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In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...

linguistics
, a calque () or loan translation is a
word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many languages, words also co ...

word
or
phrase In syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word order. The ter ...

phrase
borrowed from another language by
literal Literal may refer to: * Interpretation of legal concepts: ** Strict constructionism ** The plain meaning rule (a.k.a. "literal rule") * Literal (mathematical logic), certain logical roles taken by propositions * Literal (computer programming ...
word-for-word or root-for-root translation. When used as a
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components, so as to create a new
lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeolog ...
in the target language. The term ''calque'' itself is a
loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lin ...
from the French
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
("tracing, imitation, close copy"). Calquing is distinct from
phono-semantic matching Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism, where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with Phonetics, phonetically and semantically similar words or r ...
: while calquing includes
semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another o ...
translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...

translation
, it does not consist of
phonetic Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) an ...
matching—i.e., retaining the approximate
sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the ''reception'' of such waves and their ''perception'' by the b ...

sound
of the borrowed word by matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existing word or
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, but a word on this definition alw ...
in the target language. Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword because, in some cases, a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently. This is less likely to be the case when the grammar of the proposed calque is quite different from that of the borrowing language, or when the calque contains less obvious imagery.


Types

One system classifies calques into five groups. However, this terminology is not universal: * ''Phraseological calques'':
idiomatic phrase An idiom is a phrase or expression that typically presents a figurative language, figurative, non-literal meaning (linguistic), meaning attached to the phrase; but some phrases become figurative idioms while retaining the literal meaning of the ph ...
s are translated word for word. For example, " it goes without saying" calques the French . * ''Syntactic calques'':
syntactic function In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
s or constructions of the source language are imitated in the target language, in violation of their meaning. * ''Loan-translations'': words are translated
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, but a word on this definition alw ...
by morpheme, or component by component, into another language. * ''Semantic calques'' (also known as ''
semantic loan Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference, Meaning (philosophy), meaning, or truth. The term can be used to refer to subfields of several distinct disciplines, including philosophy, l ...
s''): additional meanings of the source word are transferred to the word with the same primary meaning in the target language. As described below, the "
computer mouse A computer mouse (plural mice, sometimes mouses) is a hand-held pointing device A pointing device is an input interface (specifically a human interface device) that allows a User (computing)#End-user, user to input Three-dimensional sp ...

computer mouse
" was named in English for its resemblance to the animal; many other languages have extended their own native word for "mouse" to include the computer mouse. * ''Morphological calques'': the
inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical ob ...
of a word is transferred. Some authors call a this a ''morpheme-by-morpheme translation''.Gilliot, Claude. "The Authorship of the Qur'ān." In ''The Qur'an in its Historical Context'', edited by G. S. Reynolds. p. 97. Also, some linguists refer to a ''phonological calque'', in which the pronunciation of a word is imitated in the other language.Yihua, Zhang, and Guo Qiping. 2010. "An Ideal Specialised Lexicography for Learners in China based on English-Chinese Specialised Dictionaries." Pp. 171–92 in
Specialised Dictionaries for Learners
', edited by P. A. F. Olivera. Berlin: de Gruyter
p. 187
For example, the English word "radar" becomes the similar-sounding Chinese word ()., which literally means "to arrive (as fast) as thunder".


Loan blend

''Loan blends'', or ''partial calques'', translate some parts of a compound but not others. For example, the name of the Irish digital television service "
Saorview Saorview ( ) is the national digital terrestrial television (DTT) service in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is owned by Raidió Teilifís Éireann, RTÉ and operated by 2RN (RTÉ Networks), 2RN. The service began operation on 29 October 2010 ...
" is a partial calque of that of the UK service " Freeview", translating the first half of the word from English to Irish but leaving the second half unchanged. Other examples include "
liverwurst Liverwurst, leberwurst, or liver sausage is a kind of sausage made from liver (food), liver. It is eaten in many parts of Europe, including Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, the Netherland ...
" (< German ) and "
apple strudel Apple strudel (german: Apfelstrudel; cz, štrúdl) is a traditional Viennese strudel A strudel (, ) is a type of layered pastry with a filling that is usually sweet. It became popular in the 18th century throughout the Habsburg Empire. Str ...

apple strudel
" (< German ).


Examples


Loan translations

The common English phrase "
flea market A flea market (or swap meet) is a type of street market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entert ...

flea market
" is a loan translation of the French ("market with fleas")."flea market", ''The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language'', fourth edition, 2000
Many other languages also calque the French expression (directly, or indirectly through some other language). The
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inform ...

Spanish language
phrase is ''mercado de pulgas'' while the
Dutch language Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language spoken by about 25 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting most of the population of the Netherlands (where it is the only officia ...
version is ''Vlooienmarkt'', and the German one ''Flohmarkt''. Another example of a common morpheme-by-morpheme loan-translation, is of the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
word "skyscraper", which may be calqued using the word for "sky" or "cloud" and the word, variously, for "scraping", "scratching", "piercing", "sweeping", "kissing", etc. For example, the
French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inf ...

French language
word is ''gratte-ciel'' and the
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inform ...

Spanish language
word is ''rascacielos''.


and

The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word ("a transferring") derives from ("to transfer"), from ("across") + (the verb "bear"). All
Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian su ...

Germanic languages
(except for
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
and
Icelandic Icelandic refers to anything of, from, or related to Iceland and may refer to: *Icelandic people *Icelandic language *Icelandic alphabet *Icelandic cuisine See also

* Icelander (disambiguation) * Icelandic Airlines, a predecessor of Icelandai ...
and
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
), and some
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
, calqued their words for "
translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...

translation
" from the Latin , substituting their respective Germanic or Slavic root words for the Latin roots. The remaining Slavic languages instead calqued their words for "translation" from an alternative Latin word, , itself derived from ("to lead across" or "to bring across")—from ("across") + , ("to lead" or "to bring"). The
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
and
East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family nativ ...
(except for
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
) adopted the pattern, whereas Russian and the
South Slavic languages The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are spoken primarily by the or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a called , spo ...
adopted the pattern. The
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo- ...
s, deriving directly from Latin, did not need to ''calque'' their equivalent words for "translation". Instead, they simply adapted the second of the two alternative Latin words, . The English verb "to translate" was borrowed from the Latin , rather than being calqued.
Christopher Kasparek Christopher Kasparek (born 1945) is a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish Englis ...
, "The Translator's Endless Toil", ''
The Polish Review ''The Polish Review'' is an English-language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading languag ...
'', vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, p. 83.
The Icelandic word ''þýða'' ("translate"; cognate with the German , "to interpret") was not calqued from Latin, nor was it borrowed.


Semantic calque

The "
computer mouse A computer mouse (plural mice, sometimes mouses) is a hand-held pointing device A pointing device is an input interface (specifically a human interface device) that allows a User (computing)#End-user, user to input Three-dimensional sp ...

computer mouse
" was named in English for its resemblance to the animal. Many other languages use the word for "mouse" for the "computer mouse", sometimes using a
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
or, in
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
, adding " cursor", making "鼠标", meaning "mouse cursor".


See also

*
Anglicism An anglicism is a word or construction borrowed from English by another language. With the rise in Anglophone media and global spread of British and US cultures in the 20th and 21st centuries, many English terms have entered popular usage in o ...
*
Chinese Pidgin English Chinese Pidgin English (also called Chinese Coastal English or Pigeon English; ) is a pidgin A pidgin , or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a lan ...
*
Cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
*
Gallicism A Gallicism can be: * a mode of speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound diffe ...
* Germanism *
Loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning ...
* Metatypy *
Semantic loan Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference, Meaning (philosophy), meaning, or truth. The term can be used to refer to subfields of several distinct disciplines, including philosophy, l ...
*
Translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...
*
Wasei-eigo are Japanese-language expressions based on English words, or parts of word combinations, that do not exist in standard English or whose meanings differ from the words from which they were derived. Linguistics Linguistics is the scientific ...


References

Notes Bibliography * Kasparek, Christopher. 1983. "The Translator's Endless Toil." ''
The Polish Review ''The Polish Review'' is an English-language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading languag ...
'' 28(2):83–87.
Robb: German English Words germanenglishwords.com
* Zuckermann, Ghil'ad. 2003
''Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew''
Palgrave Macmillan. * —— 2009
"Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns."
''Journal of Language Contact'' (2):40–67.


External links


EtymOnline

Merriam Webster Online
{{Authority control Etymology sv:Lånord#Översättninglån