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In
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biol ...
, a biological interaction is the effect that a pair of
organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological ...

organism
s living together in a
community A community is a social unit The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term "unit of observation" in that the former refer ...
have on each other. They can be either of the same
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
(intraspecific interactions), or of different species (interspecific interactions). These effects may be short-term, like
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
and
predation Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical en ...

predation
, or long-term; both often strongly influence the
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
of the species involved. A long-term interaction is called a
symbiosis Symbiosis (from Ancient Greek, Greek , , "living together", from , , "together", and , bíōsis, "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different Organism, biological organisms, be it Mutualism (biolog ...

symbiosis
. Symbioses range from mutualism, beneficial to both partners, to
competition Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. The relationship itself may also be called "a ri ...
, harmful to both partners. Interactions can be indirect, through intermediaries such as shared resources or common enemies. This type of relationship can be shown by net effect based on individual effects on both organisms arising out of relationship. Several recent studies have suggested non-trophic species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualisms can be important determinants of food web structures. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize across ecosystems, and whether non-trophic interactions affect food webs randomly, or affect specific trophic levels or functional groups.


History

Although biological interactions, more or less individually, were studied earlier,
Edward Haskell Edward Fröhlich Haskell (August 24, 1906 – 1986) was a synergic scientist and integral thinker who dedicated his life to the unification of human knowledge into a single discipline. Biography Haskell was born in Phillipopolis, now Plovdiv Pl ...
(1949) gave a integrative approach to the thematic, proposing a classification of "co-actions", later adopted by biologists as "interactions". Close and long-term interactions are described as
symbiosis Symbiosis (from Ancient Greek, Greek , , "living together", from , , "together", and , bíōsis, "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different Organism, biological organisms, be it Mutualism (biolog ...

symbiosis
; symbioses that are mutually beneficial are called mutualistic.


Short-term interactions

Short-term interactions, including
predation Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical en ...

predation
and
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
, are extremely important in
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biol ...
and
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
. These are short-lived in terms of the duration of a single interaction: a predator kills and eats a prey; a pollinator transfers pollen from one flower to another; but they are extremely durable in terms of their influence on the evolution of both partners. As a result, the partners coevolve.


Predation

In predation, one organism, the predator, kills and eats another organism, its prey. Predators are adapted and often highly specialized for hunting, with acute senses such as
vision Vision or The Vision may refer to: Perception Optical perception * Visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment (biophysical), environment through photopic vision (daytime vision), color visio ...

vision
,
hearing Schematic diagram of the human ear Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive Sound, sounds through an organ, such as an ear, by detecting Vibration, vibrations as periodic changes in the pressure of a surrounding medium. Th ...

hearing
, or smell. Many predatory animals, both
vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an indiv ...
and
invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ''backbone'' or ''spine''), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the chordata, chordate subphylum vertebrate, Vertebra ...
, have sharp
claw A claw is a curved, pointed appendage found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniote Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον ''amnion'', "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", ...

claw
s or
jaw The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the , typically used for grasping and manipulating food. The term ''jaws'' is also broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving t ...

jaw
s to grip, kill, and cut up their prey. Other adaptations include stealth and
aggressive mimicry Aggressive mimicry is a form of mimicry In evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolution, evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, speciation) that produced the Biod ...
that improve hunting efficiency. Predation has a powerful selective effect on prey, causing them to develop
antipredator adaptation Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to thei ...
s such as
warning coloration Aposematism is the advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of cert ...
,
alarm call "Alarm Call" is a song recorded by Icelandic singer Björk Björk Guðmundsdóttir ( ; ; born 21 November 1965) is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, record producer, actress, and DJ. Over her four-decade career, she has developed an eclect ...
s and other signals,
camouflage Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or by disguising them as something else. Examples include the leopard The leopard (''Pan ...

camouflage
and defensive spines and chemicals. Predation has been a major driver of evolution since at least the
Cambrian The Cambrian Period ( ; sometimes symbolized Ꞓ) was the first geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These peri ...
period. Over the last several decades, microbiologists have discovered a number of fascinating microbes that survive by their ability to prey upon others. Several of the best examples are members of the genera ''Bdellovibrio, Vampirococcus,'' and ''Daptobacter.'' Bdellovibrios are active hunters that are vigorously motile, swimming about looking for susceptible Gram-negative bacterial prey. Upon sensing such a cell, a bdellovibrio cell swims faster until it collides with the prey cell. It then bores a hole through the outer membrane of its prey and enters the periplasmic space. As it grows, it forms a long filament that eventually forms septae and produces progeny bacteria. Lysis of the prey cell releases new bdellovibrio cells. Bdellovibrios will not attack mammalian cells, and Gram-negative prey bacteria have never been observed to acquire resistance to bdellovibrios. This has raised interest in the use of these bacteria as a "probiotic" to treat infected wounds. Although this has not yet been tried, one can imagine that with the rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens, such forms of treatments may be considered viable alternatives.


Pollination

In pollination, pollinators including
insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

insect
s (
entomophily covered with pollen Entomophily or insect pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen of plants, especially but not only of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diver ...
), some
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

bird
s ( ornithophily), and some
bat Bats are mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the po ...

bat
s, transfer
pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are microsporophytes of seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plant ...

pollen
from a male flower part to a female flower part, enabling
fertilisation Fertilisation or fertilization (see American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C -ize .28-isation.2C -ization.29, spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes ...

fertilisation
, in return for a reward of pollen or nectar. The partners have coevolved through geological time; in the case of insects and
flowering plants The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of land plants The Embryophyta () or land plants are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth. Embryophyta is a c ...
, the coevolution has continued for over 100 million years. Insect-pollinated flowers are
adapted In biology, adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their Fitness (biology), evolutionary fitness. Secondly, it is a state reached by the popula ...

adapted
with shaped structures, bright colours, patterns, scent, nectar, and sticky pollen to attract insects, guide them to pick up and deposit pollen, and reward them for the service. Pollinator insects like
bee Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the western honey bee, for producing honey. Bees are a monophyly, monophyletic lineage within the ...

bee
s are adapted to detect flowers by colour, pattern, and scent, to collect and transport pollen (such as with bristles shaped to form pollen baskets on their hind legs), and to collect and process nectar (in the case of
honey bee A honey bee (also spelled honeybee) is a eusocial flying insect within the genus ''Apis'' of the bee clade, all native to Eurasia. They are known for their construction of wiktionary:perennial, perennial Colony (biology), colonial nests from B ...

honey bee
s, making and storing
honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees and some other Bee, bees. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants (floral nectar) or from secretion ...

honey
). The adaptations on each side of the interaction match the adaptations on the other side, and have been shaped by
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
on their effectiveness of pollination.


Symbiosis: long-term interactions

The six possible types of
symbiosis Symbiosis (from Ancient Greek, Greek , , "living together", from , , "together", and , bíōsis, "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different Organism, biological organisms, be it Mutualism (biolog ...

symbiosis
are mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, neutralism, amensalism, and competition. These are distinguished by the degree of benefit or harm they cause to each partner.


Mutualism

Mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where species derive a mutual benefit, for example an increased
carrying capacity The carrying capacity of an Natural environment, environment is the maximum population size of a biological species that can be sustained by that specific environment, given the food, habitat, Drinking water, water, and other resources available. T ...
. Similar interactions within a species are known as
co-operation Cooperation (written as co-operation in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon E ...
. Mutualism may be classified in terms of the closeness of association, the closest being symbiosis, which is often confused with mutualism. One or both species involved in the interaction may be
obligate{{wiktionary, obligate As an adjective, obligate means "by necessity" (antonym '' facultative'') and is used mainly in biology in phrases such as: * Obligate aerobe 300px, Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tub ...
, meaning they cannot survive in the short or long term without the other species. Though mutualism has historically received less attention than other interactions such as predation,Begon, M., J.L. Harper and C.R. Townsend. 1996. ''Ecology: individuals, populations, and communities'', Third Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. it is an important subject in ecology. Examples include
cleaning symbiosis Cleaning symbiosis is a mutually beneficial association between individuals of two species, where one (the cleaner) removes and eats parasites and other materials from the surface of the other (the client). Cleaning symbiosis is well-known among ...
,
gut flora Gut or guts may refer to: Anatomy * Abdomen, the region of the body below the thorax but above the pelvic region * Beer gut, slang for an obese stomach * Gastrointestinal tract, the system of digestive organs in humans and other animals * Hu ...
,
Müllerian mimicry Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon in which two or more well-defended species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversi ...
, and
nitrogen fixation Nitrogen fixation is a chemical process by which molecular (), with a strong triple , in the is converted into () or related nitrogenous compounds, typically in soil or aquatic systems but also . Atmospheric nitrogen is molecular , a relativel ...
by bacteria in the root nodules of
legumes A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can ...
.


Commensalism

Commensalism benefits one organism and the other organism is neither benefited nor harmed. It occurs when one organism takes benefits by interacting with another organism by which the host organism is not affected. A good example is a
remora The remora , sometimes called suckerfish, is any of a family (Echeneidae) of Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish in the order Carangiformes. Depending on species, they grow to long. Their distinctive first dorsal fins take the form of a modified ov ...

remora
living with a
manatee Manatees (family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideal ...

manatee
. Remoras feed on the manatee's faeces. The manatee is not affected by this interaction, as the remora does not deplete the manatee's resources.


Parasitism

Parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the
parasite Parasitism is a Symbiosis, close relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or inside another organism, the Host (biology), host, causing it some harm, and is adaptation (biology), adapted structurally to this w ...
, lives on or in another organism, the
host A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospitality during it. Host may also refer to: Places *Host, Pennsylvania, a village in Berks County People *Jim Host (born 1937), American businessman *Michel Host (19 ...
, causing it some harm, and is
adapted In biology, adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their Fitness (biology), evolutionary fitness. Secondly, it is a state reached by the popula ...
structurally to this way of life. The parasite either feeds on the host, or, in the case of intestinal parasites, consumes some of its food.


Neutralism

Neutralism (a term introduced by
Eugene Odum Eugene Pleasants Odum (September 17, 1913 – August 10, 2002) was an American biologist at the University of Georgia known for his pioneering work on ecosystem ecology. He and his brother Howard T. Odum wrote the popular ecology textbook, ''Fundam ...
) describes the relationship between two species that interact but do not affect each other. Examples of true neutralism are virtually impossible to prove; the term is in practice used to describe situations where interactions are negligible or insignificant.


Amensalism

Amensalism (a term introduced by Haskell) is an interaction where an organism inflicts harm to another organism without any costs or benefits received by itself. Amensalism describes the adverse effect that one organism has on another organism (figure 32.1). This is a unidirectional process based on the release of a specific compound by one organism that has a negative effect on another. A classic example of amensalism is the microbial production of antibiotics that can inhibit or kill other, susceptible microorganisms. A clear case of amensalism is where sheep or cattle trample grass. Whilst the presence of the grass causes negligible detrimental effects to the animal's hoof, the grass suffers from being crushed. Amensalism is often used to describe strongly asymmetrical competitive interactions, such as has been observed between the Spanish ibex and weevils of the genus ''Timarcha'' which feed upon the same type of shrub. Whilst the presence of the weevil has almost no influence on food availability, the presence of ibex has an enormous detrimental effect on weevil numbers, as they consume significant quantities of plant matter and incidentally ingest the weevils upon it. Amensalisms can be quite complex. Attine ants (ants belonging to a New World tribe) are able to take advantage of an interaction between an actinomycete and a parasitic fungus in the genus Escovopsis. This amensalistic relationship enables the ant to maintain a mutualism with members of another fungal genus, Leucocoprini. Amazingly, these ants cultivate a garden of Leucocoprini fungi for their own nourishment. To prevent the parasitic fungus Escovsis from decimating their fungal garden, the ants also promote the growth of an actinomycete of the genus Pseudonocardia, which produces an antimicrobial compound that inhibits thegrowth of the Escovopsis fungi.


Competition

Competition can be defined as an interaction between
organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological ...

organism
s or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another. Competition is often for a resource such as
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
,
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
, or
territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...
in limited supply, or for access to females for reproduction. Competition among members of the same species is known as
intraspecific competition Intraspecific competition is an interaction in population ecology, whereby members of the same species compete for limited resources. This leads to a reduction in Fitness (biology), fitness for both individuals, but the more fit individual survives ...
, while competition between individuals of different species is known as
interspecific competition Interspecific competition, in ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology ...
. According to the
competitive exclusion principle In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms ...
, species less suited to compete for resources should either or . According to
evolutionary theory Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the Gene expression, expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offs ...
, this competition within and between species for resources plays a critical role in
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
.


Non-trophic interactions

Some examples of non-trophic interactions are habitat modification, mutualism and competition for space. It has been suggested recently that non-trophic interactions can indirectly affect
food web A food web is the natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation of what-eats-what in an ecological community. Another name for food web is Consumer-resource systems, consumer-resource system. Ecologists can broadly lump a ...

food web
topology and
trophic dynamics A food web (or food cycle) is the natural interconnection of food chain The food chain in ecology is a chain of trophic relations. Food chain can refer to the food system, the complex economic and ecological systems that bring food to consumers ...

trophic dynamics
by affecting the species in the network and the strength of trophic links. Kefi S, Berlow EL, Wieters EA, Joppa LN, Wood SA, Brose U, et al. Network structure beyond food webs: mapping non-trophic and trophic interactions on Chilean rocky shores. Ecology. 2015;96(1):291–303. pmid:26236914.van der Zee EM, Angelini C, Govers LL, Christianen MJA, Altieri AH, van der Reijden KJ, et al. How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 2016;283(1826). pmid:26962135.Sanders D, Jones CG, Thébault E, Bouma TJ, Heide Tvd, Belzen Jv, et al. Integrating ecosystem engineering and food webs. Oikos. 2014;123(5):513–24. A number of recent theoretical studies have emphasized the need to integrate trophic and non-trophic interactions in ecological network analyses.Baiser B, Whitaker N, Ellison AM. Modeling foundation species in food webs. Ecosphere. 2013;4(12):1–14. The few empirical studies that address this suggest food web structures (network topologies) can be strongly influenced by species interactions outside the trophic network.Christianen MJA, van der Heide T, Holthuijsen SJ, van der Reijden KJ, Borst ACW, Olff H. Biodiversity and food web indicators of community recovery in intertidal shellfish reefs. Biological Conservation. 2017;213:317–24. However these studies include only a limited number of coastal systems, and it remains unclear to what extent these findings can be generalized. Whether non-trophic interactions typically affect specific species, trophic levels, or functional groups within the food web, or, alternatively, indiscriminately mediate species and their trophic interactions throughout the network has yet to be resolved. Some studies suggest sessile species with generally low trophic levels seem to benefit more than others from non-trophic facilitation, while other studies suggest facilitation benefits higher trophic and more mobile species as well.van der Zee EM, Tielens E, Holthuijsen S, Donadi S, Eriksson BK, van der Veer HW, et al. Habitat modification drives benthic trophic diversity in an intertidal soft-bottom ecosystem. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 2015;465:41–8.Angelini C, Silliman BR. Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree epiphyte system. Ecology. 2014;95(1):185–96. pmid:24649658 A 2018 study by Borst ''et al''. tested the general hypothesis that
foundation species In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Topics of interest include the biod ...
— spatially dominant habitat-structuring organisms Angelini C, Altieri AH, Silliman BR, Bertness MD. Interactions among foundation species and their consequences for community organization, biodiversity, and conservation. Bioscience. 2011;61(10):782–9. – modify food webs by enhancing their size as indicated by species number, and their complexity as indicated by link density, via facilitation of species, regardless of ecosystem type (see diagram). Additionally, they tested that any change in food web properties caused by foundation species occurs via random facilitation of species throughout the entire food web or via targeted facilitation of specific species that belong to certain
trophic level The trophic level of an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular int ...
s or functional groups. It was found that species at the base of the food web are less strongly, and carnivores are more strongly facilitated in foundation species' food webs than predicted based on random facilitation, resulting in a higher mean trophic level and a longer average chain length. This indicates foundation species strongly enhance food web complexity through non-trophic facilitation of species across the entire trophic network. Although foundation species are part of the food web like any other species (e.g. as prey or predator), numerous studies have shown that they strongly facilitate the associated community by creating new habitat and alleviating physical stress. This form of non-trophic facilitation by foundation species has been found to occur across a wide range of ecosystems and environmental conditions.Bruno JF, Stachowicz JJ, Bertness MD. Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 2003;18(3):119–25.Bertness MD, Callaway R. Positive interactions in communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 1994;9(5):191–3. In harsh coastal zones, corals, kelps, mussels, oysters, seagrasses, mangroves, and salt marsh plants facilitate organisms by attenuating currents and waves, providing aboveground structure for shelter and attachment, concentrating nutrients, and/or reducing desiccation stress during low tide exposure. In more benign systems, foundation species such as the trees in a forest, shrubs and grasses in savannahs, and macrophytes in freshwater systems, have also been found to play a major habitat-structuring role. Ultimately, all foundation species increase habitat complexity and availability, thereby partitioning and enhancing the niche space available to other species.Bulleri F, Bruno JF, Silliman BR, Stachowicz JJ. Facilitation and the niche: implications for coexistence, range shifts and ecosystem functioning. Functional Ecology. 2016;30(1):70–8.


See also

*
Altruism Altruism is the principle A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a s ...

Altruism
*
Animal sexual behaviour Animal sexual behaviour takes many different forms, including within the same species. Common mating or Reproduction, reproductively motivated systems include Monogamous pairing in animals, monogamy, Polygyny in animals, polygyny, Polyandry ...
*
Biological pump The biological pump, also known as the marine carbon pump, is, in its simplest form, the ocean's biologically driven sequestration of carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s availab ...
– interaction between marine animals and carbon forms *
Cheating (biology) Cheating is a term used in behavioral ecology Behavioral ecology, also spelled behavioural ecology, is the study of the evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, characteristics of biological populations ov ...
*
Collective animal behavior Collective animal behavior is a form of social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) is the Act ...
* Detritivory *
Epibiont An epibiont (from the Ancient Greek meaning "living on top of") is an organism that lives on the surface of another living organism. An epibiont is, by definition, harmless to its host. In this sense, the biological interaction, interaction betwee ...
*
Food chain A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web A food web is the natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation of what-eats-what in an ecological community. Another name for food web is Consumer-resource sy ...

Food chain
*
Kin selection Kin selection is the evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the Gene expression, expressions of genes that ...
* Microbial cooperation *
Microbial loop The microbial loop describes a trophic pathway where, in aquatic systems, dissolved organic carbon Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the fraction of organic carbon operationally defined as that which can pass through a filter with a pore siz ...

Microbial loop
*
Quorum sensingIn biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, De ...
*
Spite (game theory) In fair division problems, spite is a phenomenon that occurs when a player's value of an allocation decreases when one or more other players' valuation increases. Thus, other things being equal, a player exhibiting spite will prefer an allocatio ...
*
Swarm behaviour Swarm behaviour, or swarming, is a collective behaviour exhibited by entities, particularly animals, of similar size which aggregate together, perhaps milling about the same spot or perhaps moving ''en masse'' or migrating in some direction. I ...


Notes


References


Further reading

* Snow, B. K. & Snow, D. W. (1988). ''Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction''. Poyser, London {{DEFAULTSORT:Biological Interaction Ecology