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The Black Power movement was a social movement motivated by a desire for safety and self-sufficiency that was not available inside redlined African American neighborhoods. Black Power activists founded black-owned bookstores, food cooperatives, farms, media,
printing presses A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, Sol (colloid), sol, or Solution (chemistry), solution that contains at least one colourant, such as a dye or pigment, and is used to color a surface to ...
, schools, clinics and ambulance services. The international impact of the movement includes the
Black Power Revolution The Black Power Revolution, also known as the "Black Power Movement", 1970 Revolution, Black Power Uprising and February Revolution, was an attempt by a number of social elements, people and interest groups in Trinidad and Tobago Trinid ...
in
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean C ...

Trinidad and Tobago
. By the late 1960s, Black Power came to represent the demand for more immediate violent action to counter American white supremacy. Most of these ideas were influenced by
Malcolm X Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965) was an African-American Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God O ...
's criticism of
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or part ...
's peaceful protest methods. The 1965
assassination of Malcolm X Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965) was an African-American Islam in the United States, Muslim minister and human rights activists, human rights activist who was a prominent figure during the civil rights moveme ...
, coupled with the urban riots of 1964 and 1965, ignited the movement. New organizations that supported Black Power philosophies ranging from
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
to
black nationalism Black nationalism is a type of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many ...
, including the
Black Panther Party The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a Black Power Black Power is a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan i ...
(BPP), grew to prominence. While black American thinkers such as
Robert F. Williams Robert Franklin Williams (February 26, 1925 – October 15, 1996) was an American civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' political freedom, freedom from infringement by governments, social ...

Robert F. Williams
and
Malcolm X Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965) was an African-American Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God O ...
influenced the early Black Power movement, the
Black Panther Party The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a Black Power Black Power is a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan i ...
and its views are widely seen as the cornerstone. It was influenced by philosophies such as
pan-Africanism Pan-Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all indigenous and diaspora ethnic groups of African descent. Based on a common goal dating back to the Atlantic slave trade The Atla ...
,
black nationalism Black nationalism is a type of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many ...
and
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
, as well as contemporary events including the
Cuban Revolution The Cuban Revolution ( es, Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (; ; 13 August 1926 – 25 November 2016) was a Cuban revolutionary, lawyer, and politician who was the leader of ...
and the
decolonization of Africa Decolonization (American English, American and Oxford English) or decolonisation (other British English) is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination of foreign territories, ...
.


History


Origins

The first popular use of the term "Black Power" as a social and racial slogan was by
Stokely Carmichael Kwame Ture (; born Stokely Standiford Churchill Carmichael; June 29, 1941November 15, 1998) was a prominent organizer in the civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of Ameri ...
(later known as Kwame Ture) and Willie Ricks (later known as Mukasa Dada), both organizers and spokespeople for the
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, often pronounced ) was the principal channel of student commitment in the United States to the civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States T ...
. On June 16, 1966, in a speech in
Greenwood, Mississippi Greenwood is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Townsh ...
, during the
March Against Fear The March Against Fear was a major 1966 demonstration in the Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. ...
, Carmichael led the marchers in a chant for black power that was televised nationally. The organization
Nation of Islam The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization which was founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A Black nationalism, black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African dia ...
began as a
black nationalist Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
movement in the 1930s, inspiring later groups.
Malcolm X Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965) was an African-American Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God O ...
is largely credited with the group's dramatic increase in membership between the early 1950s and early 1960s (from 500 to 25,000 by one estimate; from 1,200 to 50,000 or 75,000 by another). In March 1964, Malcolm X left the Nation due to disagreements with
Elijah Muhammad Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975) was an American religious leader, black separatist Black separatism is a separatist Separatism is the advocacy of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, ...
; among other things, he cited his interest in working with other civil rights leaders, saying that Muhammad had prevented him from doing so. Later, Malcolm X also said Muhammad had engaged in extramarital affairs with young Nation secretariesa serious violation of the group's teachings. On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was shot and killed while speaking at the
Audubon Ballroom The Audubon Theatre and Ballroom, generally referred to as the Audubon Ballroom, was a theatre and ballroom located at 3940 Broadway (Manhattan), Broadway at 165th Street (Manhattan), West 165th Street in the Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washin ...
in
Washington HeightsWashington Heights may refer to: Places ;Japan *Washington Heights (Tokyo), a former US Army barracks and housing area during the occupation of Japan ;United States *Washington Heights, Chicago, Illinois *Washington Heights, New Jersey, Washingto ...
, New York City. Three Nation members were convicted of assassinating him. Despite this, there has long been speculation and suspicion of government involvement. The forty police officers at the scene were instructed to "stand down" by their commanding officers while the shooting took place. After the
Watts riots #REDIRECT Watts riots#REDIRECT Watts riots The Watts riots, sometimes referred to as the Watts Rebellion or Watts Uprising, took place in the Watts neighborhood and its surrounding areas of Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; ...
in
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
in 1965, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee decided to cut ties with the mainstream civil rights movement. They argued that blacks needed to build power of their own, rather than seek accommodations from the power structure in place. SNCC migrated from a philosophy of nonviolence to one of greater militancy after the mid-1960s. The organization established ties with radical groups such as the
Students for a Democratic Society Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a national student activist File:Shimer College dialogue transparency 2010.jpg, Shimer College students protesting threatened changes to the school's democratic education, democratic governance, 2 ...
. In late October 1966, Huey P. Newton and
Bobby Seale Robert George Seale (born October 22, 1936) is an American political activist and author. In 1966, he co-founded the Black Panther Party with fellow activist Huey P. Newton. Founded as the "Black Panther Party for Self-Defense", the Party's mai ...

Bobby Seale
founded the Black Panther Party. In formulating a new politics, they drew on their experiences working with a variety of Black Power organizations.


Escalation in the late 1960s

The Black Panther Party initially utilized open-carry gun laws to protect party members and local black communities from law enforcement. Party members also recorded incidents of police brutality by distantly following police cars around neighborhoods. Numbers grew slightly starting in February 1967, when the party provided an armed escort at the
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
airport for
Betty Shabazz Betty Shabazz (born Betty Dean Sanders; May 28, 1934 – June 23, 1997), also known as Betty X, was an American educator and civil rights advocate. She was married to Malcolm X. Shabazz grew up in Detroit (strait) , nicknam ...

Betty Shabazz
, Malcolm X's widow and keynote speaker at a conference held in his honor. By 1967, the SNCC began to fall apart due to policy disputes in its leadership, and many members left for the Black Panthers. Throughout 1967, the Panthers staged rallies and disrupted the California State Assembly with armed marchers. In late 1967 the
FBI The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, cre ...

FBI
developed
COINTELPRO COINTELPRO (syllabic abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, k ...
to investigate black nationalist groups and others. By 1969, the Black Panthers and their allies had become primary COINTELPRO targets, singled out in 233 of the 295 authorized "black nationalist" COINTELPRO actions. In 1968, the
Republic of New Afrika The Republic of New Afrika (RNA), founded in 1968 as the Republic of New Africa (RNA), is a black nationalist Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absor ...

Republic of New Afrika
was founded, a separatist group seeking a black country in the southern United States, only to dissolve by the early 1970s. By 1968, many Black Panther leaders had been arrested, including founder Huey Newton for the murder of a police officer (Newton's prosecution was eventually dismissed), yet membership surged. Black Panthers later engaged the police in a firefight in a Los Angeles gas station. In the same year, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated, creating nationwide riots, the widest wave of social unrest since the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
. In
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North ...

Cleveland
, Ohio, the "Republic of New Libya" engaged the police in the Glenville shootout, which was followed by rioting. The year also marked the start of the
White Panther Party The White Panthers were an anti-racist Anti-racism refers to a form of action against racial hatred, bias, systemic racism Institutional racism, also known as systemic racism, is a form of racism that is embedded through laws within societ ...
, a group of whites dedicated to the cause of the Black Panthers. Founders
Pun Plamondon Lawrence "Pun" Plamondon (born April 27, 1945) is a former 1960s left-wing Left-wing politics support social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society A society is a Social ...
and John Sinclair were arrested, but eventually freed, in connection to the bombing of a
Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as the Agency and the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. fed ...
office in
Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge ...

Ann Arbor, Michigan
that September. By 1969, the Black Panthers began purging members due to fear of law enforcement infiltration, engaged in multiple gunfights with police and one with a black nationalist organization. The Panthers continued their "Free Huey" campaign internationally. In the spirit of rising militancy, the
League of Revolutionary Black WorkersThe League of Revolutionary Black Workers (LRBW) formed in 1969 in Detroit, Michigan. The League united a number of different Revolutionary Union Movements (RUMs) that were growing rapidly across the auto industry and other industrial sectors—indu ...
was formed in Detroit, which supported
labor rights Labor rights or workers' rights are both legal rights Natural rights and legal rights are two types of rights. * Natural rights are those that are not dependent on the laws or customs of any particular culture or government, and so are ''u ...
and black liberation.


Peak in the early 1970s

In 1970 the Honorary Prime Minister of the Black Panther Party, Stokely Carmichael, traveled to various countries to discuss methods to resist "
American imperialism American imperialism consists of policies aimed at extending the political, economic and cultural influence of the United States over areas beyond its boundaries. Depending on the commentator, it may include military conquest, gunboat diplomacy ...
". In Trinidad, the black power movement had escalated into the
Black Power Revolution The Black Power Revolution, also known as the "Black Power Movement", 1970 Revolution, Black Power Uprising and February Revolution, was an attempt by a number of social elements, people and interest groups in Trinidad and Tobago Trinid ...
in which many Afro-Trinidadians forced the government of Trinidad to give into reforms. Later many Panthers visited Algeria to discuss
Pan-Africanism Pan-Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all indigenous and diaspora ethnic groups of African descent. Based on a common goal dating back to the Atlantic slave trade The Atla ...
and anti-imperialism. In the same year former Black Panthers formed the
Black Liberation Army The Black Liberation Army (BLA) was an Clandestine cell system, underground Black Power revolutionary organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed of Black Panther Party, Black Panthers (BPP) and Republic of New A ...
to continue a violent revolution rather than the party's new reform movements. On October 22, 1970, the Black Liberation Army is believed to have planted a bomb in St. Brendan's Church in San Francisco while it was full of mourners attending the funeral of San Francisco police officer Harold Hamilton, who had been killed in the line of duty while responding to a
bank robbery Bank robbery is the crime of stealing money from a bank, specifically while bank employees and customers are subjected to force, violence, or a threat of violence. This refers to robbery of a bank Branch (banking), branch or Bank teller, telle ...
. The bomb was detonated, but no one in the church suffered serious injuries. In 1971, several Panther officials fled the U.S. due to police concerns. This was the only active year of the Black Revolutionary Assault Team, a group that bombed the New York South African
consular office A consul is an official representative of the government of one Sovereign state, state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, as well as to facilitate trade and friendship be ...
in protest of
apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

apartheid
. On September 20 it placed bombs at the UN Missions of Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) and the
Republic of Malawi A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
. In February 1971, ideological splits within the Black Panther Party between leaders Newton and
Eldridge Cleaver Leroy Eldridge Cleaver (August 31, 1935 – May 1, 1998) was an American writer and political activist who became an early leader of the Black Panther Party The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defens ...
led to two factions within the party; the conflict turned violent and four people were killed in a series of assassinations.Donald Cox, "Split in the Party", ''New Political Science'', Vol. 21, No. 2, 1999. On May 21, 1971, five Black Liberation Army members participated in the shootings of two New York City police officers, Joseph Piagentini and Waverly Jones. Those brought to trial for the shootings include Anthony Bottom (also known as Jalil Muntaqim), Albert Washington, Francisco Torres, Gabriel Torres, and Herman Bell. During the jail sentence of White Panther John Sinclair a "Free John" concert took place, including
John Lennon John Winston Ono Lennon (born John Winston Lennon; 9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, musician and peace activist A peace movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by ...
and
Stevie Wonder Stevland Hardaway Morris (born May 13, 1950), known professionally as Stevie Wonder, is an American singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. Wonder is credited as a pioneer and influence by musicians across a range of genres that inclu ...

Stevie Wonder
. Sinclair was released two days later. On August 29, three BLA members murdered San Francisco police sergeant John Victor Young at his police station. Two days later, the ''
San Francisco Chronicle The ''San Francisco Chronicle'' is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the , , and in . Although the exact boundaries ...
'' received a letter signed by the BLA claiming responsibility for the attack. Late in the year Huey Newton visited China for meetings on
Maoist Maoism, officially called Mao Zedong Thought () by the Chinese Communist Party The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's R ...
theory and anti-imperialism. Black Power icon George Jackson attempted to escape from prison in August, killing seven hostages only to be killed himself. Jackson's death triggered the
Attica Prison uprising The Attica Prison Uprising, also known as the Attica Prison rebellion or Attica Prison riot, occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica (town), New York, Attica, New York, United States, in 1971. Based upon prisoners' demands for bett ...
which was later ended in a bloody siege. On November 3, Officer James R. Greene of the
Atlanta Police Department The Atlanta Police Department (APD) is a law enforcement agency in the city of Atlanta, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, United States, U.S. The city shifted from its rural-based Marshal and Deputy Marshal model at the end of the 19th century. In 1 ...
was shot and killed in his patrol van at a gas station by
Black Liberation Army The Black Liberation Army (BLA) was an Clandestine cell system, underground Black Power revolutionary organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed of Black Panther Party, Black Panthers (BPP) and Republic of New A ...
members. 1972 was the year Newton shut down many Black Panther chapters and held a party meeting in
Oakland Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a ...

Oakland
, California. On January 27, the Black Liberation Army assassinated police officers Gregory Foster and Rocco Laurie in New York City. After the killings, a note sent to authorities portrayed the murders as a retaliation for the prisoner deaths during 1971 Attica prison riot. To date no arrests have been made. On July 31, five armed BLA members hijacked Delta Air Lines Flight 841, eventually collecting a ransom of $1 million and diverting the plane, after passengers were released, to Algeria. The authorities there seized the ransom but allowed the group to flee. Four were eventually caught by French authorities in Paris, where they were convicted of various crimes, but one – George Wright – remained a fugitive until September 26, 2011, when he was captured in Portugal. After being accused of murdering a prostitute in 1974, Huey Newton fled to Cuba.
Elaine Brown Elaine Brown (born March 2, 1943) is an American prison activist, writer, singer, and former Black Panther Party The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a Black Power political organization ...
became party leader and embarked on an election campaign.Perkins, Margo V. ''Autobiography As Activism: Three Black Women of the Sixties'', Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000, p. 5.


De-escalation in the late 1970s

In the late 1970s a rebel group named after the killed prisoner formed the . From March 1975 to December 1977, the Brigade robbed at least seven banks and detonated about 20 pipe bombs – mainly targeting government buildings, electric power facilities, Safeway stores, and companies accused of racism. In 1977, Newton returned from exile in Cuba. Shortly afterward, Elaine Brown resigned from the party and fled to Los Angeles. The Party fell apart, leaving only a few members.
MOVE Move may refer to: People *Daniil Move (born 1985), a Russian auto racing driver Brands and enterprises * Move (company), an online real estate company * Move (electronics store), a defunct Australian electronics retailer * Daihatsu Move Gove ...
developed in Philadelphia in 1972 as the "Christian Movement for Life", a communal living group based on Black Liberation principles. When police raided their house in 1978, a firefight broke out; during the shootout, one officer was killed, seven other police officers, five firefighters, three MOVE members, and three bystanders were also injured. In another high-profile incident of the
Black Liberation Army The Black Liberation Army (BLA) was an Clandestine cell system, underground Black Power revolutionary organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed of Black Panther Party, Black Panthers (BPP) and Republic of New A ...
,
Assata Shakur Assata Olugbala Shakur (born JoAnne Deborah Byron; July 16, 1947; married name, JoAnne Chesimard) is a former member of the Black Liberation Army The Black Liberation Army (BLA) was an Clandestine cell system, underground Black Power revol ...

Assata Shakur
, Zayd Shakur and
Sundiata Acoli Sundiata Acoli (born January 14, 1937,"Who is Sundiata Acoli?"
SundiataAcoli.org.
as Clark Edward Squire) is a f ...
were said to have opened fire on state troopers in New Jersey after being pulled over for a broken taillight. Zayd Shakur and state trooper Werner Foerster were both killed during the exchange. Following her capture, Assata Shakur was tried in six different criminal trials. According to Shakur, she was beaten and tortured during her incarceration in a number of different federal and state prisons. The charges ranged from kidnapping to assault and battery to bank robbery. Assata Shakur was found guilty of the murder of both Foerster and her companion Zayd Shakur, but escaped prison in 1979 and eventually fled to Cuba and received political asylum. Acoli was convicted of killing Foerster and sentenced to life in prison. In 1978 a group of Black Liberation Army and
Weather Underground The Weather Underground was a Far-left politics, radical left wing militant organization first active in 1969, founded on the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. Originally known as the Weathermen, the group wa ...
members formed the
May 19th Communist Organization The May 19th Communist Organization, also variously referred to as the May 19 Coalition, May 19 Communist Coalition, and various alternatives of M19CO, was a US-based organization formed by members of the Weather Underground Organization. The gr ...
, or M19CO. It also included members of the Black Panthers and the Republic of New Africa. In 1979 three M19CO members walked into the visitor's center at the
Clinton Correctional Facility for Women Edna Mahan Correctional Facility for Women (formerly the Clinton Correctional Facility for Women) is a prison facility for women of the state of New Jersey Department of Corrections, located in Union Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, Union T ...
near Clinton, New Jersey. They took two guards hostage and freed Shakur. Several months later M19CO arranged for the escape of , a member of Puerto Rican separatist group Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña from
Bellevue Hospital Bellevue Hospital (officially NYC Health + Hospitals/Bellevue and formerly known as Bellevue Hospital Center) is a hospital in New York City and the oldest public hospital in the United States. One of the largest hospitals in the United States b ...
in New York City, where he was recovering after a bomb he was building exploded in his hands.


Decline in the 1980s

Over the 1980s the Black Power movement continued despite a decline in its popularity and organization memberships. The Black Liberation Army was active in the US until at least 1981 when a Brinks truck robbery, conducted with support from former Weather Underground members
Kathy Boudin use both this parameter and , birth_date to display the person's date of birth, date of death, and age at death) --> , death_place = , death_cause = , body_discovered = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates ...
and David Gilbert, left a guard and two police officers dead. Boudin and Gilbert, along with several BLA members, were subsequently arrested. M19CO engaged in a bombing campaign in the 1980s. They targeted a series of government and commercial buildings, including the U.S. Senate. On November 3, 1984, two members of the M19CO,
Susan Rosenberg Susan Lisa Rosenberg (born October 5, 1955) is an American activist, writer, advocate for social justice and prisoners' rights. From the late 1970s into the mid-1980s, Rosenberg was active in the far-left revolutionary terrorist May 19th Communist ...
and Timothy Blunk, were arrested at a mini-warehouse they had rented in
Cherry Hill, New Jersey Cherry Hill is a Township (New Jersey), township within Camden County, New Jersey, Camden County, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 United States census, 2020 United States Census, the township had a population of 74,553, reflect ...
. Police recovered more than 100 blasting caps, nearly 200 sticks of dynamite, more than 100 cartridges of gel explosive, and 24 bags of blasting agent from the warehouse. The M19CO alliance's last bombing was on February 23, 1985, at the Policemen's Benevolent Association in New York City. MOVE had relocated to West Philadelphia after the earlier shootout. On May 13, 1985, the police, along with city manager Leo Brooks, arrived with arrest warrants and attempted to clear the MOVE building and arrest the indicted MOVE members. This led to an armed standoff with police, who lobbed
tear gas Tear gas, also known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin ''lacrima'' meaning "tears, tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace (spray), "mace" after an early commercial aerosol, is a chemical weapon that stimulates the ne ...
canisters at the building. MOVE members shot at the police, who returned fire with automatic weapons. The police then bombed the house, killing several adults and children, and causing a large fire that destroyed the better part of a city block. In 1989, well into the waning years of the movement, the
New Black Panther Party The New Black Panther Party (NBPP) is an American black nationalist organization founded in Dallas, Texas, in 1989. Despite its name, the NBPP is not an official successor to the Black Panther Party.
formed. In the same year on August 22, Huey P. Newton was fatally shot outside by 24-year-old
Black Guerilla Family The Black Guerilla Family (BGF, also known as the Black Family, the Black Vanguard, and Jamaa) is an African-American black power prison gang, prison and gang, street gang founded in 1966 by George Jackson (activist), George Jackson, George “Big ...
member Tyrone Robinson.


Characteristics


Education

The fifth point of the Black Panther Party's
Ten-Point Program Ten Point Program may refer to: * Ten-Point Program (Black Panther Party), a set of guidelines to the Black Panther Party * PLO's Ten Point Program, the 1974 plan accepted by the Palestinian National Council for the liberation of Palestinian terr ...
called for "education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present day society." This sentiment was echoed in many of the other Black Power organizations; the inadequacy of black education had earlier been remarked on by
W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ( ; February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist, socialist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, writer and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Boi ...
,
Marcus Garvey Marcus Mosiah Garvey Sr. (17 August 188710 June 1940) was a Jamaican political activist, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled. Etymology Rec ...

Marcus Garvey
, and
Carter G. Woodson Carter Godwin Woodson (December 19, 1875April 3, 1950) was an American historian, author, journalist, and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History The Association for the Study of African American Life ...
. With this backdrop, Stokely Carmichael brought political education into his work with SNCC in the rural South. This included get-out-the-vote campaigns and political literacy. Bobby Seale and Huey Newton used education to address the lack of identity in the black community. Seale had worked with youth in an after-school program before starting the Panthers. Through this new education and identity building, they believed they could empower black Americans to claim their freedom.


Media

Just as Black Power activists focused on community control of schools and politics, the movement took a major interest in creating and controlling its own media institutions. Most famously, the Black Panther Party produced the Black Panther newspaper, which proved to be one of the BPP's most influential tools for disseminating its message and recruiting new members. WAFR was launched in September 1971 as the first public, community-based black radio station. The Durham, North Carolina, station broadcast until 1976, but influenced later activist radio stations including WPFW in Washington, D.C. and WRFG in Atlanta.


Legacy

After the 1970s the Black Power movement saw a decline, but not an end. In the year 1998 the Black Radical Congress was founded, with debatable effects. The
Black Riders Liberation Party Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
was created by
Bloods The Bloods are a primarily African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person ...
and
Crips The Crips is an alliance of street gang, gangs which is based in the Coastal California, coastal regions of southern California. It was founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1969, mainly by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Once a sing ...
gang members as an attempt to recreate the Black Panther Party in 1996. The group has spread, creating chapters in cities across the United States, and frequently staging
paramilitary A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military A military, also known collectively as armed f ...
marches. During the
2008 presidential election2008 presidential election may refer to: * 2008 Armenian presidential election * 2008 Azerbaijani presidential election * 2008 People's Republic of China presidential election * 2008 Cypriot presidential election * 2008 Czech presidential election * ...
New Black Panther Party members were accused of voter intimidation at a polling station in a predominantly black,
Democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: Politics *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people ...
voting district of Philadelphia."Republicans Push For New Black Panther Hearing"
CBS News CBS News is the news division of the American television and radio service CBS. CBS News television programs include the ''CBS Evening News'', ''CBS Mornings'', news magazine programs ''CBS News Sunday Morning'', ''60 Minutes'', and ''48 Hour ...

CBS News
, July 27, 2010.
After the upsetting
shooting of Trayvon Martin On the night of February 26, 2012, in Sanford, Florida Sanford is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida Florida is a located in the region of the . Florida is bordered to the west by the , to the northwest by , ...
black power paramilitaries formed, including the Huey P. Newton Gun Club, African American Defense League, and the New Black Liberation Militia, all staging armed marches and military training. Some have compared the modern movement
Black Lives Matter Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a decentralized Decentralization or decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed or delegated away from ...

Black Lives Matter
to the Black Power movement, noting its similarities.


See also

*
Black mecca A black mecca, in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U ...
*
Black nationalism Black nationalism is a type of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many ...
*
Black Panther Party The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a Black Power Black Power is a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan i ...
*
Black supremacy Black supremacy or black supremacism is a racial supremacist belief which maintains that black people Black people is a racialized In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relation ...
*
Black separatism Black separatism is a separatist Separatism is the advocacy of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. As with secession, separatism conventionally refers to full political separat ...
*
Chicano Movement The Chicano Movement, also referred to as El Movimiento, was a social and political movement in the United States inspired by prior acts of resistance among people of Mexican descent, especially of Pachuco Pachucos are male members of a counterc ...
*History of the socialist movement in the United States *New Left *Black Arts Movement *Protests of 1968 *Red Power movement


References


Bibliography

* * Ogbar, Jeffrey O.G. ''Black Power: Radical Politics and African American Identity'' (2019)
excerpt and a text search


Further reading

* Brian Meeks, ''Radical Caribbean: From Black Power to Abu Bakr''. * James A. Geschwender. ''Class, Race, and Worker Insurgency: The League of Revolutionary Black Workers''. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977. * Austin, Curtis J. (2006). ''Up Against the Wall: Violence in the Making and Unmaking of the Black Panther Party''. University of Arkansas Press. * McLellan, Vin, and Paul Avery. ''The Voices of Guns: The Definitive and Dramatic Story of the Twenty-two-month Career of the Symbionese Liberation Army''. New York: Putnam, 1977.


External links


Media and the Movement: Journalism, Civil Rights and Black Power in the American South
{{1968 protests African-American culture African-American history Black Power Counterculture of the 1960s Guerrilla wars Social movements in the United States Rebellions in the United States