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A bulldozer or dozer (also called a crawler) is a large, motorized
machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine is a molecular component that produc ...

machine
that travels on
tracks Track or Tracks may refer to: Routes or imprints * Ancient trackway, any track or trail whose origin is lost in antiquity * Animal track, imprints left on surfaces that an animal walks across * Desire path, a line worn by people taking the shortes ...
and is equipped with a metal
blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wikt:puncture, puncture, wikt:chop, chop, Cutting, slice or scraper (archaeology), scrape surfaces or materials. Blades are typically made from materials that a ...
to the front for pushing material:
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
, sand, snow, rubble, or rock during
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
or conversion work. When needed, a hook-like device (termed a
ripper Ripper or The Ripper may refer to: People * Ripper (surname) * Paul Burchill, ring name "The Ripper", a professional wrestler based on Jack the Ripper * Kirk Hammett, nicknamed "The Ripper", the lead guitarist in the heavy metal band Metallica ...
) can be mounted on the rear to loosen dense materials. Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites,
mine
mine
s and
quarries A quarry is a type of open-pit mine File:Ende Gelände 2017 CHB 23 (cropped).jpg, The giant bucket-wheel excavators in the German Rhineland coal mines are among the world's biggest land vehicles. Open-pit mining, also known as open-cas ...

quarries
, military bases,
heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one ...
factories, engineering projects, and
farm A farm (also called an agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases i ...

farm
s. The word "bulldozer" refers to only a tractor fitted with a dozer blade. The word is sometimes used inaccurately for other earth moving equipment such as front loaders.


Description

Typically, bulldozers are large and powerful tracked heavy equipment. The tracks give them excellent ground-holding capability and mobility through very rough terrain. Wide tracks help distribute the bulldozer's weight over a large area (decreasing
ground pressureGround pressure is the pressure exerted on the ground by the tires or Caterpillar track, tracks of a motorized vehicle, and is one measure of its potential mobility, especially over soft ground. It also applies to the feet of a walking person or Dra ...
), thus preventing it from sinking in
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
y or
mud Mud is soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, a ...

mud
dy ground. Extra-wide tracks are known as swamp tracks or low ground pressure (lgp) tracks. Bulldozers have transmission systems designed to take advantage of the track system and provide excellent
tractive force As used in mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, v ...
. Because of these attributes, bulldozers are often used in
road building A road is a thoroughfare A thoroughfare is a primary passage or way as a transit route through regularly trafficked areas whether by road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been ...
,
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
,
mining Mining is the extraction of valuable mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occu ...

mining
,
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
,
land clearing Deforestation or forest clearance is the removal of a forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting bra ...
, infrastructure development, and any other projects requiring highly mobile, powerful, and stable earth-moving equipment. Another type of bulldozer is the wheeled bulldozer, which generally has four wheels driven by a four-wheel-drive system and has a hydraulic, articulated steering system. The blade is mounted forward of the articulation joint, and is hydraulically actuated. The bulldozer's primary tools are the blade and the ripper.


Blade

The bulldozer blade come in three types: * straight blade ("S blade") is short and has no lateral curve and no side wings, and can be used for fine grading. * universal blade ("U blade") is tall and very curved, and has large side wings to carry more material. * an "S-U" (semi-U) combination blade is shorter, and has less curvature and smaller side wings. It is typically used for pushing large rocks, as at a quarry. Blades can be fitted straight across the frame, or at an angle, sometimes using additional tilt cylinders to vary the angle while moving. Sometimes, a bulldozer is used to push another piece of earth-moving equipment known as a "
scraper Scrape, scraper or scraping may refer to: Biology and medicine * Abrasion (medical), a type of injury * Scraper (biology), grazer-scraper, a water animal that feeds on stones and other substrates by grazing algae, microorganism and other matter * ...

scraper
" to increase productivity. The towed
Fresno Scraper#REDIRECT Fresno scraperfile:FresnoScraper.GIF, Fresno Scraper (Patent Application). The front drawbar is pulled by two horses, and pulls the scraper proper behind it, while the operator walks behind controlling the depth of scrape with the handle f ...
, invented in 1883 by
James Porteous James Porteous (1848–1922) was the Scottish-American inventor of the Fresno scraper. James Porteous was born in Haddington, East Lothian East Lothian (; sco, East Lowden; gd, Lodainn an Ear) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotla ...
, was the first design to enable this to be done economically, removing the soil from the cut and depositing it elsewhere on shallow ground (''fill''). Many dozer blades have a reinforced center section with this purpose in mind, and are called "bull blades". In military use, dozer blades are fixed on
combat engineering vehicle A military engineering vehicle is a vehicle built for the construction work or for the transportation of combat engineering, combat engineers on the battlefield. These vehicles may be modified civilian equipment (such as the Armored bulldozer, ar ...
s and can optionally be fitted on other vehicles, such as
artillery tractor An artillery tractor, also referred to as a gun tractor, is a specialized heavy-duty form of tractor unit A tractor unit (also known as a truck unit, prime mover, ten-wheeler, semi-tractor, semi-truck, tractor cab, truck cab, tractor rig, t ...
s such as the Type 73 or
M8 Tractor The M8 High-Speed Tractor was an artillery tractor used by the US Army The United States Army (USA) is the land service branch of the United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the Military, military forces of the U ...
. Dozer blades can also be mounted on
main battle tank A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies. Cold War-era development of more powerful engines, better suspension system ...
s, where it can be used to clear antitank obstacles or mines, and dig improvised shelters. Combat applications for dozer blades include clearing battlefield obstacles and preparing firing positions.


Ripper

The ripper' is the long, claw-like device on the back of the bulldozer. Rippers occur as a single (single shank/giant ripper) or in groups of two or more (multishank rippers). Usually, a single shank is preferred for heavy ripping. The ripper shank is fitted with a replaceable
tungsten Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, ch ...

tungsten
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appe ...

steel
alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in ...
tip, referred to as a boot. Ripping rock breaks the ground surface rock or pavement into small rubble, easy to handle and transport, which can then be removed so grading can take place. With agricultural ripping, a farmer breaks up rocky or very hard earth (such as
podzol In soil science Soil science is the study of soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together su ...

podzol
hardpan), which is otherwise unploughable, to farm it. For example, much of the best land in the
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
wine country consists of old
lava Lava is magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all s are formed. Magma is found beneath the surface of the , and evidence of has also been discovered on other and some s. Besides molten rock, magma may al ...

lava
flows. The grower shatters the lava with heavy bulldozers so surface crops or trees can be planted. Some bulldozers are equipped with a less common rear attachment referred to as a stumpbuster, which is a single spike that protrudes horizontally and can be raised to get it (mostly) out of the way. A stumpbuster is used to split a tree stump. A bulldozer with a stumpbuster is used for landclearing operations, and is often equipped with a brush-rake blade.


Modifications

Bulldozers have been further modified over time to evolve into new machines that can work in ways that the original bulldozer cannot. For example, a
loader Loader can refer to: * Loader (equipment) * Loader (computing) ** LOADER.EXE, an auto-start program loader optionally used in the startup process of Microsoft Windows ME * Loader (surname) * Fast loader * Speedloader * Boot loader ** LOADER.COM (ak ...
tractor was created by removing its blade and substituting a large-volume bucket and hydraulic arms, which can raise and lower the bucket, thus making it useful for scooping up earth and loading it into
truck A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include ...

truck
s; these are often known as a Drott, trackscavator, or track loader. Other modifications to the original bulldozer include making it smaller to let it operate in small work areas where movement is limited, such as in
mining Mining is the extraction of valuable mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occu ...

mining
. Some lightweight forms of bulldozers are commonly used in snow removal and as tools for preparing winter sports areas for ski and snowboard sports. In an angle dozer, the blade can be pushed forward at one end to make it easier to push material to the side. Nevertheless, the original earthmoving bulldozers are still irreplaceable, as their tasks are concentrated in
deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

deforestation
, earthmoving, ground levelling, and road carving. Heavy bulldozers are mainly employed to level the terrain to prepare it for construction. The construction, however, is mainly done by small bulldozers and
loader Loader can refer to: * Loader (equipment) * Loader (computing) ** LOADER.EXE, an auto-start program loader optionally used in the startup process of Microsoft Windows ME * Loader (surname) * Fast loader * Speedloader * Boot loader ** LOADER.COM (ak ...
s.


Armored bulldozers

Bulldozers employed for combat-engineering roles are often fitted with
armor Armour (British English) or armor (American English; see American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, spelling differences) is a covering to protect an object, individual, or vehicle from damage, especially direct contact weapon ...

armor
to protect the driver from firearms and debris, enabling bulldozers to operate in combat zones. The most widely documented use is the Israeli Defence Forces' (IDF) militarized
Caterpillar D9 CAT D9T, the current generation of the Caterpillar D9 tracked-type tractor series. The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. It is usually sold as a bulldozer equipped with a detachable ...
, for earth moving, clearing terrain obstacles, opening routes, and detonating explosive charges. The extensive use of armored bulldozers during the
Second Intifada The Second Intifada ( ar, الانتفاضة الثانية ''Al-Intifada al-Thaniya''; he, האינתיפאדה השנייה ''Ha-Intifāda ha-Shniya''), also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada ( ar, انتفاضة الأقصى '), was a Pales ...
drew controversy and criticism from human-rights organizations, while military experts saw it as a key factor in reducing IDF casualties. Some forces' engineer doctrines differentiate between a low-mobility armoured dozer (LMAD) and a high-mobility armoured dozer (HMAD). The LMAD is dependent on a flatbed to move it to its employment site, whereas the HMAD has a more robust engine and drive system designed to give it road mobility with a moderate range and speed. HMADs, however, normally lack the full cross-country mobility characteristics of a dozer blade-equipped tank or armoured personnel carrier. Some bulldozers have been fitted with armor by civilian operators to prevent bystanders or police from interfering with the work performed by the bulldozer, as in the case of strikes or demolition of condemned buildings. This has also been done by civilians with a dispute with the authorities, such as
Marvin Heemeyer Marvin John Heemeyer (October 28, 1951 – June 4, 2004) was an automobile muffler repair shop owner who demolished numerous buildings with a modified bulldozer in Granby, Colorado, Granby, Colorado on June 4, 2004. Heemeyer had feuded with Granb ...
, who outfitted his Komatsu D355A bulldozer with homemade composite armor to then demolish government buildings.


Remote-controlled dozers

In recent years, innovations in the construction technology have made remote-controlled bulldozers a reality. Now, heavy machinery can be controlled from up to 1,000 feet away. This contributes to the safety of workers on the jobsite, keeping them at a secure distance from potentially dangerous jobs. The advancement and the ability to control the heavy machinery from afar provides workers with the sufficient control over the dozers to get the job done. Though these machines are still in their early stages, many construction companies are using them successfully.


History

The first bulldozers were adapted from Holt farm tractors that were used to plow fields. The versatility of tractors in soft ground for logging and road building contributed to the development of the armored
tank A tank is an armored fighting vehicle An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities. AFVs can be wheeled or tr ...

tank
in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. In 1923, farmer James Cummings and draftsman J. Earl McLeod made the first designs for the bulldozer. A replica is on display at the city park in Morrowville, Kansas, where the two built the first bulldozer. On December 18, 1923, Cummings and McLeod filed U.S. patent #1,522,378 that was later issued on January 6, 1925, for an "Attachment for Tractors." By the 1920s, tracked vehicles became common, particularly the
Caterpillar 60 The Caterpillar Sixty is a crawler tractor manufactured by the Caterpillar Inc., Caterpillar Tractor Company from 1925 until 1931. The Sixty was the largest tractor in Caterpillar's product line at that time. The Caterpillar Sixty was originally ...
. Rubber-tired vehicles came into use in the 1940s. To dig
canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * ...

canal
s, raise earthen
dam A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water An example of surface water is Lake Kinney. Surface water is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tas ...

dam
s, and do other earth-moving jobs, these tractors were equipped with a large, thick, metal plate in front. (The blade got its curved shape later). In some early models, the driver sat on top in the open without a cabin. The three main types of bulldozer blades are a U-blade for pushing and carrying soil relatively long distances, a straight blade for "knocking down" and spreading piles of soil, and a brush
rake __NOTOC__ Rake may refer to: * Rake (character), a man habituated to immoral conduct * Rake (theatre), the artificial slope of a theatre stage Science and technology * Rake receiver, a radio receiver * Rake (geology), the angle between a feature o ...
for removing brush and roots. These attachments (home-built or built by small equipment manufacturers of attachments for wheeled and crawler tractors and trucks) appeared by 1929. Widespread acceptance of the bull-grader does not seem to appear before the mid-1930s. The addition of power down-force provided by hydraulic cylinders instead of just the weight of the blade made them the preferred excavation machine for large and small contractors alike by the 1940s, by which time the term "bulldozer" referred to the entire machine and not just the attachment. Over the years, bulldozers got bigger and more powerful in response to the demand for equipment suited for ever larger
earthworks Earthworks may refer to: Construction *Earthworks (archaeology), human-made constructions that modify the land contour *Earthworks (engineering), civil engineering works created by moving or processing quantities of soil *Earthworks (military), mil ...
. Firms such as
Caterpillar Caterpillars ( ) are the larval stage A larva (plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Anim ...
, Komatsu,
Case Case or CASE may refer to: Containers * Case (goods), a package of related merchandise * Case, the metallic enclosure component in modern firearm cartridge (firearms), cartridges * Bookcase, a piece of furniture used to store books * Briefcase or ...
,
Euclid Euclid (; grc-gre, Εὐκλείδης Euclid (; grc, Εὐκλείδης – ''Eukleídēs'', ; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referre ...
,
Allis Chalmers Allis-Chalmers was a U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northe ...
,
Liebherr Liebherr is a German-Swiss multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sov ...

Liebherr
, LiuGong,
Terex Terex Corporation is an American worldwide manufacturer of lifting and material-handling plant for a variety of industries, including construction, infrastructure, quarrying, recycling, energy, mining, shipping, transportation, refining and ut ...
, Fiat-Allis,
John Deere John Deere () is the brand name of Deere & Company, an American corporation that manufactures agricultural machinery, heavy equipment, forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains (axles, transmissions, gearboxes) used in heavy equipment, and ...
,
BEML BEML Limited, previously Bharat Earth Movers Limited, is an Indian Public Sector Undertaking, with headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. It manufactures a variety of heavy equipment, such as that used for earth moving, transport and minin ...
, XGMA, and
International Harvester The International Harvester Company (often abbreviated by IHC or IH, or simply International (colloquialism, colloq.)) was an American manufacturer of agricultural and construction equipment, automobiles, commercial trucks, lawn and garden produ ...
manufactured large, tracked-type earthmoving machines. R.G. LeTourneau and
Caterpillar Caterpillars ( ) are the larval stage A larva (plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Anim ...
manufactured large, rubber-tired bulldozers. Bulldozers grew more sophisticated as time passed. Improvements include drivetrains analogous to (in automobiles) an
automatic transmission An automatic transmission (sometimes abbreviated to auto or AT) is a multi-speed transmission Transmission may refer to: Science and technology * Power transmissionPower transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a ...
instead of a manual transmission, such as the early Euclid C-6 and TC-12 or Model C Tournadozer, blade movement controlled by
hydraulic Hydraulics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is a ...
cylinders or electric motors instead of early models' cable winch/brake, and automatic grade control. Hydraulic cylinders enabled the application of down force, more precise manipulation of the blade, and automated controls. In the very snowy
winter of 1946–47 in the United Kingdom The winter of 1946–1947 was a harsh European winter noted for its adverse effects in the United Kingdom. It caused severe hardships in economic terms and living conditions in a country still recovering from the Second World War. There were ma ...
, in at least one case a remote cut-off village running out of food was supplied by a bulldozer towing a big sled carrying necessary supplies. A more recent innovation is the outfitting of bulldozers with
GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...

GPS
technology, such as manufactured by
Topcon is a Japanese manufacturer of optical equipment for ophthalmology Ophthalmology () is a branch of medicine and surgery that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a physician who Specialty (medicin ...
Positioning Systems, Inc.,
Trimble Inc Trimble Inc. is a Sunnyvale, California Sunnyvale () is a city located in Santa Clara County, California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximat ...
, or
Leica Geosystems Total station used in surveying Leica Geosystems (formerly known as Wild Heerbrugg or just Wild) based in eastern Switzerland produces products and systems for surveying and geographical measurement (geomatics). Its products employ a variety of ...
, for precise grade control and (potentially) "stakeless" construction. As a response to the many, and often varying claims about these systems, the Kellogg Report published in 2010 a detailed comparison of all the manufacturers' systems, evaluating more than 200 features for dozers alone. The best-known maker of bulldozers is Caterpillar. Komatsu,
Liebherr Liebherr is a German-Swiss multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a so ...
,
Case Case or CASE may refer to: Containers * Case (goods), a package of related merchandise * Case, the metallic enclosure component in modern firearm cartridge (firearms), cartridges * Bookcase, a piece of furniture used to store books * Briefcase or ...
, and
John Deere John Deere () is the brand name of Deere & Company, an American corporation that manufactures agricultural machinery, heavy equipment, forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains (axles, transmissions, gearboxes) used in heavy equipment, and ...

John Deere
are present-day competitors. Although these machines began as modified farm tractors, they became the mainstay for big civil construction projects, and found their way into use by
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
construction units worldwide. The best-known model, the
Caterpillar D9 CAT D9T, the current generation of the Caterpillar D9 tracked-type tractor series. The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. It is usually sold as a bulldozer equipped with a detachable ...
, was also used to clear mines and
demolish Demolition, or razing, is the science and engineering in safely and efficiently tearing down of buildings and other artificial structures. Demolition contrasts with deconstruction (building), deconstruction, which involves taking a building ap ...
enemy structures.


Manufacturers

Industry statistics based on 2010 production published by ''Off-Highway Research'' showed
Shantui
Shantui
was the largest producer of bulldozers, making over 10,000 units that year or two in five crawler-type dozers made in the world. The next-largest producer by number of units is Caterpillar Inc., which produced 6,400 units. Komatsu introduced the D575A in 1981, the D757A-2 in 1991, and the D575A-3 in 2002, which the company touts as the biggest bulldozer in the world.


History of the word

* A 19th-century term used in engineering for a horizontal
forging press Forging is a manufacturing process Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation ...
* Around 1870s: In the USA, a "bulldose" was a large dose (namely, one large enough to be literally or figuratively effective against a bull) of any sort of medicine or punishment. *By the late 1870s, "to bulldoze" and "bulldozing" were being used throughout the United States to describe intimidation "by violent and unlawful means", which sometimes meant a severe whipping or coercion, or other intimidation, such as at gunpoint. It had a particular meaning in the
Southern United States The Southern United States, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, Dixie, the Southland, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally ...
as a whipping or other punishment for
African Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
to suppress black voter turnout in the
1876 United States presidential election The 1876 United States presidential election was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election A presidential election is the election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multi ...
. * 1886: "Bulldozer" meant a large-caliber
pistol A pistol is a handgun, more specifically one with the chamber integral to its gun barrel with its massive bore and the stacked barrel A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, longer than it is wide. Th ...

pistol
and the person who wielded it. * Late 19th century: "Bulldozing" meant using brute force to push over or through any obstacle, with reference to two bulls pushing against each other's heads in a fight over dominance. * 1930s: applied to the vehicle These appeared as early as 1929, but were known as "bull grader" blades, and the term "bulldozer blade" did not appear to come into widespread use until the mid-1930s. "Bulldozer" now refers to the whole machine, not just the attachment. In contemporary usage, "bulldozer" is sometimes shortened to "dozer", and the verb "bulldozing" to "dozing", thus making a
homophone A homophone () is a word that is pronouncedPronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken. This may refer to generally agreed-upon sequences of sounds used in speaking a given word or language in a specific dialect ("correct ...
with the pre-existing verb " dozing".


See also

*
Acco super bulldozer The Acco Super Bulldozer is the largest and most powerful tracked bulldozer ever made. It was built in Portogruaro in northern Italy, by the Umberto Acco company. The Acco super bulldozer was constructed mainly of Caterpillar Inc., Caterpillar part ...
, largest bulldozer manufactured * '' Athanas'' for the 'bulldozer shrimp' (from the way it pushes sand about)


References


External links


The mechanism of a bulldozer
(Short illustrated explanations, with flash animations, suitable for kids)
Old engine Bulldozer pages photos

When Bulldozers roamed the earth
{{Authority control Construction equipment Demolition Engineering vehicles Heavy equipment Tracked vehicles American inventions