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In
cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action starts when the defending team throws a ball at a ded ...

cricket
, the boundary is the
perimeter A perimeter is either a path that encompasses/surrounds/outlines a shape (in two dimensions) or its length ( one-dimensional). The perimeter of a circle A circle is a shape consisting of all point (geometry), points in a plane (mathema ...

perimeter
of a
playing field Play is a range of intrinsically motivated activities done for recreational Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away from business, Emp ...
. It is also the term given to a scoring shot where the ball is hit to, or beyond, that perimeter.


Edge of the field

The boundary is the edge of the playing field, or the physical object (often a rope) marking the edge of the field. In low-level matches, a series of plastic cones are sometimes used. Since the early 2000s, the boundaries at professional matches are often a series of padded cushions carrying sponsors' logos strung along a rope. If one of these is accidentally moved during play (such as by a fielder sliding into the rope in an attempt to stop the ball) the boundary is considered to remain at the point where that object first stood. When the
cricket ball A cricket ball is a hard, solid ball used to play cricket. A cricket ball consists of a cork (material), cork core wound with String (structure), string then a leather cover stitched on, and manufacture is regulated by cricket law at first-clas ...

cricket ball
is inside the boundary, it is live. When the ball is touching the boundary, grounded beyond the boundary, or being touched by a fielder who is himself either touching the boundary or grounded beyond it, it is
dead (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible Irreversible may refer to: *Irreversible process, in thermodynamics, a process that is not reversible *''Irréversible'', a 2002 film *Irréversible (soundtrack), ''Irréve ...

dead
and the batting side usually scores 4 or 6 runs for hitting the ball over the boundary. Because of this rule, fielders near the boundary attempting to intercept the ball while running or diving often flick the ball back in to the field of play rather than pick it up directly, because their momentum could carry them beyond the rope while holding the ball. They then return to the field to pick the ball up and throw it back to the bowler. A law change in 2010 declared that a fielder could not jump from behind the boundary and, while airborne, parry the ball back on to the field.


Scoring runs

A boundary is the scoring of four or six
runs Run(s) or RUN may refer to: Places * Run (island), one of the Banda Islands in Indonesia * Run (stream), a stream in the Dutch province of North Brabant People * Run (rapper), Joseph Simmons, now known as "Reverend Run", from the hip-hop group R ...
from a single delivery, with the ball reaching or crossing the boundary of the playing field, and touching either the boundary or the ground, while either having touched the ground within the playing field first (in the case of four runs) or not (six runs); these events are known as a four or a six respectively. Occasionally there is an erroneous use of the term boundary as a synonym for a "four". For example, sometimes commentators say such as "There were seven boundaries and three sixes in the innings." The correct terminology would be "There were ten boundaries in the innings of which seven were fours and three were sixes." When this happens the runs are automatically added to the batsman's and his team's score and the ball becomes
dead (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible Irreversible may refer to: *Irreversible process, in thermodynamics, a process that is not reversible *''Irréversible'', a 2002 film *Irréversible (soundtrack), ''Irréve ...
. If the ball did not touch the bat or a hand holding the bat, four runs are scored as the relevant type of
extra Extra or Xtra may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Film * ''The Extra'' (1962 film), a Mexican film * ''The Extra'' (2005 film), an Australian film Literature * ''Extra'' (newspaper), a Brazilian newspaper * ''Extra! :''For newspaper ...
instead; six runs cannot be scored as extras, even if the ball clears the boundary, which is in any case extremely unlikely. Any runs the batsmen completed by running before the ball reached the edge of the field do not count, unless they are greater than the number of runs that would be scored by the boundary, in which case it is the runs from the boundary that are discounted. The scoring of a four or six by a good aggressive shot displays a certain amount of mastery by the batsman over the bowler, and is usually greeted by applause from the spectators. Fours resulting from an edged stroke, or from a shot that did not come off as the batsman intended, are considered bad luck to the bowler. As a batsman plays himself in and becomes more confident as his innings progresses, the proportion of his runs scored in boundaries often rises. An average first-class match usually sees between 50 and 150 boundary fours. Sixes are less common, and usually fewer than 10 (and sometimes none) will be scored in the course of a match. The Laws allow for captains to change the boundary allowances (number of runs scored through either type of boundary) through a pre-match agreement.


Four runs

Four runs are scored if the ball bounces, or rolls along the ground, before touching or going over the edge of the field. If it does not touch the edge of the field, it must touch the ground beyond it. For example, a batsman hits the ball and it bounces before the boundary and carries over the boundary in flight, a fielder can still bring the ball back into the field of play as long as any part of the fielder's body does not touch the ground outside of the boundary. Four runs are scored as overthrows if a fielder gathers the ball and then throws it so that no other fielder can gather it before it reaches the boundary. In this case, the batsman who hit the ball scores however many runs the batsmen had run up to that time, plus four additional runs, and it is counted as a boundary. If the ball has not come off the bat or hand holding the bat, then the runs are classified as 'extras' and are added to the team's score but not to the score of any individual batsman. Four runs (or more) can also be scored by hitting the ball into the outfield and running between the
wicket In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail ...

wicket
s. Four runs scored in this way is referred to as an "all run four" and is not counted as a boundary.


Six runs

Six runs are scored if the ball does not bounce before passing over the boundary in the air, and then touches the boundary or the ground beyond it. Prior to 1910, six runs were only awarded for hits out of the ground, with five runs awarded for clearing the boundary.


Records


Sixes

The record for most sixes in a Test match innings is 12, which was achieved by
Pakistani
Pakistani
all-rounder
Wasim Akram Wasim Akram (born 3 June 1966) is a Pakistani cricket commentator, coach, and former cricketer and captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the co ...

Wasim Akram
during an innings of 257 not out against
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...
in October 1996 at
Sheikhupura Shekhupura, also known as Qila Sheikhupura ( ur, , pa, ), is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab. Founded by the Mughal Empire, Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Jehangir in 1607, Sheikhupura is the List of most populous cities ...
. The
One Day International A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket Limited overs cricket, also known as one-day cricket, is a version of the sport of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams ...
record for most sixes hit in an innings is held by Eoin Morgan, who hit 17 sixes against Afghanistan at
Old Trafford Old Trafford () is a association football, football stadium in Old Trafford (area), Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, and the home of Manchester United F.C., Manchester United. With a capacity of 74,140 seats, it is the largest club fo ...
on 18 June 2019 in his innings of 148 off 71 balls.
Brendon McCullum Brendon Barrie McCullum (born 27 September 1981) is a New Zealand cricket coach, commentator and former cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at t ...
currently holds the record for most sixes in a Test career with 107.
Shahid Afridi Sahibzada Mohammad Shahid Khan Afridi (Urdu: شاہد افریدی‎; Pashto: شاهد افریدی‎; born 1 March 1975), known as Shahid Afridi, is a Pakistani cricketer and the former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team. Afri ...
holds the record for most sixes in an ODI career (351 in 398 matches, 369 innings, on his retirement). The record for the most sixes in a Test match is 27, which occurred during a 2006 Test match between
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
at the
Iqbal Stadium Iqbal Stadium ( ur, اقبال سٹیڈیم) is a Test cricket'' Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest match duration, and is considered the game's highest standard. Rotary Test matches are played between nation ...
in
Faisalabad Faisalabad (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Pa ...

Faisalabad
. In their first innings, Pakistan hit eleven sixes. India hit nine in their first innings. Pakistan hit seven more sixes in their second innings. The record for most sixes in a One Day International is 46, which was achieved in a match between
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
and
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...
at St George’s on 27 February 2019. England hit 24 and West Indies hit 22 sixes. The equivalent record in
Twenty20 International A Twenty20 International (T20I) is a form of cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the acti ...
s was set on the AMI Stadium, 24 sixes were hit during the Twenty20 International match between India and New Zealand on 25 February 2009. In 2012, during the First Test against Bangladesh in Dhaka, West Indies cricketer
Chris Gayle Christopher Henry Gayle, OD (born 21 September 1979) is a Jamaican cricketer who plays international cricket for the West Indies cricket team, West Indies. Gayle Captain (cricket), captained the West Indies Test cricket, Test side from 2007 to ...

Chris Gayle
became the first player to hit a six off the first ball in a Test cricket match.


Six sixes in an over

As of March 2021, this feat has occurred eight times in top level domestic or international cricket: On 31 August 1968,
Garfield Sobers Sir Garfield St Aubrun Sobers, AO, OCC (born 28 July 1936), also known as Gary or Garry Sobers, is a former cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at ...
became the first man to hit six sixes off a single six-ball
over Over may refer to: Places *Over, Cambridgeshire, England *Over, Cheshire, England *Over, Gloucestershire, near Gloucester, England **Over Bridge *Over, South Gloucestershire, England *Over, Seevetal, Germany Music Albums *Over (album), ''Over' ...
in
first-class cricket First-class cricket is the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is one of three or more days' scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players each and is officially adjudged to b ...
. The over was bowled by Malcolm Nash in Nottinghamshire's first innings against
Glamorgan , HQ = Cardiff Cardiff (; cy, Caerdydd ) is the capital city of Wales and a Local government in Wales, county. Officially known as the City and County of Cardiff, it is the United Kingdom's eleventh-largest city and the main ...
at
St Helen's St Helens or St. Helen's may refer to: Places Australia * St Helens, Queensland (Fraser Coast Region), a locality in the Fraser Coast Region * St Helens, Queensland (Toowoomba Region), a locality in the Toowoomba Region * St Helens Beach, Queensla ...
in
Swansea Swansea (; cy, Abertawe ) is a coastal City status in the United Kingdom, city and the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, second-largest city of Wales. It forms a Principal areas of Wales, principal area, officially known as the City ...

Swansea
. Nash was a
seam bowler Seam bowling is a bowling (cricket), bowling technique in cricket whereby the ball is deliberately bowled on to its seam, to cause a random deviation when the ball bounces. Practitioners are known as ''seam bowler (cricket), bowlers'' or seamers. ...
but decided to try his arm at
spin bowling Spin bowling is a bowling (cricket), bowling technique in cricket, in which the ball is delivered slowly but with the potential to deviate sharply after bouncing, and the bowler is referred to as a spinner. Purpose The main aim of spin bowling ...
. This achievement was caught on film. On 10 January 1985,
Ravi Shastri Ravishankar Jayadritha Shastri (born 27 May 1962) is an Indian cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitc ...

Ravi Shastri
equalled Sobers' record of hitting six sixes in an over in first class cricket. On 16 March 2007, in a match between
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...
and the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
at the
2007 Cricket World Cup The 2007 ICC Cricket World Cup was the 9th edition of the Cricket World Cup The Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Men's Cricket World Cup) is the international championship The International Championship is a professional Snooker wo ...
,
Herschelle Gibbs Herschelle Herman Gibbs (born 23 February 1974) is a South African cricket coach and former cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of w ...

Herschelle Gibbs
became the first person to hit six sixes off an over in a
One Day International A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket Limited overs cricket, also known as one-day cricket, is a version of the sport of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams ...
match. The over was bowled by Dutch
leg-spin . Image:slow left arm small.gif, A leg spin or leg break delivery bowled from around the wicket. Leg spin is a type of cricket.html"_;"title="spin_bowling_in_cricket">spin_bowling_in_cricket._A_leg_spinner_bowls_right-arm_with_a_wrist_spin_act ...
ner
Daan van Bunge Daan Lodewijk Samuel van Bunge (born 19 October 1982), commonly as Daan van Bunge, is a Dutch cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field gam ...
. On 19 September 2007, during a match between England and India in the inaugural T20 World Cup,
Yuvraj Singh Yuvraj Singh (born 12 December 1981) is a former Indian international cricketer who played in all formats of the game. He was particularly known for his aggressive and elegant stroke play and match winning all-round performances for India. He ...

Yuvraj Singh
became the first batsman to hit six sixes in an over in a T20 International, in an over bowled by
Stuart Broad Stuart Christopher John Broad, (born 24 June 1986) is an English cricketer who plays Test cricket'' Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest match duration, and is considered the game's highest standard. Rotary Test ...

Stuart Broad
. On 23 July 2017,
Worcestershire Worcestershire ( , ; written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by W ...
's
Ross Whiteley Ross Andrew Whiteley (born 13 September 1988) is an English cricketer who currently plays for Worcestershire County Cricket Club, Worcestershire. Whiteley was born in Sheffield. He played with the Derbyshire County Cricket Club, Derbyshire Seco ...
hit six sixes off six legal deliveries plus one wide to take the total number of runs in that over to 37 off bowler
Karl Carver Karl Carver (born 26 March 1996) is an English first-class cricketer. A left-handed batsman and slow left arm orthodox bowler, Carver was previously contracted to Yorkshire County Cricket Club, for whom he played his debut first-class match in 2 ...
of
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...
at
Headingley Headingley is a suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Televis ...
during a
NatWest T20 Blast The T20 Blast, currently named the Vitality Blast for sponsorship reasons is a professional Twenty20 Twenty20 cricket or Twenty-20 (often abbreviated to T20) is a shortened format of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and ...
match. In October 2018 Afghanistan's Hazratullah Zazai hit six sixes in an overoff the bowling of Abdullah Mazari for Kabul Zwanan against Balkh Legends in the Afghanistan Premier League, becoming only the third batsman to achieve the feat in a Twenty20 match. On 5 January 2020, in the 2019–20 Super Smash match between Canterbury and Northern Districts, Leo Carter hit six sixes in one over off the bowling of Anton Devcich. On 3 March 2021,
Kieron Pollard Kieron Adrian Pollard (born 12 May 1987) is a Trinidadian cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch wit ...
hit six sixes in an over off the bowling of
Akila Dananjaya Mahamarakkala Kurukulasooriya Patabendige Akila Dananjaya Perera (born 4 October 1993), or Akila Dananjaya, is a professional Sri Lankan cricketer, who plays all forms of the game for the Sri Lanka national cricket team, national team. H ...
in the first T20I between Sri Lanka and the West Indies at the
Coolidge Cricket Ground The Coolidge Cricket Ground is a cricket ground in Osbourn, Saint George Parish, Antigua Antigua ( ), also known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Pe ...
. Later the same month, in the 2020–21 Major Clubs Limited Over Tournament match between Sri Lanka Army Sports Club and
Bloomfield Cricket and Athletic Club Bloomfield Cricket and Athletic Club is a first-class cricket First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is of three or more days' sch ...
, Army Sports Club's captain
Thisara Perera Narangoda Liyanaarachchige Thisara Chirantha Perera ( si, තිසර පෙරේරා; born 3 April 1989), popularly as Thisara Perera, is a former Sri Lankan cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between t ...
hit six sixes in one over off the bowling of Dilhan Cooray.


See also

*
Home run In baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team (baseball), fielding t ...
- similar to a six.


References

{{Cricket statistics Cricket terminology Cricket laws and regulations