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Bronze is an
alloy An alloy is an admixture of metals, or a metal combined with one or more other elements. For example, combining the metallic elements gold and copper produces red gold, gold and silver becomes white gold, and silver combined with copper produc ...
consisting primarily of
copper Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from la|cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orang ...

copper
, commonly with about 12–12.5%
tin Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from lstannum}) and atomic number 50. Tin is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin, like indium, is soft enough to be cut without much force. When a bar of tin is ...
and often with the addition of other metals (such as
aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a ...
,
manganese Manganese is a chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese is a transition metal with a multifaceted array of industria ...
,
nickel Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactiv ...
or
zinc Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature and has a silvery-greyish appearance when oxidation is removed. It is the first element in group 12 (IIB) of the periodic t ...
) and sometimes non-metals or
metalloids A metalloid is a type of chemical element which has a preponderance of properties in between, or that are a mixture of, those of metals and nonmetals. There is no standard definition of a metalloid and no complete agreement on which elements are m ...
such as
arsenic Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotro ...
,
phosphorus Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. ...
or
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: ...

silicon
. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as
strength Physical strength *Physical strength, as in people or animals *Hysterical strength, extreme strength occurring when people are in life-and-death situations *Superhuman strength, great physical strength far above human capability *A common charact ...
,
ductility Ductility is a mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to drawing (e.g. into wire). In materials science, ductility is defined by the degree to which a material can sustain plastic deformation under tensile stress befo ...

ductility
, or
machinabilityMachinability is the ease with which a metal can be cut (machined) permitting the removal of the material with a satisfactory finish at low cost.Degarmo, p. 542. Materials with good machinability (free machining materials) require little power to cut ...
. The archeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron s ...
. The beginning of the Bronze Age in India and western
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Arctic Ocean to th ...
is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, and to the early 2nd millennium BC in China; elsewhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly app ...
starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, although bronze continued to be much more widely used than it is in modern times. Because historical pieces were often made of
brass Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structu ...
es (copper and zinc) and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects increasingly use the generalized term "
copper alloy Copper alloys are metal alloys that have copper as their principal component. They have high resistance against corrosion. The best known traditional types are bronze, where tin is a significant addition, and brass, using zinc instead. Both of the ...
" instead.


Etymology

The word ''bronze'' (1730–40) is borrowed from
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition during which: * the French language became clearly distinguished from the ...
(1511), itself borrowed from Italian 'bell metal, brass' (13th century, transcribed in
Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were also written to varying degrees. Latin functioned as the mai ...
as ) from either: * , back-formation from
Byzantine Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of ...
(, 11th century), perhaps from (, '
Brindisi Brindisi ( , ; scn|label=Brindisino|Brìnnisi; la|Brundisium; grc|Βρεντέσιον|translit=Brentésion; cms|Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriati ...
', reputed for its bronze; or originally: * in its earliest form from
Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan) and it is the ancestor of Middle Persian (the language of Sasanian Empire). Like other Old Iranian languages, it was known to its native speakers as ''a ...
, (, 'brass', modern ) and () 'copper', from which also came Georgian ( ),
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey ** Turkish language *** Turkish alphabet ** Turkish people, a Turkic ethnic group and nation *** Turkish citizen, a citizen of Turkey *** Turkish communities and minorities in the former Ottoman Empire * ...
''pirinç,'' and
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
(), also meaning 'bronze'.


History

The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects that were harder and more durable than previously possible. Bronze tools, weapons, armor, and
building material Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made ...
s such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper ("
Chalcolithic The Chalcolithic (),The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) , p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective ''Archaeology'' of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, ...
") predecessors. Initially, bronze was made out of copper and
arsenic Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotro ...
, forming
arsenic bronze Arsenical bronze is an alloy in which arsenic, as opposed to or in addition to tin or other constituent metals, is added to copper to make bronze. The use of arsenic with copper, either as the secondary constituent or with another component such as ...
, or from naturally or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic, with the earliest artifacts so far known coming from the
Iranian plateau#REDIRECT Iranian Plateau {{R from move ...
in the 5th millennium BC. It was only later that
tin Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from lstannum}) and atomic number 50. Tin is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin, like indium, is soft enough to be cut without much force. When a bar of tin is ...
was used, becoming the major non-copper ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC. Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the alloying process could be more easily controlled, and the resulting alloy was stronger and easier to cast. Also,
unlike arsenic
unlike arsenic
, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic. The earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BC in a
Vinča culture The Vinča culture, îːntʃaalso known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, was a Neolithic archaeological culture in southeastern Europe, in present-day Serbia, and smaller parts of Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia and Romania (particul ...
site in
Pločnik Pločnik ( sr|Плочник) is a village in the municipality of Prokuplje, Toplica District, Republic of Serbia. According to the 2002 population census, it's populated by 182, all of whom declared Serbs. History Chalcolithic copper smelting N ...
(
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr|Србија|Srbija, ),, * cs|Srbsko, * ro|Serbia * rue|Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk|Сербія * hu|Szerbia * bg|Сърбия * sq|Serbia * bs|Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, is a cou ...
). Other early examples date to the late
4th millennium BC The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC. Some of the major changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history ...
in
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar|مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
,
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform: ''šušinki''; fa|شوش ''Šuš'' ; he|שׁוּשָׁן ''Šušān''; Greek: Σοῦσα ; syr|ܫܘܫ ''Šuš''; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 ''Sūš'', 𐭱𐭥𐭮 ''Šūs''; Old Persian: 𐏂𐎢𐏁𐎠 ''Çūš ...
(
Iran Iran ( fa|ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa|جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
) and some ancient sites in China,
Luristan Lorestan Province (also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan, fa|استان لرستان) is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains. The population of Lorestan was 1,760,649 people in 2016, according to the last conducted census. I ...
(Iran) and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar|بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc|Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a historical region of Western Asia situated withi ...
(
Iraq Iraq ( ar|ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku|عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar|جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku|کۆماری عێراق '), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to th ...
). Ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not often found together (exceptions include Cornwall in Britain, one ancient site in
Thailand ) | royal_anthem = ''Sansoen Phra Barami''( en|"Glorify His prestige") | image_map = | map_caption = | capital = Bangkok | coordinates = | largest_city = Bangkok | official_languages = ThaiTin sources and trade in ancient timesTin is an essential metal in the creation of tin bronzes, and its acquisition was an important part of ancient cultures from the Bronze Age onward. Its use began in the Middle East and the Balkans around 3000 BC. Tin is a relatively rare element in t ...
had a major influence on the development of cultures. In
Europe Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlant ...
, a major source of tin was the British deposits of ore in
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw|Kernow ) is a ceremonial county in South West England. It is recognised as one of the Celtic nations and is the homeland of the Cornish people. Cornwall is bordered to the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by ...

Cornwall
, which were traded as far as
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc|Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
in the eastern
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east ...
. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artifacts are found, suggesting that bronze also represented a store of value and an indicator of social status. In
Europe Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlant ...
, large hoards of bronze tools, typically socketed axes (illustrated above), are found, which mostly show no signs of wear. With
Chinese ritual bronze with zigzag thunder pattern; Early Zhou dynasty; Shanghai Museum , as it is now displayed File:Wine cup (gu), China, Shang dynasty, bronze, Honolulu Academy of Arts.JPG|310px|''[[Gu (vessel)|Gū''; [[Shang dynasty; [[Honolulu Academy of Arts ([[Ha ...
s, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources, the case is clear. These were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, and also used by the living for ritual offerings.


Transition to iron

Though bronze is generally harder than [[wrought iron, with [[Vickers hardness test|Vickers hardness of 60–258 vs. 30–80, the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron s ...
gave way to the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly app ...
after a serious disruption of the tin trade: the population migrations of around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean and from Britain, limiting supplies and raising prices. As the art of working in iron improved, iron became cheaper and improved in quality. As cultures advanced from hand-wrought iron to machine-forged iron (typically made with
trip hammerThe trip hammer of the St. Michael's Furnace property, at the Museum of Iron in Saint-Hubert (Belgium). A trip hammer, also known as a tilt hammer or helve hammer, is a massive powered hammer. Traditional uses of trip hammers include pounding, deco ...
s powered by water), blacksmiths learned how to make
steel Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to iron. Many other elements may be present or added. Stainless steels that are corrosion- and oxidation-resis ...
. Steel is stronger than bronze and holds a sharper edge longer. Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, and has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day.


Composition

There are many different bronze alloys, but typically modern bronze is 88%
copper Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from la|cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orang ...

copper
and 12%
tin Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from lstannum}) and atomic number 50. Tin is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin, like indium, is soft enough to be cut without much force. When a bar of tin is ...
. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha
solid solution#REDIRECT Solid solution#REDIRECT Solid solution {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
of tin in copper. Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make
coin A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to ...
s, springs,
turbine A turbine ( or ) (from the Greek , ''tyrbē'', or Latin ''turbo'', meaning vortex) is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating el ...
s and
blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to puncture, chop, slice or scrape surfaces or materials. Blades are typically made from materials that are harder than those they are to be used on. Historically, ...
s. Historical "bronzes" are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was on hand; the metal of the 12th-century English
Gloucester Candlestick The Gloucester Candlestick is an elaborately decorated English Romanesque gilt-bronze candlestick, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. It was made for Gloucester Cathedral between 1104 and 1113, and is one of the outstanding survivals ...

Gloucester Candlestick
is bronze containing a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, arsenic with an unusually large amount of silver – between 22.5% in the base and 5.76% in the pan below the candle. The proportions of this mixture suggest that the candlestick was made from a hoard of old coins. The
Benin Bronzes The Benin Bronzes are a group of more than a thousand metal plaques and sculptures that decorated the royal palace of the Kingdom of Benin in what is now Nigeria. Collectively, the objects form the best known examples of Benin art, created from t ...

Benin Bronzes
are in fact brass, and the [[Romanesque art|Romanesque [[Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass. In the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron s ...
, two forms of bronze were commonly used: "classic bronze", about 10% tin, was used in casting; and "mild bronze", about 6% tin, was hammered from ingots to make sheets. Bladed weapons were mostly cast from classic bronze, while helmets and armor were hammered from mild bronze. Commercial bronze (90% copper and 10% zinc) and architectural bronze (57% copper, 3% [[lead, 40% zinc) are more properly regarded as
brass Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structu ...
alloys because they contain
zinc Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature and has a silvery-greyish appearance when oxidation is removed. It is the first element in group 12 (IIB) of the periodic t ...
as the main alloying ingredient. They are commonly used in architectural applications. Plastic bronze contains a significant quantity of lead, which makes for improved plasticity possibly used by the ancient Greeks in their ship construction. has a composition of Si: 2.80–3.80%, Mn: 0.50–1.30%, Fe: 0.80% max., Zn: 1.50% max., Pb: 0.05% max., Cu: balance. Other bronze alloys include [[aluminium bronze, [[phosphor bronze, manganese bronze, [[bell metal, [[arsenical bronze, [[speculum metal and [[cymbal alloys.


Properties

Bronzes are typically ductile alloys, considerably less [[brittle than cast iron. Typically bronze oxidizes only superficially; once a copper oxide (eventually becoming copper carbonate) layer is formed, the underlying metal is [[Passivation (chemistry)|protected from further corrosion. This can be seen on statues from the Hellenistic period. However, if copper chlorides are formed, a corrosion-mode called "[[bronze disease" will eventually completely destroy it. Copper-based
alloy An alloy is an admixture of metals, or a metal combined with one or more other elements. For example, combining the metallic elements gold and copper produces red gold, gold and silver becomes white gold, and silver combined with copper produc ...
s have lower [[melting points than steel or iron and are more readily produced from their constituent metals. They are generally about 10 percent denser than steel, although alloys using
aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a ...
or
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: ...

silicon
may be slightly less dense. Bronze is a better conductor of heat and electricity than most steels. The cost of copper-base alloys is generally higher than that of steels but lower than that of
nickel Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactiv ...
-base alloys. Copper and its alloys have a huge variety of uses that reflect their versatile physical, mechanical, and [[Chemical property|chemical properties. Some common examples are the high [[electrical conductivity of pure copper, low-friction properties of bearing bronze (bronze that has a high lead content— 6–8%), resonant qualities of bell bronze (20% tin, 80% copper), and resistance to corrosion by [[seawater of several bronze alloys. The melting point of bronze varies depending on the ratio of the alloy components and is about . Bronze is usually nonmagnetic, but certain alloys containing iron or nickel may have magnetic properties.


Uses

Bronze, or bronze-like alloys and mixtures, were used for coins over a longer period. Bronze was especially suitable for use in boat and ship fittings prior to the wide employment of [[stainless steel owing to its combination of toughness and resistance to salt water corrosion. Bronze is still commonly used in ship propellers and submerged bearings. In the 20th century,
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: ...

silicon
was introduced as the primary alloying element, creating an alloy with wide application in industry and the major form used in contemporary [[statuary. Sculptors may prefer silicon bronze because of the ready availability of silicon bronze brazing rod, which allows colour-matched repair of defects in castings. Aluminium is also used for the structural metal [[aluminium bronze. Bronze parts are [[Toughness|tough and typically used for [[Bearing (mechanical)|bearings, clips, [[electrical connectors and [[Spring (device)|springs. Bronze also has low [[friction against dissimilar metals, making it important for [[cannons prior to modern [[Engineering tolerance|tolerancing, where iron cannonballs would otherwise stick in the barrel. It is still widely used today for springs, bearings, bushings, automobile transmission pilot bearings, and similar fittings, and is particularly common in the bearings of small [[electric motors. [[Phosphor bronze is particularly suited to precision-grade bearings and springs. It is also used in guitar and piano strings. Unlike steel, bronze struck against a hard surface will not generate sparks, so it (along with [[beryllium copper) is used to make [[hammers, [[mallets, [[wrenches and other durable tools to be used in explosive atmospheres or in the presence of flammable vapors. Bronze is used to make [[bronze wool for woodworking applications where [[steel wool would discolour [[oak. [[Phosphor bronze is used for ships' propellers, musical instruments, and electrical contacts. [[Plain bearing#Bronze|Bearings are often made of bronze for its friction properties. It can be impregnated with oil to make the proprietary [[Oilite and similar material for bearings. [[Aluminium bronze is hard and wear-resistant, and is used for bearings and machine tool ways.


Sculptures

Bronze is widely used for casting [[bronze sculptures. Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mould. Then, as the bronze cools, it shrinks a little, making it easier to separate from the mould. The [[Assyrian king [[Sennacherib (704–681 BC) claims to have been the first to cast monumental bronze statues (of up to 30 tonnes) using two-part moulds instead of the [[Lost-wax casting|lost-wax method. Bronze statues were regarded as the highest form of sculpture in [[Ancient Greek art, though survivals are few, as bronze was a valuable material in short supply in the [[Late Antique and medieval periods. Many of the most famous Greek bronze sculptures are known through Roman copies in marble, which were more likely to survive. In India, bronze sculptures from the [[Kushana ([[Chausa hoard) and [[Gupta periods ([[Brahma from Mirpur-Khas, Akota Hoard, [[Sultanganj Buddha) and later periods ([[Hansi Hoard) have been found. Indian Hindu artisans from the period of the [[Chola dynasty|Chola empire in [[Tamil Nadu used bronze to create intricate statues via the [[lost-wax casting method with ornate detailing depicting the deities of [[Hinduism. The art form survives to this day, with many silpis, craftsmen, working in the areas of [[Swamimalai and [[Chennai. In antiquity other cultures also produced works of [[High culture|high art using bronze. For example: in Africa, the [[Benin Bronzes|bronze heads of the [[Benin Empire|Kingdom of Benin; in
Europe Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlant ...
, Grecian bronzes typically of figures from [[Greek mythology; in [[east Asia,
Chinese ritual bronze with zigzag thunder pattern; Early Zhou dynasty; Shanghai Museum , as it is now displayed File:Wine cup (gu), China, Shang dynasty, bronze, Honolulu Academy of Arts.JPG|310px|''[[Gu (vessel)|Gū''; [[Shang dynasty; [[Honolulu Academy of Arts ([[Ha ...
s of the [[Shang dynasty|Shang and [[Zhou dynasty—more often ceremonial vessels but including some figurine examples. Bronze sculptures, although known for their longevity, still undergo microbial degradation; such as from certain species of yeasts. Bronze continues into modern times as one of the materials of choice for monumental statuary. File:Dancing girl of Mohenjo-daro.jpg|The ''[[Dancing Girl (sculpture)|Dancing Girl'', an [[Indus Valley Civilization|Harappan artwork; 2400–1900 BC; bronze; height: 10.8 cm; [[National Museum, New Delhi|National Museum ([[New Delhi, India) File:商青銅鼎-Ritual Tripod Cauldron (Ding) MET DP164965.jpg|[[Chinese ritual bronzes|Ritual tripod cauldron ([[Ding (vessel)|ding); circa 13th century BC; bronze: height with handles: 25.4 cm; [[Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City) Kushite Pharaoh MET DT8840.jpg|[[Ancient Egyptian art|Ancient Egyptian statuette of a [[Kingdom of Kush|Kushite [[pharaoh; 713–664 BC; bronze, precious-metal leaf; height: 7.6 cm, width: 3.2 cm, depth: 3.6 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Bronze tripod base for a thymiaterion (incense burner) MET DP21045.jpg|[[Etruscan civilization|Etruscan tripod base for a thymiaterion (incense burner); 475-450 BC; bronze; height: 11 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:God of Cape Artemision 01.JPG|The ''[[Artemision Bronze''; 460-450 BC; bronze; height: 2.1 m; [[National Archaeological Museum, Athens|National Archaeological Museum ([[Athens) File:Egypt, Greco-Roman Period, probably Ptolemaic Dynasty - Statuette of Isis and Horus - 1940.613 - Cleveland Museum of Art.tif|Ancient Egyptian statuette of [[Isis and [[Horus; 305–30 BC; solid cast of bronze; 4.8 × 10.3 cm; [[Cleveland Museum of Art ([[Cleveland, [[Ohio, US) Bronze statue of Eros sleeping MET DP123903.jpg|[[Ancient Greek art|Ancient Greek statue of [[Eros sleeping; 3rd–2nd century BC; bronze; 41.9 × 35.6 × 85.2 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art Buddha Offering Protection MET DP-15581-036.jpg|[[Gupta Empire|Gupta sculpture of Buddha offering protection; late 6th–early 7th century; copper alloy; height: 47 cm, width: 15.6 cm, diameter: 14.3 cm; from [[India (probably [[Bihar); Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Caldron MET cdi49-69-6s3.jpg|French or South Netherlandish Medieval caldron; 13th or 14th century; bronze and wrought iron; height: 37.5 cm, diameter: 34.3 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Pair of firedogs (chenets) MET DP170900.jpg|Pair of French [[Rococo firedogs (chenets); circa 1750; gilt bronze; dimensions of the first: 52.7 x 48.3 x 26.7 cm, of the second: 45.1 x 49.1 x 24.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Mantel clock (pendule de chiminée) MET DT6546.jpg|French [[Neoclassicism|Neoclassical mantel clock (pendule de cheminée); 1757–1760; gilded and patinated bronze, oak veneered with ebony, white enamel with black numerals, and other materials; 48.3 × 69.9 × 27.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Pair of firedogs MET DT8904.jpg|Pair of French [[Chinoiserie firedogs; 1760–1770; gilt bronze; height (each): 41.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Pair of vases MET DP170824.jpg|Pair of Chinese vases with French Rococo mounts; the vases: early 18th century, the mounts: 1760–70; hard-paste porcelain with gilt-bronze mounts; 32.4 x 16.5 x 12.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Mantel clock ("Pendule Uranie") MET DP346441.jpg|French Neoclassical mantel clock ("Pendule Uranie"); 1764–1770; case: patinated bronze and gilded bronze, Dial: white enamel, movement: brass and steel; 71.1 × 52.1 × 26.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Pair of mounted vases (vase à monter) MET DP102639.jpg|Pair of mounted vases (vase à monter); 1765–70; soft-paste porcelain and French gilt bronze; 28.9 x 17.1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Winter MET DP162240.jpg|''Winter''; by [[Jean-Antoine Houdon; 1787; bronze; 143.5 x 39.1 x 50.5 cm, height of the pedestal: 86.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art


Mirrors

Before it became possible to produce glass with acceptably flat surfaces, bronze was a standard material for mirrors. The reflecting surface was typically made slightly convex so that the whole face could be seen in a small mirror. Bronze was used for this purpose in many parts of the world, probably based on independent discoveries. Bronze mirrors survive from the [[Egyptian [[Middle Kingdom of Egypt|Middle Kingdom (2040–1750 BC). In Europe, the [[Etruscans were making bronze mirrors in the sixth century BC, and [[Ancient Greece|Greek and [[Ancient Rome|Roman mirrors followed the same pattern. Although other materials such as [[speculum metal had come into use, bronze mirrors were still being made in Japan in the eighteenth century AD.


Musical instruments

Bronze is the preferred metal for [[bell (instrument)|bells in the form of a high tin bronze alloy known colloquially as [[bell metal, which is about 23% tin. Nearly all professional [[cymbals are made from bronze, which gives a desirable balance of durability and [[timbre. Several types of bronze are used, commonly [[B20 (bronze)|B20 bronze, which is roughly 20% tin, 80% copper, with traces of silver, or the tougher B8 bronze made from 8% tin and 92% copper. As the tin content in a bell or cymbal rises, the timbre drops. Bronze is also used for the windings of steel and nylon strings of various [[String instrument|stringed instruments such as the [[double bass, [[piano, [[harpsichord, and [[guitar. Bronze strings are commonly reserved on pianoforte for the lower pitch tones, as they possess a superior sustain quality to that of high-tensile steel.McCreight, Tim. ''Metals technic: a collection of techniques for metalsmiths''. Brynmorgen Press, 1992. Bronzes of various metallurgical properties are widely used in struck [[idiophones around the world, notably bells, singing bowls, [[gongs, cymbals, and other idiophones from [[Asia. Examples include Tibetan [[singing bowls, temple [[bell (instrument)|bells of many sizes and shapes, gongs, [[Javanese people|Javanese [[gamelan, and other bronze [[musical instruments. The earliest bronze archeological finds in [[Indonesia date from 1–2 BC, including flat plates probably suspended and struck by a wooden or bone mallet. Ancient bronze drums from Thailand and Vietnam date back 2,000 years. Bronze bells from
Thailand ) | royal_anthem = ''Sansoen Phra Barami''( en|"Glorify His prestige") | image_map = | map_caption = | capital = Bangkok | coordinates = | largest_city = Bangkok | official_languages = Thai As with coins, bronze has been used in the manufacture of various types of [[medals for centuries, and are known in contemporary times for being awarded for third place in sporting competitions and other events. The later usage was in part attributed to the choices of [[gold, [[silver and bronze to represent the first three [[Ages of Man in [[Greek mythology: the [[Golden Age, when men lived among the gods; the [[Silver age, where youth lasted a hundred years; and the [[Greek Heroic Age|Bronze Age, the era of heroes, and was first adopted at the [[1904 Summer Olympics. At the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1900 other prizes were given rather than medals.


See also


References


External links

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Bronze bells


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Viking Bronze – Ancient and Early Medieval bronze casting
{{Authority control [[Category:Bronze| [[Category:Copper alloys [[Category:Tin alloys