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A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a
garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest wild garden A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an Biophy ...

garden
dedicated to the collection,
cultivation Cultivation may refer to: * The state of having or expressing a good education (bildung), refinement (culture), refinement, culture, or high culture * Gardening * Agriculture, the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi * Fungiculture ...

cultivation
, preservation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their
botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around R ...
s. It may contain specialist plant collections such as
cacti A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus) is a member of the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living thi ...

cacti
and other
succulent plant ''. In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...
s,
herb garden upPetersfield Physic Garden A physic garden is a type of herb garden with medicinal plants. Botanical gardens developed from them. History Modern botanical gardens were preceded by medieval physic gardens that originated at the time of Emperor C ...
s, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be
greenhouse A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse, or, if with sufficient heating, a hothouse) is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photo ...

greenhouse
s,
shadehouseA shade house is a garden structure which provides a mix of shade and light to provide suitable conditions for shade-loving plants. Typically, it will have a frame which supports the elements providing shade which might be fabric, mesh or wooden l ...
s, again with special collections such as
tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to ...

tropical
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s,
alpine plant Alpine plants are plants that grow in an alpine climate, which occurs at high elevation and above the tree line. There are many different plant species and taxon that grow as a plant community in these alpine tundra. These include perennial grasses, ...
s, or other
exotic plant (''Melilotus sp.''), introduced and naturalized Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law o ...
s. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays,
art exhibition satirizes the ''bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: * a sociologically defined social class, especially in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural Culture () is an umbrella t ...

art exhibition
s, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment. Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated
herbaria A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study. The specimens may be whole plants or plant parts; these will usually be in dried form mounted on a sheet of paper (called " ...

herbaria
and research programmes in
plant taxonomy Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert lig ...
or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. The origin of modern botanical gardens is generally traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which also entailed the curation of a medicinal garden. However, the objectives, content, and audience of today's botanic gardens more closely resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of
Theophrastus Theophrastus (; grc-gre, Θεόφραστος ; c. 371c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos Eresos (; el, Ερεσός; grc, Ἔρεσος) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Le ...

Theophrastus
in the Lyceum of ancient Athens. The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany gradually established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems often being displayed in the gardens as educational "order
beds A bed is a piece of furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture ...
". With the rapid expansion of European
colonies around the globe
colonies around the globe
in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, and
economic botany Economic botany is the study of the relationship between people (individuals and cultures) and plants. Economic botany intersects many fields including established disciplines such as agronomy, anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, economics, ethno ...
became a focus with the hub at the
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is a non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, HM Treasury, Treasury, the Scottish Government and the Northern Ireland Ex ...
, near London. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and
horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as orn ...
. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display a mix of the themes mentioned and more; having a strong connection with the general public, there is the opportunity to provide visitors with information relating to the environmental issues being faced at the start of the 21st century, especially those relating to
plant conservation Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of nature and of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent ...
and
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is d ...

sustainability
.


Definitions

The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey
Hortorium A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert ...
of
Cornell University Cornell University is a and , based in . Founded in 1865 by and , Cornell was founded with the intention to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge — from the to the s, and from the to the applied. These ideals, unconve ...
in 1976. It covers in some detail the many functions and activities generally associated with botanical gardens:
A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria, laboratories, and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings. Each botanical garden naturally develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, location, extent, available funds, and the terms of its charter. It may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, and other departments. It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, and publication is one of its major modes of expression.
This broad outline is then expanded:
The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university. If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it exists for scientific ends and is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands. It is not merely a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, which is the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge.
A contemporary botanic garden is a strictly protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, education, public display, conservation, sustainable use, tourism and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for improvement of human well-being. The "New
Royal Horticultural Society The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultiva ...
Dictionary of Gardening" (1999) points out that among the various kinds of organisations now known as botanical gardens are many public gardens with little scientific activity, and it cites a more abbreviated definition that was published by the
World Wildlife Fund In its most general sense, the term "world" refers to the totality of entities, to the whole of reality or to everything that is. The nature of the world has been conceptualized differently in different fields. Some conceptions see the world ...
and
IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journ ...
when launching the ’'Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy'’ in 1989: "A botanic garden is a garden containing scientifically ordered and maintained collections of plants, usually documented and labelled, and open to the public for the purposes of recreation, education and research." This has been further reduced by
Botanic Gardens Conservation International Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) is a plant conservation charity based in Kew, London, England. It is a membership organisation, working with 800 botanic gardens A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ...
to the following definition which "encompasses the spirit of a true botanic garden": "A botanic garden is an institution holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display and education."


The botanical gardens network

Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and
arboreta An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees. More commonly a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for s ...

arboreta
in about 150 countries (mostly in temperate regions) of which about 550 are in
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
(150 of which are in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
), 200 in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, and an increasing number in East Asia. These gardens attract about 300 million visitors a year. Historically, botanical gardens exchanged plants through the publication of seed lists (these were called la, Indices Seminae in the 18th century). This was a means of transferring both plants and information between botanical gardens. This system continues today, although the possibility of genetic piracy and the transmission of
invasive species Kudzu, a Japanese vine species invasive in the southeast United States, growing in Atlanta, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia An invasive species is an introduced species, introduced organism that becomes overpopulated and negatively alters its n ...
has received greater attention in recent times. The International Association of Botanic Gardens was formed in 1954 as a worldwide organisation affiliated to the
International Union of Biological Sciences The International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operat ...
. More recently, coordination has also been provided by
Botanic Gardens Conservation International Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) is a plant conservation charity based in Kew, London, England. It is a membership organisation, working with 800 botanic gardens A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ...
(BGCI), which has the mission "To mobilise botanic gardens and engage partners in securing plant diversity for the well-being of people and the planet". BGCI has over 700 membersmostly botanic gardensin 118 countries, and strongly supports the
Global Strategy for Plant Conservation The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) is a program of the UN's Convention on Biological Diversity The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treatyMultilateral may ...
by producing a range resources and publications, and by organizing international conferences and conservation programs. Communication also happens regionally. In the United States, there is the
American Public Gardens Association The American Public Gardens Association, formerly the American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, is an association of public-garden institutions and professionals primarily in the United States and Canada. Over the last six decades, t ...
(formerly the American Association of Botanic Gardens and Arboreta), and in Australasia there is the Botanic Gardens of Australia and New Zealand (BGANZ).


History and development

The history of botanical gardens is closely linked to the history of
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...
itself. The botanical gardens of the 16th and 17th centuries were medicinal gardens, but the idea of a botanical garden changed to encompass displays of the beautiful, strange, new and sometimes economically important plant trophies being returned from the European colonies and other distant lands. Later, in the 18th century, they became more educational in function, demonstrating the latest plant classification systems devised by botanists working in the associated herbaria as they tried to order these new treasures. Then, in the 19th and 20th centuries, the trend was towards a combination of specialist and eclectic collections demonstrating many aspects of both horticulture and botany.


Precursors

The idea of "scientific" gardens used specifically for the study of plants dates back to antiquity.


Grand gardens of ancient history

Near-eastern royal gardens set aside for economic use or display and containing at least some plants gained by special collecting trips or military campaigns abroad, are known from the second millennium BCE in
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a of , concentrated along the lower reaches of the , situated in the place that is now the country . Ancient Egyptian civilization followed and coalesced around 3100 (according to ) with the political unification of u ...

ancient Egypt
,
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
,
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, : , : '','' ) is the largest and most populous of the , the largest island in the world and the largest island in the , after , , , and . Crete rests approximately south of the Greek mainland. It has an ar ...

Crete
,
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; ...

Mexico
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. In about 2800 BCE, the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung sent collectors to distant regions searching for plants with economic or medicinal value. It has also been suggested that the influenced the history of the botanical garden as gardens in
Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan ( nah, Tenōchtitlan ; es, Tenochtitlán), also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan ( nah, Mēxihco Tenōchtitlan ; es, México-Tenochtitlán), was a large Mexica ''altepetl'' in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. The exact ...

Tenochtitlan
established by king
NezahualcoyotlNezahualcoyotl may refer to: * Nezahualcoyotl (tlatoani), the ruler of Texcoco * Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, a city in the State of Mexico * Nezahualcóyotl metro station, in Mexico City * The Nezahualcóyotl Award, a literary prize in Mexico * Malpaso ...
, also gardens in
Chalco (altépetl) Chālco was a complex pre-Columbian Nahua '' altepetl'' or confederacy in central Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern p ...
and elsewhere, greatly impressed the Spanish invaders, not only with their appearance, but also because the indigenous
Aztec The Aztecs () were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different Indigenous peoples of Mexico, ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those g ...

Aztec
s employed many more medicinal plants than did the classical world of Europe. Early medieval gardens in Islamic Spain resembled botanic gardens of the future, an example being the 11th-century Huerta del Ray garden of physician and author
Ibn Wafid Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn al-Wafid lakhm, al-Lakhmi () (c. 997 – 1074), known in Latin language, Latin Europe as , was an Arab pharmacologist and physician from Toledo, Spain, Toledo. He was the vizier of Al-Mamun of Toledo. His main work is ''Kitāb ...
(999–1075 CE) in
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
. This was later taken over by garden chronicler
Ibn Bassal Ibn Bassal ( ar, ابن بصال) was an 11th-century Andalusian Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergover ...
(fl. 1085 CE) until the Christian conquest in 1085 CE. Ibn Bassal then founded a garden in Seville, most of its plants being collected on a botanical expedition that included Morocco, Persia, Sicily, and Egypt. The medical school of Montpelier was also founded by Spanish Arab physicians, and by 1250 CE, it included a physic garden, but the site was not given botanic garden status until 1593.


Physic gardens

Botanical gardens, in the modern sense, developed from
physic garden File:Petersfield Physic Garden - geograph.org.uk - 17502.jpg, upPetersfield Physic Garden A physic garden is a type of herb garden with medicinal plants. Botanical gardens developed from them. History Modern botanical gardens were preceded by med ...
s, whose main purpose was to cultivate
herb In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is appl ...

herb
s for medical use as well as research and experimentation. Such gardens have a long history. In Europe, for example,
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
(384 BCE – 322 BCE) is said to have had a physic garden in the
Lyceum The lyceum is a category of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. Th ...
at Athens, which was used for educational purposes and for the study of botany, and this was inherited, or possibly set up, by his pupil
Theophrastus Theophrastus (; grc-gre, Θεόφραστος ; c. 371c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos Eresos (; el, Ερεσός; grc, Ἔρεσος) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Le ...

Theophrastus
, the "Father of Botany". There is some debate among science historians whether this garden was ordered and scientific enough to be considered "botanical", and suggest it more appropriate to attribute the earliest known botanical garden in Europe to the botanist and pharmacologist
Antonius CastorAntonius Castor was a pioneering botany, botanist and pharmacology, pharmacologist of ancient Rome who lived in the first century. He is several times quoted and mentioned by Pliny the Elder, who considered him the greatest authority on his subjects. ...
, mentioned by
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, ...

Pliny the Elder
in the 1st century. Though these ancient gardens shared some of the characteristics of present-day botanical gardens, the forerunners of modern botanical gardens are generally regarded as being the medieval monastic physic gardens that originated after the decline of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
at the time of Emperor
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (fro ...

Charlemagne
(742–789 CE). These contained a , a garden used mostly for vegetables, and another section set aside for specially labelled medicinal plants and this was called the or more generally known as a physic garden, and a or orchard. These gardens were probably given impetus when Charlemagne issued a
capitularyA capitulary (Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
, the Capitulary de Villis, which listed 73 herbs to be used in the physic gardens of his dominions. Many of these were found in British gardens even though they only occurred naturally in continental Europe, demonstrating earlier plant introduction.
Pope Nicholas V Pope Nicholas V ( la, Nicholaus V; 13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denomination ...

Pope Nicholas V
set aside part of the Vatican grounds in 1447, for a garden of medicinal plants that were used to promote the teaching of botany, and this was a forerunner to the University gardens at Padua and Pisa established in the 1540s. Certainly the founding of many early botanic gardens was instigated by members of the medical profession.


16th- and 17th-century European gardens

In the 17th century, botanical gardens began their contribution to a deeper scientific curiosity about plants. If a botanical garden is defined by its scientific or academic connection, then the first true botanical gardens were established with the revival of learning that occurred in the European
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
. These were secular gardens attached to universities and medical schools, used as resources for teaching and research. The superintendents of these gardens were often professors of botany with international reputations, a factor that probably contributed to the creation of botany as an independent discipline rather than a descriptive adjunct to medicine.


Origins in the Italian Renaissance

The botanical gardens of
Southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and ...

Southern Europe
were associated with university faculties of medicine and were founded in
Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy. Non-administrative, it consists of eight adm ...
at Orto botanico di Pisa (1544),
Orto botanico di Padova The Orto Botanico di Padova is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally res ...
(1545), Orto Botanico di Firenze (1545), Orto Botanico dell'Università di Pavia (1558) and Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna (1568).Precisely dating the foundation of botanical gardens is often difficult because government decrees may be issued some time before land is acquired and planting begins, or existing gardens may be relocated to new sites, or previously existing gardens may be taken over and converted. Here the physicians (referred to in English as
apothecaries :''"Apothecary" may also refer to Pharmacy (shop) A pharmacy (also called "drugstore" in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of ...

apothecaries
) delivered lectures on the Mediterranean "simples" or " officinals" that were being cultivated in the grounds. Student education was no doubt stimulated by the relatively recent advent of printing and the publication of the first herbals. All of these botanical gardens still exist, mostly in their original locations.


Northern Europe

The tradition of these Italian gardens passed into
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
Botanical Garden of Valencia, 1567) and
Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other geographic ...
, where similar gardens were established in the Netherlands (''
Hortus Botanicus Leiden The Hortus botanicus of Leiden Leiden (, ; in English language, English and Archaism, archaic Dutch language, Dutch also ''Leyden'') is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and List of municipalities of the Netherlands, muni ...

Hortus Botanicus Leiden
'', 1587; ''
Hortus Botanicus (Amsterdam) Hortus Botanicus is a botanical garden in the Plantage (Amsterdam), Plantage district of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. One of the oldest in the world, it is one of Amsterdam's major tourist attractions. History The Amsterdam city council founded ...
'', 1638), Germany ('' Alter Botanischer Garten Tübingen'', 1535;
Leipzig Botanical Garden Image:Botanischer Garten Leipzig Gewächshäuser 2015.jpg, In 2015 Leipzig Botanical Garden (3.5 hectares), (german: Leipziger Botanische Gärten, Botanischer Garten der Universität Leipzig), is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Le ...
, 1580; '' Botanischer Garten Jena'', 1586; '''', 1593; '' Herrenhäuser Gärten, Hanover'', 1666; '' Botanischer Garten der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel'', 1669;
Botanical Garden in Berlin Pavilion. The Berlin Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum (german: Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin) is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gard ...
, 1672), Switzerland ( Old Botanical Garden, Zürich, 1560;
Basel Basel ( , ) or Basle ( ; french: link=no, Bâle ; it, Basilea ; rm, Basilea ) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river High Rhine, Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's List of cities in Switzerland, third-most-populous city (after Zürich and ...

Basel
, 1589); England (
University of Oxford Botanic Garden The University of Oxford Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden in Great Britain and one of the oldest scientific gardens in the world. The garden was founded in 1621 as a physic garden upPetersfield Physic Garden A physic garden is a ty ...

University of Oxford Botanic Garden
, 1621;
Chelsea Physic Garden The Chelsea Physic Garden was established as the Apothecaries' Garden in London, England, in 1673 by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London is one of the livery companies of the City of Lon ...

Chelsea Physic Garden
, 1673); Scotland (
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) is a scientific centre for the study of plants, their diversity and conservation, as well as a popular tourist attraction. Founded in 1670 as a physic garden to grow medicinal plants, today it occupies ...
, 1670); and in France (''
Jardin des plantes de Montpellier The jardin des plantes de Montpellier (4.5 hectares) is a historic botanical garden and arboretum located on Boulevard Henri IV, Montpellier, Hérault, Languedoc-Roussillon, France. It is maintained by the Université Montpellier 1 and open aftern ...

Jardin des plantes de Montpellier
'', 1593; Faculty of Medicine Garden, Paris, 1597; ''
Jardin des Plantes#REDIRECT Jardin des plantes The ''Jardin des plantes'' (French for "Garden of the Plants"), also known as the ''Jardin des plantes de Paris'' () when distinguished from other ''jardins des plantes'' in other cities, is the main botanical garden ...

Jardin des Plantes
'', Paris, 1635), Denmark (
University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden The University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden ( da, Botanisk have), usually referred to simply as Copenhagen Botanical Garden, is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ' ...
, 1600); Sweden (
Uppsala University Uppsala University ( sv, Uppsala universitet) is a public university, public research university in Uppsala, Sweden. Founded in 1477, it is the List of universities in Sweden, oldest university in Sweden and the Nordic countries still in opera ...
, 1655).


Beginnings of botanical science

During the 16th and 17th centuries, the first plants were being imported to these major
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
an gardens from
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
and nearby
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
(which provided many
bulb In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the An ...

bulb
s), and these found a place in the new gardens, where they could be conveniently studied by the plant experts of the day. For example, Asian introductions were described by
Carolus Clusius '' Nymphaea'' from ''Rariorum plantarum historia'' Charles de l'Écluse, L'Escluse, or Carolus Clusius (Arras, February 19, 1526 – Leiden, April 4, 1609), seigneur de Watènes, was an County of Artois, Artois doctor and pioneering botanist, per ...

Carolus Clusius
(1526–1609), who was director, in turn, of the
Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna The Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botani ...
and
Hortus Botanicus Leiden The Hortus botanicus of Leiden Leiden (, ; in English language, English and Archaism, archaic Dutch language, Dutch also ''Leyden'') is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and List of municipalities of the Netherlands, muni ...

Hortus Botanicus Leiden
. Many plants were being collected from the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
, especially bulbous plants from
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. Clusius laid the foundations of
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
tulip breeding and the bulb industry, and he helped create one of the earliest formal botanical gardens of Europe at
Leyden Leiden ( , ; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become ...

Leyden
where his detailed planting lists have made it possible to recreate this garden near its original site. The of Leyden in 1601 was a perfect square divided into quarters for the four continents, but by 1720, though, it was a rambling system of beds, struggling to contain the novelties rushing in, and it became better known as the . His ''
Exoticorum libri decem ''Exoticorum libri decem'' ("Ten books of exotic life forms") is an illustrated zoological and botanical compendium in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languag ...
'' (1605) is an important survey of exotic plants and animals that is still consulted today. The inclusion of new plant introductions in botanic gardens meant their scientific role was now widening, as botany gradually asserted its independence from medicine. In the mid to late 17th century, the Paris
Jardin des Plantes#REDIRECT Jardin des plantes The ''Jardin des plantes'' (French for "Garden of the Plants"), also known as the ''Jardin des plantes de Paris'' () when distinguished from other ''jardins des plantes'' in other cities, is the main botanical garden ...

Jardin des Plantes
was a centre of interest with the greatest number of new introductions to attract the public. In
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, the
Chelsea Physic Garden The Chelsea Physic Garden was established as the Apothecaries' Garden in London, England, in 1673 by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London is one of the livery companies of the City of Lon ...

Chelsea Physic Garden
was founded in 1673 as the "Garden of the Society of Apothecaries". The Chelsea garden had heated
greenhouse A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse, or, if with sufficient heating, a hothouse) is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photo ...

greenhouse
s, and in 1723 appointed
Philip Miller Philip Miller FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resourc ...
(1691–1771) as
head gardener{{no footnotes, date=July 2020 The 'Head Gardener' is an individual who manages all horticultural aspects of a property or garden including staff and volunteers. The properties they manage include Historic Gardens and Private estates, as well as ame ...
. He had a wide influence on both botany and horticulture, as plants poured into it from around the world. The garden's golden age came in the 18th century, when it became the world's most richly stocked botanical garden. Its seed-exchange programme was established in 1682 and still continues today.


18th century

With the increase in maritime trade, ever more plants were being brought back to Europe as trophies from distant lands, and these were triumphantly displayed in the private estates of the wealthy, in commercial plant nursery, nurseries, and in the public botanical gardens. Heated conservatories called "orangery, orangeries", such as the one at Kew, became a feature of many botanical gardens. Industrial expansion in Europe and
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
resulted in new building skills, so plants sensitive to cold were kept over winter in progressively elaborate and expensive heated conservatories and glasshouses.Glasshouses built to overwinter tender evergreen shrubs, known as 'greens', were called greenhouses, a name that is still used today.


The Cape, Dutch East Indies

The 18th century was marked by introductions from the Cape of South Africaincluding ericas, geraniums, pelargoniums, succulents, and Proteaceae, proteaceous plantswhile the Dutch trade with the Dutch East Indies resulted in a golden era for the Leiden and Amsterdam botanical gardens and a boom in the construction of conservatories.


Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

The Royal Gardens at Kew were founded in 1759, initially as part of the Royal Garden set aside as a physic garden. William Aiton (1741–1793), the first curator, was taught by garden chronicler
Philip Miller Philip Miller FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resourc ...
of the Chelsea Physic Garden whose son Charles became first curator of the original Cambridge Botanic Garden (1762). In 1759, the "Physick Garden" was planted, and by 1767, it was claimed that "the Exotick Garden is by far the richest in Europe". Gardens such as the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1759) and :es:Jardín de Aclimatación de la Orotava, Orotava Acclimatization Garden , Tenerife (1788) and the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (1755) were set up to cultivate new species returned from expeditions to the tropics; they also helped found new tropical botanical gardens. From the 1770s, following the example of the Kingdom of France, French and History of Spain (1700–1810), Spanish, amateur collectors were supplemented by official horticultural and botanical plant hunters. These botanical gardens were boosted by the flora being sent back to Europe from various European Colonialism, colonies around the globe. At this time, British horticulturalists were importing many woody plants from British America, Britain's colonies in North America, and the popularity of horticulture had increased enormously, encouraged by the horticultural and botanical collecting expeditions overseas fostered by the directorship of William Jackson Hooker, Sir William Jackson Hooker and his keen interest in
economic botany Economic botany is the study of the relationship between people (individuals and cultures) and plants. Economic botany intersects many fields including established disciplines such as agronomy, anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, economics, ethno ...
. At the end of the 18th century, Kew, under the directorship of Sir Joseph Banks, enjoyed a golden age of plant hunting, sending out collectors to the Cape Colony, South African Cape, History of Australia (1788-1850), Australia, Captaincy General of Chile, Chile, Qing dynasty, China, British Ceylon, Ceylon, Colonial Brazil, Brazil, and elsewhere, and acting as "the great botanical exchange house of the British Empire". From its earliest days to the present, Kew has in many ways exemplified botanic garden ideals, and is respected worldwide for the published work of its scientists, the education of horticultural students, its public programmes, and the scientific underpinning of its horticulture.


Bartram's Garden

In 1728, John Bartram founded Bartram's Garden in Philadelphia, one of the continent's first botanical gardens. The garden is now managed as a historical site that includes a few original and many modern specimens as well as extensive archives and restored historical farm buildings.


Plant classification

The large number of plants needing description were often listed in garden catalogues; and at this time Carl Linnaeus established the system of binomial nomenclature which greatly facilitated the listing process. Names of plants were authenticated by dried plant specimens mounted on card (a or garden of dried plants) that were stored in buildings called herbarium, herbaria, these Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic research institutions being frequently associated with the botanical gardens, many of which by then had "order beds" to display the classification systems being developed by botanists in the gardens' museums and herbaria. Botanical gardens had now become scientific collections, as botanists published their descriptions of the new exotic plants, and these were also recorded for posterity in detail by superb botanical illustrations. In this century, botanical gardens effectively dropped their medicinal function in favour of scientific and aesthetic priorities, and the term "botanic garden" came to be more closely associated with the herbarium, library (and later laboratories) housed there than with the living collectionson which little research was undertaken.


19th century

The late 18th and early 19th centuries were marked by the establishment of tropical botanical gardens as a tool of colonialism, colonial expansion (for trade and commerce and, secondarily, science) mainly by the British and Dutch, in British India, India, South-east Asia and the Caribbean. This was also the time of Sir Joseph Banks's botanical collections during Captain James Cook's circumnavigations of the planet and his explorations of Oceania, which formed the last phase of plant introduction on a grand scale.


Tropical botanical gardens

There are currently about 230 tropical botanical gardens with a concentration in southern and south-eastern Asia. The first botanical garden founded in the tropics was the Pamplemousses Botanical Garden in Mauritius, established in 1735 to provide food for ships using the port, but later trialling and distributing many plants of economic importance. This was followed by the West Indies (Botanic Gardens St. Vincent, 1764) and in 1786 by the Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Botanical Garden in Calcutta, India founded during a period of prosperity when the city was a trading centre for the Dutch East India Company. Other gardens were constructed in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden, 1808), Sri Lanka (Botanical Garden of Peradeniya, 1821 and on a site dating back to 1371), Indonesia (Bogor Botanical Gardens, 1817 and Kebun Raya Cibodas, 1852), and Singapore (Singapore Botanical Gardens, 1822). These had a profound effect on the economy of the countries, especially in relation to the foods and medicines introduced. The importation of Para rubber tree, rubber trees to the Singapore Botanic Garden initiated the important rubber industry of the Malay Peninsula. At this time also, teak and tea were introduced to India and breadfruit, Piper (genus), pepper and carambola, starfruit to the Caribbean. Included in the charter of these gardens was the investigation of the local flora for its economic potential to both the colonists and the local people. Many crop plants were introduced by or through these gardensoften in association with European botanical gardens such as Kew or Amsterdamand included cloves, tea, coffee, breadfruit, cinchona, sugar, cotton, palm oil and ''Theobroma cacao'' (for chocolate). During these times, the rubber plant was introduced to Singapore. Especially in the tropics, the larger gardens were frequently associated with a herbarium and museum of economy. The Botanical Garden of Peradeniya had considerable influence on the development of agriculture in Ceylon where the Para rubber tree () was introduced from Kew, which had itself imported the plant from South America. Other examples include cotton from the Chelsea Physic Garden to the Province of Georgia in 1732 and tea into India by Calcutta Botanic Garden. The transfer of germplasm between the temperate and tropical botanical gardens was undoubtedly responsible for the range of agricultural crops currently used in several regions of the tropics.


Australia

The first botanical gardens in Australia were founded early in the 19th century. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, 1816; the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens, 1818; the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, 1845; Adelaide Botanic Gardens, 1854; and City Botanic Gardens, Brisbane Botanic Gardens, 1855. These were established essentially as colonial gardens of economic botany and acclimatisation. The Auburn Botanical Gardens, 1977, located in Western Sydney, Sydney's western suburbs, are one of the popular and diverse botanical gardens in the Greater Western Sydney area.


New Zealand

Major botanical gardens in New Zealand include Dunedin Botanic Gardens, 1863; Christchurch Botanic Gardens, 1863; and Wellington Botanic Gardens, 1868.


Hong Kong

Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Hong Kong Botanic Gardens, 1871 (renamed Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens in 1975), up from the Government Hill in Victoria, Hong Kong, Victoria City, Hong Kong Island.


Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka major botanical gardens include the Royal Botanical Gardens, Peradeniya (formally established in 1843), Hakgala Botanical Gardens (1861) and Henarathgoda Botanical Garden (1876).


Ecuador

Jardín Botánico de Quito is inside the Parque La Carolina is a 165.5-acre (670,000 m2) park in the centre of the Quito central business district, bordered by the avenues Río Amazonas, de los Shyris, Naciones Unidas, Eloy Alfaro, and de la República. The botanical garden of Quito is a park, a botanical garden, an arboretum and greenhouses of 18,600 square meters that is planned to increase, maintain the plants of the country (Ecuador is among the 17 richest countries in the world in the native species, a study on this matter). The Ecuadorian flora classified, determines the existence of 17,000 species)


Egypt

The Orman Garden, one of the most famous botanical gardens in Egypt, is located at Giza, in Cairo, and dates back to 1875.


South Africa

The oldest botanical garden in South Africa is the Durban Botanic Gardens which has been located on the same site since 1851. The Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, established in 1913, has a site dating to 1848. Stellenbosch University Botanical Garden is the oldest university botanical garden in South Africa, and was established in 1922.


United States

The first botanical garden in the United States, Bartram's Garden, was founded in 1730 near Philadelphia, and in the same year, the Linnaean Botanic Garden at Philadelphia itself. Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, all experienced farmers, shared the dream of a national botanic garden for the collection, preservation and study of plants from around the world to contribute to the welfare of the American people paving the way for establishing the United States Botanic Garden, US Botanic Garden, right outside the nation's United States Capitol, Capitol in Washington, D.C., Washington DC in 1820. In 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden was founded at St Louis, Missouri, St Louis; it is now one of the world's leading gardens specializing in tropical plants. This was one of several popular American gardens, including Longwood Gardens (1798), Arnold Arboretum (1872), New York Botanical Garden (1891), The Huntington Library, Huntington Botanical Gardens (1906), Brooklyn Botanic Garden (1910), International Peace Garden (1932), and Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (1938).


Russia

Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
has more botanical gardens than any other country. Better-known gardens are :ru:Аптекарский огород, Moscow University Botanic Garden ('the Apothecary Garden'), (1706), Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden, (1714); and Moscow Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, (1945). These gardens are notable for their structures that include sculptures, pavilions, bandstands, memorials,
shadehouseA shade house is a garden structure which provides a mix of shade and light to provide suitable conditions for shade-loving plants. Typically, it will have a frame which supports the elements providing shade which might be fabric, mesh or wooden l ...
s, tea houses and such. Among the smaller gardens within Russia, one that is increasingly gaining prominence, is the Botanical Garden of Tver State University, (1879) – the northernmost botanical Garden with an exhibition of steppe plants, only one of its kind in the Upper Volga.


Ukraine

Ukraine has about 30 botanical gardens. The most famous from them with well-respected collections are Nikitsky Botanical Garden, Yalta, founded in 1812, M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden, a botanical garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine founded in 1936, and A.V. Fomin Botanical Garden of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv founded in 1839, which are located in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine.


20th century


Civic and municipal botanical gardens

A large number of civic or municipal botanical gardens were founded in the 19th and 20th centuries. These did not develop scientific facilities or programmes, but the horticultural aspects were strong and the plants often labelled. They were botanical gardens in the sense of building up collections of plants and exchanging seeds with other gardens around the world, although their collection policies were determined by those in day-to-day charge of them. They tended to become little more than beautifully maintained parks and were, indeed, often under general parks administrations.


Community engagement

The second half of the 20th century saw increasingly sophisticated educational, visitor service, and interpretation services. Botanical gardens started to cater for many interests and their displays reflected this, often including botanical exhibits on themes of evolution, ecology or Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, horticultural displays of attractive flowerbeds and herbaceous borders, plants from different parts of the world, special collections of plant groups such as bamboos or roses, and specialist glasshouse collections such as tropical plants,
alpine plant Alpine plants are plants that grow in an alpine climate, which occurs at high elevation and above the tree line. There are many different plant species and taxon that grow as a plant community in these alpine tundra. These include perennial grasses, ...
s,
cacti A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus) is a member of the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living thi ...

cacti
and Orchidaceae, orchids, as well as the traditional herb gardens and medicinal plants. Specialised gardens like the Palmengarten in Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany (1869), one of the world's leading orchid and
succulent plant ''. In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...
collections, have been very popular. There was a renewed interest in gardens of indigenous (ecology), indigenous plants and areas dedicated to natural vegetation. With decreasing financial support from governments, revenue-raising public entertainment increased, including music, art exhibitions, special botanical exhibitions, theatre and film, this being supplemented by the advent of "Friends" organisations and the use of volunteer guides.


Plant conservation

Plant conservation and the heritage value of exceptional historic landscapes were treated with a growing sense of urgency. Specialist gardens were sometimes given a separate or adjoining site, to display native and indigenous plants. In the 1970s, gardens became focused on the plant conservation. The Botanic Gardens Conservation Secretariat was established by the
IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journ ...
, and the World Conservation Union in 1987 with the aim of coordinating the plant conservation efforts of botanical gardens around the world. It maintains a database of rare and endangered species in botanical gardens' living collections. Many gardens hold ex situ conservation, ''ex situ'' conservation collections that preserve genetic variation. These may be held as: seeds dried and stored at low temperature, or in tissue culture (such as the Kew Millennium Seedbank); as living plants, including those that are of special horticultural, historical or scientific interest (such as those held by the NCCPG in the United Kingdom); or by managing and preserving areas of natural vegetation. Collections are often held and cultivated with the intention of reintroduction to their original habitats. The Center for Plant Conservation at St Louis, Missouri coordinates the conservation of native North American species.


Role and functions

Many of the functions of botanical gardens have already been discussed in the sections above, which emphasise the scientific underpinning of botanical gardens with their focus on research, education and conservation. However, as multifaceted organisations, all sites have their own special interests. In a remarkable paper on the role of botanical gardens, Ferdinand von Mueller (1825–1896), the director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne (1852–1873), stated, "in all cases the objects [of a botanical garden] must be mainly scientific and predominantly instructive". He then detailed many of the objectives being pursued by the world's botanical gardens in the middle of the 19th century, when European gardens were at their height. Many of these are listed below to give a sense of the scope of botanical gardens' activities at that time, and the ways in which they differed from parks or what he called "public pleasure gardens": * availability of plants for scientific research * display of plant diversity in form and use * display of plants of particular regions (including local) * plants sometimes grown within their particular families * plants grown for their seed or rarity * major timber (List of American words not widely used in the United Kingdom#L, American English: ''lumber'') trees * plants of economic significance * glasshouse plants of different climates * all plants accurately labelled * records kept of plants and their performance * catalogues of holdings published periodically * research facilities utilising the living collections * studies in plant taxonomy * examples of different vegetation types * student education * a herbarium * selection and introduction of ornamental and other plants to commerce * studies of plant chemistry (phytochemistry) * report on the effects of plants on livestock * at least one collector maintained doing field work Botanical gardens must find a compromise between the need for peace and seclusion, while at the same time satisfying the public need for information and visitor services that include restaurants, information centres and sales areas that bring with them rubbish, noise, and hyperactivity. Attractive landscaping and planting design sometimes compete with scientific interests — with science now often taking second place. Some gardens are now heritage landscapes that are subject to constant demand for new exhibits and exemplary environmental management. Many gardens now have plant shops selling flowers, herbs, and vegetable seedlings suitable for transplanting; many, like the UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research and the Chicago Botanic Garden, have plant-breeding programs and introduce new plants to the horticultural trade.


Future

Botanical gardens are still being built, such as the first botanical garden in Oman, which will be one of the largest gardens in the world. Once completed, it will house the first large-scale cloud forest in a huge glasshouse. Development of botanical gardens in China over recent years has been remarkable, including the Hainan Botanical Garden of Tropical Economic Plants South China Botanical Garden at Guangzhou, the Xishuangbanna Botanical Garden of Tropical Plants and the Xiamen Botanic Garden, but in developed country, developed countries, many have closed for lack of financial support, this being especially true of botanical gardens attached to universities. Botanical gardens have always responded to the interests and values of the day. If a single function were to be chosen from the early literature on botanical gardens, it would be their scientific endeavour and, flowing from this, their instructional value. In their formative years, botanical gardens were gardens for physicians and botanists, but then they progressively became more associated with ornamental horticulture and the needs of the general public. The scientific reputation of a botanical garden is now judged by the publications coming out of herbaria and similar facilities, not by its living collections. The interest in economic plants now has less relevance, and the concern with plant classification systems has all but disappeared, while a fascination with the curious, beautiful and new seems unlikely to diminish. In recent times, the focus has been on creating an awareness of the threat to the Human impact on the environment, Earth's ecosystems from human populations and its consequent need for biological and physical resources. Botanical gardens provide an excellent medium for communication between the world of botanical science and the general public. Education programs can help the public develop greater environmental awareness by understanding the meaning and importance of ideas like conservation and sustainability.


Photo gallery

File:Botaniska trädgården Lund - 2007.jpg, Interior of a greenhouse in The Botanic garden in Lund / Sweden 2007. File:Missouri Botanical Garden - Seiwa-en.JPG, Seiwa-en Japanese Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden, USA File:US botanic garden 2.jpg, Inside the United States Botanic Garden
Washington, D.C. File:Kew Palm House.JPG, Inside Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Kew Gardens Palm House, London, England File:Real_Jard%C3%ADn_Bot%C3%A1nico_(Madrid)_07.jpg, Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid, Madrid, Spain File:Ducks danielaucoin nb botanicalgarden.jpg, The New Brunswick Botanical Garden, Canada File:Aswan, Kitchener's Island, palm alley, Egypt, Oct 2004.jpg, A botanical garden of Kitchener's Island, Aswan, Egypt File:UBC Botanical Garden water.jpg, UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research, University of British Columbia Botanical Garden, Canada File:Jardim Botânico de Coimbra2.jpg, Inside the Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra, Portugal File:Leubotanicalgardens.jpg, The Harry P. Leu Gardens in Orlando, Florida, USA File:Palmhouse.jpg, The Palm House, Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh, Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, Scotland File:Kirstenbosch - View from the Botanical Gardens.jpg, Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, South Africa File:Sunken Garden.jpg, Butchart Gardens, British Columbia, Canada File:Brassaiopsis au Jardin Jungle Karlostachys.jpg, a wild and exotic botanical garden, Le Jardin Jungle Karlostachys, France File:Buenos Aires Entrada al Jardin Botanico Carlos Thays.jpg, Buenos Aires Botanical Garden, Argentina File:Antarctic Garden Hobart BG.jpg, Antarctic Garden, Hobart Botanical Garden, Tasmania, Australia File:Tartu, botanická zahrada.jpeg, Main building of the University of Tartu Botanical Gardens, Estonia


See also

* Herb farm * List of botanical gardens * List of botanical gardens in Canada * List of botanical gardens in the United States * List of botanical gardens in the United Kingdom * Plant collecting * PlantCollections (a database) * National Public Gardens Day * Botanical and horticultural library * List of botanical gardens in Australia


Footnotes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Klemun, Marianne
''The Botanical Garden''EGO - European History Online
Mainz
Institute of European History
2019, retrieved: March 8, 2021
pdf
. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Botanical Garden Botanical gardens,