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Calligraphy (from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: καλλιγραφία) is a
visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to ...

visual art
related to
writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the debatable exception of computer languages); they are means of rendering ...

writing
. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad-tipped instrument,
brush A brush is a common tool with bristles, wire or other filaments. It generally consists of a handle or block to which filaments are affixed in either a parallel or perpendicular orientation, depending on the way the brush is to be gripped durin ...

brush
, or other writing instrument. A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious, and skillful manner". Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable. Classical calligraphy differs from
typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the art and technique of typesetting, arranging type to make written language legi ...

typography
and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. CD-ROM Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of
wedding invitations A wedding invitation is a letter asking the recipient to attend a wedding A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally recognised union ...
and event invitations,
font design Type design is the art and process of designing typeface A typeface is the design of lettering that can include variations, such as extra bold, bold, regular, light, italic, condensed, extended, etc. Each of these variations of the typeface i ...
and typography, original hand-lettered
logo A logo (abbreviation of logotype; ) is a graphic Graphics (from Greek ''graphikos'', "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain ...

logo
design,
religious art Religious art is artistic imagery using religious inspiration and motifs and is often intended to uplift the mind to the spiritual. Sacred art involves the ritual and cultic practices and practical and operative aspects of the path of the spiritua ...
, announcements,
graphic design Graphic design is the profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognis ...
and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone
inscription Epigraphy () is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the ...

inscription
s, and memorial
document A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups t ...

document
s. It is also used for props and moving images for film and television, and also for
testimonial In promotion Promotion may refer to: Marketing * Promotion (marketing), one of the four marketing mix elements, comprising any type of marketing communication used to inform or persuade target audiences of the relative merits of a product, se ...

testimonial
s,
birth Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring, also referred to in technical contexts as parturition. In mammals, the process is initiated by hormones which cause the muscular walls of the uterus to contract, expelling the fe ...

birth
and
death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organi ...
certificates,
map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. A ...

map
s, and other written works.


Tools

The principal tools for a calligrapher are the
pen A pen is a common writing instrument A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing sy ...

pen
and the
brush A brush is a common tool with bristles, wire or other filaments. It generally consists of a handle or block to which filaments are affixed in either a parallel or perpendicular orientation, depending on the way the brush is to be gripped durin ...

brush
. Calligraphy pens write with nibs that may be flat, round, or pointed. For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have also been created with felt-tip and
ballpoint pen A ballpoint pen, also known as a biro or ball pen, is a pen A pen is a common writing instrument A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves ...
s, although these works do not employ angled lines. There are some styles of calligraphy, such as Gothic script, that require a stub nib pen. Writing ink is usually water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing. Certain specialty paper with high ink absorption and constant texture enables cleaner lines, although
parchment Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared Tanning (leather), untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats. It has been used as a writing medium for over two millennia. Vellum is a finer quality parchment made ...

parchment
or
vellum 267px, A vellum seal Seal may refer to any of the following: Common uses * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, List of semiaqua ...

vellum
is often used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and a
light-box A lightbox is a translucent surface illuminated from behind, used for situations where a shape laid upon the surface needs to be seen with high contrast. Types Lightbox used as a Memorial Plaque Several varieties exist, depending on their pur ...
is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. Normally, light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most often ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are occasionally used. This is the case with ''litterea unciales'' (hence the name), and college-
ruled paper ''Ruled'' is the fifth full-length LP album, LP by The Giraffes (Brooklyn band), The Giraffes. Drums, bass and principal guitar tracks recorded at The Bunker in Brooklyn, NY. Vocals and additional guitars recorded at Strangeweather in Brooklyn, ...
often acts as a guideline well. Common calligraphy pens and brushes are: *
Quill A quill is a writing tool A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing. Writing consists of different figures, lines, and or forms. Most of these items can be also used for other functions such as painting, dra ...

Quill
*
Dip pen A dip pen or nib pen or pen nib usually consists of a metal nib (pen), nib with capillary action, capillary channels like those of fountain pen nibs, mounted in a handle or holder, often made of wood. Other materials can be used for the holder, inc ...

Dip pen
*
Ink brush Ink brushes () are paintbrushes used in Chinese calligraphy as well as in Japanese calligraphy, Japanese, Korean calligraphy, Korean and Vietnamese calligraphy, Vietnamese which both have roots in Chinese calligraphy. They are also used in Chin ...
*
Qalam A qalam ( ar, قلم) is a type of pen made from a cut, dried Phragmites, reed, used for Islamic calligraphy. The pen is seen as an important symbol of wisdom in Islam, and references the emphasis on knowledge and education within the Islamic tr ...
*
Fountain pen File:Different fountain pens.jpg, Various contemporary and vintage fountain pens (left to right) Pilot Justus 95, Pelikan Souverän M1000, Montblanc Meisterstück 149, Pilot Heritage 912, Parker Duofold Centennial, Sheaffer Snorkel Admiral, Lamy D ...

Fountain pen


World traditions


East Asia and Vietnam

Chinese calligraphy Chinese calligraphy is the writing of Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''Hanzi'' (), are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write other East-Asian languages, and remain a key ...
is locally called ' or ' ( or in Traditional Chinese, literally "the method or law of writing");
Japanese calligraphy also called is a form of calligraphy, or artistic writing, of the Japanese language. For a long time, the most esteemed calligrapher in Japan had been Wang Xizhi, a Chinese calligrapher from the 4th century, but after the invention of Hiragana ...

Japanese calligraphy
is ' (, literally "the way or principle of writing");
Korean calligraphy Korean calligraphy, also known as Seoye (), is the Culture of Korea, Korean tradition of calligraphy, artistic writing. Calligraphy in Korean culture involves both Hanja (Chinese logograph) and Hangul (Korean native alphabet). Early Korean calli ...
is called ' ( ko, 서예/, literally "the art of writing"); and
Vietnamese calligraphy Calligraphic fonts from Vietnam Vietnamese calligraphy (Vietnamese chữ Quốc ngữ: , Hán Nôm: ) relates to the calligraphic traditions of Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital ...

Vietnamese calligraphy
is called ''thu phap'' (
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...
: Thư pháp/書法, literally "the way of letters or words"). The calligraphy of East Asian characters is an important and appreciated aspect of traditional East Asian culture.


History

In
ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient his ...
, the oldest Chinese characters existing are
Oracle bone script Oracle bone script () was an ancestor of modern Chinese characters engraved on oracle bonesanimal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromancy, pyromantic divinationin the late 2nd millennium BC, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writin ...
(甲骨文) carved on ox
scapula In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas), also known as the shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone, speal bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). Like their connec ...

scapula
e and tortoise , because the dominators in
Shang Dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang Dynasty
carved pits on such animals' bones and then baked them to gain auspice of military affairs, agricultural harvest, or even procreating and weather. During the divination ceremony, after the cracks were made, the characters were written with a brush on the shell or bone to be later carved. (Keightley, 1978). With the development of '' Jīnwén'' (Bronzeware script) and '' Dàzhuàn'' (Large Seal Script) "cursive" signs continued. Mao Gong Ding is one of the most famous and typical Bronzeware scripts in the Chinese calligraphy history. It has 500 characters on the bronze which is the largest number of bronze inscription we have discovered so far. Moreover, each archaic kingdom of current China had its own set of characters. In
Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...
, the graphs on old steles—some dating from 200 BC, and in Xiaozhuan style—are still accessible. About 220 BC, the emperor
Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang (, ; 259–210 BCE), or Shihuangdi, was the founder of the Qin dynasty, and first Emperor of China, emperor of a unified China. Rather than maintain the title of "Chinese king, king" ( ''wáng'') borne by the previous Shang dyna ...
, the first to conquer the entire Chinese basin, imposed several reforms, among them
Li Si Li Si (; 280 BCSeptember or October 208 BC) was a Chinese calligrapher, philosopher, and politician of the Qin dynasty. He served as Chancellor (China), Chancellor (or Prime Minister) from 246 to 208 BC under two rulers: Qin Shi Huang, the ki ...

Li Si
's character unification, which created a set of 3300 standardized ' characters. Despite the fact that the main writing implement of the time was already the brush, few papers survive from this period, and the main examples of this style are on steles. The Lìshū style (/)(clerical script) which is more regularized, and in some ways similar to modern text, have been also authorised under Qin Shi Huangdi. Between clerical script and traditional regular script, there is another transition type of calligraphy works called Wei Bei. It had started at the South and North dynasty and ended before Tang Dynasty. Kǎishū style (traditional regular script)—still in use today—and attributed to
Wang Xizhi Wang Xizhi (; ; 303361) was a Chinese calligrapher, writer and politician who lived during the Jin Dynasty (265–420) Jin is a toneless pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Sta ...

Wang Xizhi
(, 303–361) and his followers, is even more regularized. Its spread was encouraged by Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang (926–933), who ordered the printing of the classics using new wooden blocks in Kaishu. Printing technologies here allowed a shape stabilization. The Kaishu shape of characters 1000 years ago was mostly similar to that at the end of Imperial China. But small changes have been made, for example in the shape of which is not absolutely the same in the
Kangxi Dictionary The ''Kangxi Dictionary'' () is the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Kangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial ...
of 1716 as in modern books. The Kangxi and current shapes have tiny differences, while stroke order is still the same, according to old style. Styles which did not survive include Bāfēnshū, a mix made of Xiaozhuan style at 80%, and Lishu at 20%. Some
variant Chinese character Variant Chinese characters (; Kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japan ...
s were unorthodox or locally used for centuries. They were generally understood but always rejected in official texts. Some of these unorthodox variants, in addition to some newly created characters, compose the
Simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by ...
character set.


Technique

Traditional East Asian writing uses the Four Treasures of the Study (/):
ink brush Ink brushes () are paintbrushes used in Chinese calligraphy as well as in Japanese calligraphy, Japanese, Korean calligraphy, Korean and Vietnamese calligraphy, Vietnamese which both have roots in Chinese calligraphy. They are also used in Chin ...
es known as máobǐ (/) to write
Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it ...

Chinese character
s, Chinese ink, paper, and inkstones. These instruments of writing are also known as the ''Four Friends of the Study'' ( ko, 문방사우/文房四友, Munbang sau) in Korea. Besides the traditional four tools, desk pads and paperweights are also used. Many different parameters influence the final result of a calligrapher's work. Physical parameters include the shape, size, stretch, and hair type of the ink brush; the color, color density and water density of the ink; as well as the paper's water absorption speed and surface texture. The calligrapher's technique also influences the result, as the look of finished characters are influenced by the quantity of ink and water the calligraper lets the brush take and by the pressure, inclination, and direction of the brush. Changing these variables produces thinner or bolder strokes, and smooth or toothed borders. Eventually, the speed, accelerations and decelerations of a skilled calligrapher's movements aim to give "spirit" to the characters, greatly influencing their final shapes. Styles Cursive styles such as '' '' (/)(semi-cursive or running script) and '' '' (/)(cursive, rough script, or grass script) are less constrained and faster, where more movements made by the writing implement are visible. These styles' stroke orders vary more, sometimes creating radically different forms. They are descended from Clerical script, in the same time as Regular script (
Han Dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han Dynasty
), but ' and ' were used for personal notes only, and never used as a standard. The ' style was highly appreciated in
Emperor Wu of Han Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), formally posthumous name, enshrined as Emperor Wu the filial piety, Filial (), born Liu Che (劉徹) and courtesy name Tong (通), was the seventh emperor of China, emperor of the Han dynasty of imp ...

Emperor Wu of Han
reign (140–187 AD). Examples of modern printed styles are
Song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...
from the
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
's
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water ...

printing press
, and
sans-serif In and , a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "s" at the end of strokes. Sans-serif typefaces tend to have less stroke width variation than typefaces. They are often u ...
. These are not considered traditional styles, and are normally not written.


Influences

Both Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese calligraphy were greatly influenced by Chinese calligraphy. The Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese people have also developed their own specific sensibilities and styles of calligraphy while incorporating Chinese influences. For example,
Japanese calligraphy also called is a form of calligraphy, or artistic writing, of the Japanese language. For a long time, the most esteemed calligrapher in Japan had been Wang Xizhi, a Chinese calligrapher from the 4th century, but after the invention of Hiragana ...

Japanese calligraphy
go out of the set of
CJK strokes CJK strokes are the calligraphic strokes needed to write the Chinese characters in regular script used in East Asian calligraphy. CJK strokes are the classified set of line patterns that may be arranged and combined to form Chinese characters ...
to also include local alphabets such as
hiragana is a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

hiragana
and
katakana is a Japanese , one component of the along with , and in some cases the (known as ). The word ''katakana'' means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived from components or fragments of more complex kanji. Katakana and hi ...
, with specific problematics such as new curves and moves, and specific materials (
Japanese paper cranes made of ''washi''.">Crane_(bird).html" ;"title="Origami Crane (bird)">cranes made of ''washi''. is traditional Japanese paper. The term is used to describe paper that uses local fiber, processed by hand and made in the traditional ma ...
, ' , and Japanese ink). In the case of
Korean calligraphy Korean calligraphy, also known as Seoye (), is the Culture of Korea, Korean tradition of calligraphy, artistic writing. Calligraphy in Korean culture involves both Hanja (Chinese logograph) and Hangul (Korean native alphabet). Early Korean calli ...
, the
Hangeul The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (Hangeul), .Hangul may also be written as following South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean, standard Romanization. in South Korea and Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea, is a writing system for the Kore ...

Hangeul
and the existence of the circle required the creation of a new technique which usually confuses Chinese calligraphers.
Vietnamese calligraphy Calligraphic fonts from Vietnam Vietnamese calligraphy (Vietnamese chữ Quốc ngữ: , Hán Nôm: ) relates to the calligraphic traditions of Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital ...

Vietnamese calligraphy
is quite special, since Vietnam has abolished the
Chữ Nôm Chữ Nôm (, , literally 'Southern characters') is a logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it mu ...
, an old Vietnamese writing system based on Chinese characters and replaced it with the Latin alphabet. However, the calligraphic traditions continue to be preserved. Temporary calligraphy is a practice of water-only calligraphy on the floor, which dries out within minutes. This practice is especially appreciated by the new generation of retired Chinese in public parks of China. These will often open studio-shops in tourist towns offering traditional Chinese calligraphy to tourists. Other than writing the clients name, they also sell fine brushes as souvenirs and limestone carved stamps. Since late 1980s, a few Chinese artists have branched out traditional Chinese calligraphy to a new territory by mingling
Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it ...
with English letters; notable new forms of calligraphy are
Xu Bing Xu Bing (; born 1955) is a Chinese artist who served as vice-president of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. He is known for his printmaking skills and installation art, as well as his creative artistic use of language, words, and text and how the ...
's square calligraphy and DanNie's coolligraphy or cooligraphy. Calligraphy has influenced
ink and wash painting Ink wash painting ( zh, t=水墨畫, s=水墨画, p=shuǐmòhuà; ja, 水墨画, translit=suiboku-ga or ja, 墨絵, translit=sumi-e; ko, 수묵화, translit=sumukhwa; vi, Thủy mặc họa, Hán Nôm: ) is a type of Chinese ink brush painti ...
, which is accomplished using similar tools and techniques. Calligraphy has influenced most major art styles in East Asia, including
ink and wash painting Ink wash painting ( zh, t=水墨畫, s=水墨画, p=shuǐmòhuà; ja, 水墨画, translit=suiboku-ga or ja, 墨絵, translit=sumi-e; ko, 수묵화, translit=sumukhwa; vi, Thủy mặc họa, Hán Nôm: ) is a type of Chinese ink brush painti ...
, a style of
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
,
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...
, and
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
based entirely on calligraphy.


Mongolia

Mongolian calligraphy is also influenced by Chinese calligraphy, from tools to style.


Tibet

Tibetan calligraphy is central to
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in covering much of the spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the as well as some other ethnic groups such as , , , and s and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of and . Tibet is the ...

Tibet
an culture. The script is derived from
Indic script The Brahmic scripts, also known as Indic scripts, are a family of abugida writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, including Japan in the form of Siddhaṃ script, Siddhaṃ. T ...
s. The nobles of Tibet, such as the High
Lama Lama (; "chief" ) is a title for a teacher of the '' Dharma'' in Tibetan Buddhism. The name is similar to the Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language ...

Lama
s and inhabitants of the
Potala Palace The Potala Palace is a Dzong architecture, ''dzong'' fortress in the Lhasa (prefecture-level city), city of Lhasa, in Tibet. It was the winter palace of the Dalai Lamas from 1649 to 1959, has been a museum since then, and has been a World Heritag ...

Potala Palace
, were usually capable calligraphers.
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in covering much of the spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the as well as some other ethnic groups such as , , , and s and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of and . Tibet is the ...

Tibet
has been a center of
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
for several centuries, and that religion places a great deal of significance on written word. This does not provide for a large body of
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latiu ...

secular
pieces, although they do exist (but are usually related in some way to Tibetan Buddhism). Almost all high religious writing involved calligraphy, including letters sent by the
Dalai Lama , coatofarms = , coatofarms_article = , coatofarms_link = , incumbent = 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama , incumbentsince = 22 February 1940 , image = Dalailama1 20121014 4639.jpg , caption = 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyats ...

Dalai Lama
and other religious and secular authority. Calligraphy is particularly evident on their
prayer wheels A prayer wheel is a cylindrical wheel () on a axle, spindle made from metal, wood, stone, leather, or coarse cotton, widely used in Tibet and areas where Tibetan culture is predominant. Traditionally, a mantra is written in Classical Tibetan, ...

prayer wheels
, although this calligraphy was forged rather than scribed, much like Arab and Roman calligraphy is often found on buildings. Although originally done with a reed, Tibetan calligraphers now use chisel tipped pens and markers as well.


Ethiopia/Abyssinia

Ethiopian Ethiopians are the native inhabitants of Ethiopia, as well as the global diaspora of Ethiopia. Ethiopians constitute Ethiopians#Component Ethnicities, several component ethnic groups, many of which are closely related to ethnic groups in neighbo ...

Ethiopian
(Abyssinian) calligraphy began with the Ge'ez script, which replaced Epigraphic South Arabian in the
Kingdom of Aksum The Kingdom of Aksum ( gez, መንግሥተ አኵስም), also known as the Kingdom of Axum or the Aksumite Empire, was an ancient kingdom, from the 2nd to the 10th century, with its capital at the city of Axum Aksum or Axum (; ti, ኣኽሱ ...

Kingdom of Aksum
, that was developed specifically for
Ethiopian Semitic languages Ethiopian Semitic (also Ethio-Semitic, Ethiosemitic, Ethiopic or AbyssinianIgor Mikhailovich DiakonoSemito-Hamitic Languages: An Essay in Classification - Google Books" Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, (1965) pp 12) is a family of ...
. In those languages that use it, such as
Amharic Amharic ( or ; (Amharic: ), ', ) is an Ethiopian Semitic languages, Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic languages, Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first language by the Amhara pe ...

Amharic
and
Tigrinya Tigrinya (ትግርኛ; also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Eastern Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Su ...
, the script is called ', which means script or alphabet. The Epigraphic South Arabian letters were used for a few inscriptions into the 8th century, though not any South Arabian language since
Dʿmt D mt ( Ge'ez: ደዐመተ, ''DʿMT'' theoretically vocalized as ዳዓማት, ''Daʿamat'' or ዳዕማት, Daʿəmat) was a kingdom located in Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Eastern Africa, with ...
. Early inscriptions in Ge'ez and Ge'ez script have been dated to as early as the 5th century BC, and in a sort of proto-Ge'ez written in ESA since the 9th century BC. Ge'ez literature begins with the Christianization of Ethiopia (and the civilization of Axum) in the 4th century, during the reign of
Ezana of Axum Ezana ( gez, ዒዛና ''‘Ezana'', unvocalized ዐዘነ ''‘zn''; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Axum an ancient kingdom located in what is now Eritrea and the Tigray Region of northern Ethiopia. (320s – c. 360 ...
. The Ge'ez script is read from left to right and has been adapted to write other languages, usually ones that are also Semitic. The most widespread use is for
Amharic Amharic ( or ; (Amharic: ), ', ) is an Ethiopian Semitic languages, Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic languages, Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first language by the Amhara pe ...
in
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a in the . It shares borders with and to the north, to the northeast, to the east, to the south, to the west and to the . Ethiopia has a total area of and over ...

Ethiopia
and
Tigrinya Tigrinya (ትግርኛ; also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Eastern Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Su ...
in
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of East Africa, Eastern Africa, with its capital (and largest city) at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti ...

Eritrea
and Ethiopia.


Europe


History

Western calligraphy Western calligraphy is the art of writing and penmanship as practiced in the Western world, especially using the Latin alphabet (but also including calligraphy, calligraphic use of the Cyrillic alphabet, Cyrillic and Greek alphabet, Greek alphabet ...
is recognizable by the use of the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest seque ...

Latin script
. The
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, and by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones,
Rustic capitals . Rustic capitals ( la, littera capitalis rustica) is an Ancient Rome, ancient Roman calligraphic script. Because the term is negatively connoted supposing an opposition to the more 'civilized' form of the Roman square capitals, Bernhard Bischo ...
painted on walls, and
Roman cursive Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script (styles of handwriting), script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages. It is customarily divided into old (or ancient) cursive and new cursive. Old Rom ...

Roman cursive
for daily use. In the second and third centuries the
uncial Uncial is a . (1996) ''Encyclopedia of the Book''. 2nd edn. New Castle, DE, and London: Oak Knoll Press & , p. 494. (written entirely in capital letters) commonly used from the 4th to 8th centuries AD by and s. Uncial letters were used to wr ...

uncial
lettering style developed. As writing withdrew to monasteries, uncial script was found more suitable for copying the Bible and other religious texts. It was the monasteries which preserved calligraphic traditions during the fourth and fifth centuries, when the Roman Empire fell and Europe entered the
Dark Ages Dark Ages or Dark Age may refer to: History and sociology *Dark Ages (historiography), the use of the term ''Dark Ages'' by historians and lay people **Byzantine Dark Ages (7th–8th centuries), period of large-scale transformation but obscure du ...
. At the height of the Empire, its power reached as far as Great Britain; when the empire fell, its literary influence remained. The Semi-uncial generated the Irish Semi-uncial, the small Anglo-Saxon. Each region developed its own standards following the main monastery of the region (i.e.
Merovingian script Merovingian script or Gallo-Roman script was a Middle Ages, medieval variant of the Latin script so called because it was developed in Gaul during the Merovingian dynasty. It was used in the 7th and 8th centuries before the Carolingian dynasty and ...
, Laon script, Luxeuil script,
Visigothic script Visigothic script was a type of Middle Ages, medieval script (styles of handwriting), script that originated in the Visigoths, Visigothic kingdom in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal). Its more limiting alternative designa ...
,
Beneventan script Rule of St. Benedict, written at Monte Cassino in the late 11th century The beneventan script was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and p ...
), which are mostly cursive and hardly readable. Christian churches promoted the development of writing through the prolific copying of the Bible, the
Breviary A breviary (Ecclesiastical Latin, Latin: ''breviarium'') is a liturgical book used in Christianity for praying the canonical hours, usually recited at Fixed prayer times#Christianity, seven fixed prayer times. Historically, different breviaries w ...
, and other sacred texts. Two distinct styles of writing known as uncial and half-uncial (from the Latin "uncia", or "inch") developed from a variety of Roman bookhands. The 7th–9th centuries in northern Europe were the heyday of Celtic illuminated manuscripts, such as the Book of Durrow,
Lindisfarne Gospels upright=1.2, Folio 27r from the Lindisfarne Gospels contains the incipit from the Gospel of Matthew. The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript ...
and the
Book of Kells The Book of Kells ( la, Codex Cenannensis; ga, Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I. 8 sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the tex ...
.
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (fro ...

Charlemagne
's devotion to improved scholarship resulted in the recruiting of "a crowd of scribes", according to
Alcuin Alcuin of York (; la, Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804) – also called Ealhwine, Alhwin, or Alchoin – was an English scholar, clergyman, poet, and teacher from York, Northumbria. He was born around 735 and became the ...
, the Abbot of
York York is a cathedral city with Roman origins at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire, Ouse and River Foss, Foss in North Yorkshire, England. It is the historic county town of Yorkshire. The city has long-standing buildings and str ...

York
. Alcuin developed the style known as the Caroline or
Carolingian minuscule Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), conventio ...
. The first manuscript in this hand was the Godescalc Evangelistary (finished 783)—a Gospel book written by the scribe Godescalc. Carolingian remains the one progenitor hand from which modern booktype descends. In the eleventh century, the Caroline evolved into the , which was more compact and made it possible to fit more text on a page. The Gothic calligraphy styles became dominant throughout Europe; and in 1454, when
Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – 3 February 1468) was a German inventor An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering ...

Johannes Gutenberg
developed the first printing press in Mainz, Germany, he adopted the Gothic style, making it the first
typeface A typeface is the design of lettering Lettering is an umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...

typeface
. In the 15th century, the rediscovery of old Carolingian texts encouraged the creation of the
humanist minuscule Humanist minuscule is a handwriting Handwriting is the writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the ...
or ''littera antiqua''. The 17th century saw the from France, and the 18th century saw the English script spread across Europe and world through their books. In the mid-1600s French officials, flooded with documents written in various hands and varied levels of skill, complained that many such documents were beyond their ability to decipher. The Office of the Financier thereupon restricted all legal documents to three hands, namely the Coulee, the Rhonde, (known as
Round hand Round Hand (also Roundhand) is a type of handwriting Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand. Handwriting includes both block letters, printing and cursive styles and is separate from for ...
in English) and a Speed Hand sometimes simply called the
Bastarda Bastarda (or bastard) was a blackletter script used in France, the Burgundian Netherlands and Germany during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Burgundian variant of script can be seen as the court script of the Duchy of Burgundy, Dukes of Burgund ...

Bastarda
. While there were many great French masters at the time, the most influential in proposing these hands was Louis Barbedor, who published ''Les Ecritures Financière Et Italienne Bastarde Dans Leur Naturel'' circa 1650. With the destruction of the
Camera Apostolica The Apostolic Camera ( la, everendaCamera Apostolica), formerly known as the is an office in the Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the c ...
during the
sack of Rome (1527) The Sack of Rome, then part of the Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italia ...
, the capitol for writing masters moved to Southern France. By 1600, the Italic Cursiva began to be replaced by a technological refinement, the Italic Chancery Circumflessa, which in turn fathered the Rhonde and later English
Roundhand Round Hand (also Roundhand) is a type of handwriting and calligraphy originating in England in the 1660s primarily by the writing masters John Ayres and William Banson. Characterised by an open flowing Handwriting, hand (style) and subtle contrast ...
. In England, Ayres and Banson popularized the Round Hand while Snell is noted for his reaction to them, and warnings of restraint and proportionality. Still Edward Crocker began publishing his copybooks 40 years before the aforementioned.


Style

Sacred
Western calligraphy Western calligraphy is the art of writing and penmanship as practiced in the Western world, especially using the Latin alphabet (but also including calligraphy, calligraphic use of the Cyrillic alphabet, Cyrillic and Greek alphabet, Greek alphabet ...
has some unique features, such as the illumination of the first letter of each book or chapter in medieval times. A decorative "carpet page" may precede the literature, filled with ornate, geometrical depictions of bold-hued animals. The
Lindisfarne Gospels upright=1.2, Folio 27r from the Lindisfarne Gospels contains the incipit from the Gospel of Matthew. The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript ...
(715–720 AD) are an early example. As with Chinese calligraphy, Chinese or Islamic calligraphy, Western calligraphic script employed the use of strict rules and shapes. Quality writing had a rhythm and regularity to the letters, with a "geometrical" order of the lines on the page. Each character had, and often still has, a precise stroke order. Unlike a typeface, irregularity in the characters' size, style, and colors increases aesthetic value, though the content may be illegible. Many of the themes and variations of today's contemporary Western calligraphy are found in the pages of The Saint John's Bible. A particularly modern example is Timothy Botts' illustrated edition of the Bible, with 360 calligraphic images as well as a calligraphy
typeface A typeface is the design of lettering Lettering is an umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...

typeface
.


Influences

Several other Western styles use the same tools and practices, but differ by character set and stylistic preferences. For Slavonic lettering, the history of the Slavic peoples, Slavonic and consequently Russian writing systems differs fundamentally from the one of the Latin, Latin language. It evolved from the 10th century to today.


Islamic world

Islamic calligraphy (''calligraphy'' in Arabic is ' ) has evolved alongside Islam and the Arabic language. As it is based on Arabic letters, some call it "Arabic calligraphy". However the term "Islamic calligraphy" is a more appropriate term as it comprises all works of calligraphy by Muslim calligraphers of different national cultures, like Persian calligraphy, Persian or Ottoman Empire, Ottoman calligraphy, from Al-Andalus in medieval Spain to China. Islamic calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art (Arabesque (Islamic art), arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page or other materials. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world may draw on the heritage of calligraphy to create modern calligraphic inscriptions, like Logo, corporate logos, or abstractions. Instead of recalling something related to the spoken word, calligraphy for Muslims is a visible expression of the highest art of all, the art of the spirituality, spiritual world. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The Qur'an has played an important role in the development and evolution of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and passages from the Qur'an are still sources for Islamic calligraphy. During the Ottoman era, Ottoman civilization, Islamic calligraphy attained special prominence. The city of Istanbul is an open exhibition hall for all kinds and varieties of calligraphy, from inscriptions in mosques to fountains, schools, houses, etc.


Mayan civilization

Mayan calligraphy was expressed via Mayan hieroglyphs; modern Mayan calligraphy is mainly used on Seal (emblem), seals and monuments in the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Mayan hieroglyphs are rarely used in government offices; however in Campeche, Yucatán (state), Yucatán and Quintana Roo, calligraphy in Mayan languages is written in Latin script rather than hieroglyphs. Some commercial companies in southern Mexico use Mayan hieroglyphs as symbols of their business. Some community associations and modern Mayan brotherhoods use Mayan hieroglyphs as symbols of their groups. Most of the archaeological sites in Mexico such as Chichen Itza, Labna, Uxmal, Edzna, Calakmul, etc. have glyphs in their structures. Carved stone monuments known as stele are common sources of ancient Mayan calligraphy.


Persia

Persian calligraphy has been present in the Persian region before Islamisation. In Zoroastrianism, beautiful and clear writings were always praised. It is believed that Old Persian, ancient Persian script was invented by about 600–500 BC to provide monument inscriptions for the Achaemenid Empire#Achaemenid kings and rulers, Achaemenid kings. These scripts consisted of horizontal, vertical, and diagonal nail-shape letters, which is why it is called Cuneiform script, "script of nails/cuneiform script" (') in Persian language, Persian. Centuries later, other scripts such as "Pahlavi scripts, Pahlavi" and "Avestan script, Avestan" scripts were used in ancient Persia. Pahlavi was a middle Persian script developed from the Aramaic script and became the official script of the Sassanian empire (224-651 AD). The Persian-Avestan alphabet (alefbâ Pârsi Avestâyi) was created by Lourenço Menezes D'Almeida and is an alternative script for writing the Persian and Avestan languages.


Contemporary scripts

The Nasta'liq script, Nasta'liq style is the most popular contemporary style among classical Persian calligraphy scripts; Persian calligraphers call it the "bride of calligraphy scripts". This calligraphy style has been based on such a strong structure that it has changed very little since. Mir Ali Tabrizi had found the optimum composition of the letters and graphical rules so it has just been fine-tuned during the past seven centuries. It has very strict rules for graphical shape of the letters and for combination of the letters, words, and composition of the whole calligraphy piece.


South Asia


India

On the subject of Indian calligraphy, writes:
Aśoka's edicts (c. 265–238 BC) were committed to stone. These inscriptions are stiff and angular in form. Following the Aśoka style of Indic writing, two new calligraphic types appear: Kharosthi, Kharoṣṭī and Brāhmī script, Brāhmī. Kharoṣṭī was used in the northwestern regions of India from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century of the Christian Era, and it was used in Central Asia until the 8th century.
In many parts of ancient India, the inscriptions were carried out in smoke-treated palm leaves. This tradition dates back to over two thousand years. Even after the Indian languages were put on paper in the 13th century, palm leaves were considered a preferred medium of writing owing to their longevity (nearly 400 years) compared to paper. Both sides of the leaves were used for writing. Long rectangular strips were gathered on top of one another, holes were drilled through all the leaves, and the book was held together by string. Books of this manufacture were common to Southeast Asia. The palm leaf was an excellent surface for penwriting, making possible the delicate lettering used in many of the scripts of southern Asia.
Burnt clay and copper were a favoured material for Indic inscriptions. In the north of India, birch bark was used as a writing surface as early as the 2nd century AD.


Nepal

Nepalese calligraphy is primarily created using the Ranjana script. The script itself, along with its derivatives (like Lanydza Script, Lantsa, 'Phags-pa script, Phagpa, Kutila) are used in Nepal,
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in covering much of the spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the as well as some other ethnic groups such as , , , and s and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of and . Tibet is the ...

Tibet
, Bhutan, Leh, Mongolia, coastal Japan, and Korea to write "Om mani padme hum" and other sacred Buddhist texts, mainly those derived from Sanskrit and Pali.


Southeast Asia


Philippines

The Philippines has numerous ancient and indigenous scripts collectively called as Suyat, Suyat scripts. Various ethno-linguistic groups in the Philippines prior to Spanish colonization in the 16th century up to the independence era in the 21st century have used the scripts with various mediums. By the end of colonialism, only four of the suyat scripts survived and continue to be used by certain communities in everyday life. These four scripts are Hanunó'o alphabet, Hanunó'o/Hanunoo of the Hanuno'o Mangyan people, Buhid alphabet, Buhid/Buid of the Buhid Mangyan people, Tagbanwa script of the Tagbanwa people, and Palawan people, Palaw'an/Pala'wan of the Palawan people, Palaw'an people. All four scripts were inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World Programme, under the name ''Philippine Paleographs (Hanunoo, Buid, Tagbanua and Pala’wan)'', in 1999. Due to dissent from colonialism, many artists and cultural experts have revived the usage of suyat scripts that went extinct due to Spanish persecution. These scripts being revived include the Kulitan alphabet, Kulitan script of the Kapampangan language, Kapampangan people, the Visayan languages, badlit script of various Visayan languages, Visayan ethnic groups, the Eskaya, Iniskaya script of the Eskaya people, the Baybayin script of the Tagalog people, and the Ilocano language, Kur-itan script of the Ilocano people, among many others. Due to the diversity of suyat scripts, all calligraphy written in suyat scripts are collectively called as Filipino suyat calligraphy, although each are distinct from each other. Calligraphy using the Western alphabet and the Arabic alphabet are also prevalent in the Philippines due to its colonial past, but the Western alphabet and the Arabic alphabet are not considered as suyat, and therefore Western-alphabet and Arabic calligraphy are not considered as suyat calligraphy.


Vietnam

Vietnamese calligraphy Calligraphic fonts from Vietnam Vietnamese calligraphy (Vietnamese chữ Quốc ngữ: , Hán Nôm: ) relates to the calligraphic traditions of Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital ...

Vietnamese calligraphy
, or (}, literally "the way of letters or words"), uses a variety of scripts, including Chinese characters, Chữ nôm, and the Latin-based Quốc Ngữ. Historically, calligraphers used the former two scripts. Due to the adoption of the Latin-based Quốc Ngữ, most modern Vietnamese calligraphy uses Roman characters. Traditional Vietnamese calligraphy is strongly affected by that of China for historical and geographical reasons. Being part of the Chinese sphere of influence, Chinese was often used as the written medium of communication, and as a result, Vietnamese calligraphy thus also follows Chinese calligraphy’s standard and use Han character scripts in many of its writings. In modern times, calligraphy has been done mainly in the Latin-based Quốc Ngữ script, as Chữ nôm and Chinese characters have largely fallen out of use.


Modern calligraphy


Revival

After printing became ubiquitous from the 15th century onward, the production of illuminated manuscripts began to decline. However, the rise of printing did not mean the end of calligraphy. The modern revival of calligraphy began at the end of the 19th century, influenced by the aesthetics and philosophy of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement. Edward Johnston is regarded as being the father of modern calligraphy. After studying published copies of manuscripts by architect William Harrison Cowlishaw, he was introduced to William Lethaby in 1898, principal of the Central School of Art and Design, Central School of Arts and Crafts, who advised him to study manuscripts at the British Museum. This triggered Johnston's interest in the art of calligraphy with the use of a broad-edged pen. He began a teaching course in calligraphy at the Central School in Southampton Row, London from September 1899, where he influenced the typeface designer and sculptor Eric Gill. He was commissioned by Frank Pick to design a Johnston (typeface), new typeface for London Underground, still used today (with minor modifications). He has been credited for reviving the art of modern penmanship and lettering single-handedly through his books and teachings – his handbook on the subject, ''Writing & Illuminating, & Lettering'' (1906) was particularly influential on a generation of British typographers and calligraphers, including Graily Hewitt, Stanley Morison, Eric Gill, Alfred Fairbank and Anna Simons. Johnston also devised the simply crafted round calligraphic handwriting style, written with a broad pen, known today as the ''Foundational hand''. Johnston initially taught his students an uncial hand using a flat pen angle, but later taught his hand using a slanted pen angle. He first referred to this hand as "Foundational Hand" in his 1909 publication, ''Manuscript & Inscription Letters for Schools and Classes and for the Use of Craftsmen''.


Subsequent developments

Graily Hewitt taught at the Central School of Arts and Crafts and published together with Johnston throughout the early part of the century. Hewitt was central to the revival of gilding in calligraphy, and his prolific output on type design also appeared between 1915 and 1943. He is attributed with the revival of gilding with gesso and gold leaf on
vellum 267px, A vellum seal Seal may refer to any of the following: Common uses * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, List of semiaqua ...

vellum
. Hewitt helped to found the Society of Scribes & Illuminators (SSI) in 1921, probably the world's foremost calligraphy society. Hewitt is not without both critics and supporters in his rendering of Cennino Cennini's medieval gesso recipes. Donald Jackson (calligrapher), Donald Jackson, a British calligrapher, has sourced his gesso recipes from earlier centuries a number of which are not presently in English translation. Graily Hewitt created the patent announcing the award to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Philip of the title of Duke of Edinburgh on November 19, 1947, the day before his marriage to Queen Elizabeth. Johnston’s pupil, Anna Simons, was instrumental in sparking off interest in calligraphy in Germany with her German translation of ''Writing and Illuminating, and Lettering'' in 1910. Austrian Rudolf Larisch, a teacher of lettering at the Vienna School of Art, published six lettering books that greatly influenced German-speaking calligraphers. Because German-speaking countries had not abandoned the Gothic hand in printing, Gothic also had a powerful effect on their styles. Rudolf Koch was a friend and younger contemporary of Larisch. Koch's books, type designs, and teaching made him one of the most influential calligraphers of the 20th century in northern Europe and later in the U.S. Larisch and Koch taught and inspired many European calligraphers, notably Karlgeorg Hoefer, and Hermann Zapf. Contemporary typefaces used by computers, from word processors like Microsoft Word or Apple Pages to professional design software packages like Adobe InDesign, owe a considerable debt to the past and to a small number of professional typeface designers today. Unicode provides "Script" and "Fraktur" Latin alphabets that can be used for calligraphy. See Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols.


See also

*Asemic writing *
Bastarda Bastarda (or bastard) was a blackletter script used in France, the Burgundian Netherlands and Germany during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Burgundian variant of script can be seen as the court script of the Duchy of Burgundy, Dukes of Burgund ...

Bastarda
*Blackletter *Book hand *Brāhmī script *Calligraffiti *Chancery hand *Concrete poetry *Court hand *Cursive *Hand (writing style) *Handwriting *History of writing *Italic script *List of calligraphers *Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols *Micrography *Palaeography *Penmanship *Ronde script (calligraphy) *Rotunda (script) *
Round hand Round Hand (also Roundhand) is a type of handwriting Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand. Handwriting includes both block letters, printing and cursive styles and is separate from for ...
*Secretary hand *Siyah mashq *Sofer


Notes


References

* Oscar Ogg (1954), ''Three classics of Italian Calligraphy, an unabridged reissue of the writing books of Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi, Arrighi, Tagliente & Giambattista Palatino, Palatino, with an introduction'', Dover publications inc. New York, USA * John Howard Benson & Arthur Graham Carrey (1940), ''The Elements of Lettering'', John Stevens, Newport, Rhode Island, printed by: D. B. Updike at The Merrymount Press, Boston * John Howard Benson (1955), ''The first writing book, an English translation & fascimile text of Arrighi's Operina, the first Manual of the chancery hand'', London Oxford University press, Geoffrey Cumberlege New Haven Yale University Press. * Berthold Wolpe (1959), ''A newe writing booke of copies, 1574, A fascimile of a unique Elisabethan Writing book in the Bodleian Library Oxford'', Lion and Unicorn Press, London * * Alfred Fairbank, Fairbank, Alfred, (1975). ''Augustino Da Siena, the 1568 edition of his writing book in fascimile'', David R. Godine (Boston) & The Merrion Press, (London), * A. S. Osley (editor), ''Calligraphy and Paleography, Essays presented to Alfred Fairbank on his 70th birthday'', October House Inc. New York, 1965. * * Gaze, T. & Jacobson, M. (editors), (2013). ''An Anthology Of Asemic Handwriting''. Uitgeverij. * 10th Impression * Marns, F.A (2002) Various, copperplate and form, London * * * Annemarie Schimmel, * Wolfgang Kosack: ''Islamische Schriftkunst des Kufischen'' Geometrisches Kufi in 593 Schriftbeispielen. Deutsch – Kufi – Arabisch. 380 Seiten. Verlag Christoph Brunner, Basel 2014, .


External links


Calligraphy alphabets
a list of major historical scripts (simplified version) a
Lettering Daily
*
French Renaissance Paleography
This is a scholarly maintained site that presents over 100 carefully selected French manuscripts from 1300 to 1700, with tools to decipher and transcribe them. {{Authority control Calligraphy, Articles containing video clips Book arts Penmanship Typesetting Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity