latin La ...
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Spanking Spanking is a common form of corporal punishment involving the act of striking, with either the palm of the hand or an implement, the buttocks of a person to cause them physical pain. Although the term spanking broadly encompasses the use of ei ...

Spanking
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Strapping (punishment) Strapping refers to the use of a strap as an implement of corporal punishment. It is typically a broad and heavy strip of leather, often with a hard handle, the more flexible 'blade' being applied to the offender. Probably because of the stiffn ...


Notes


References

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External links


Video clips of judicial caning in Malaysia
(warning – very graphic)

at World Corporal Punishment Research {{Use dmy dates, date=October 2020 BDSM Corporal punishments School punishments Whipping Pain