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Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct
hominin The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae Homininae (), also called "African hominids" or "African apes", is a subfamily of Hominidae The Hominidae (), whose members are known as great apes or hominids (), are a t ...

hominin
ancestors, and related non-human
primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small Terrestrial animal, ...

primate
s, particularly from an evolutionary perspective. This subfield of
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
systematically studies
human beings Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

human beings
from a biological perspective.


Branches

As a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. All branches are united in their common orientation and/or application of evolutionary theory to understanding human biology and behavior. *
Bioarchaeology The term bioarchaeology was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology Zoo-archaeology (or archaeo-zoology), also known as faunal analysis, is a branch of archaeology Archaeology or archeol ...
is the study of past human cultures through examination of human remains recovered in an
archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote ...
context. The examined human remains usually are limited to bones but may include preserved soft tissue. Researchers in bioarchaeology combine the skill sets of
human osteology 125px, A endoskeleton.html"_;"title="human_skeleton_(endoskeleton">human_skeleton_(endoskeleton) Osteology,_derived_from_the_,_is_the_science.html" ;"title="endoskeleton).html" ;"title="endoskeleton.html" ;"title="human skeleton (endoskeleton">hu ...
,
paleopathology Looking at the individual roots of the word "Paleopathology" can give a basic definition of what it encompasses. "Paleo-" refers to "ancient, early, prehistoric, primitive, fossil." The suffix "-pathology" comes from the Latin ''pathologia'' meanin ...
, and
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...
, and often consider the cultural and mortuary context of the remains. *
Evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interacti ...
is the study of the
evolutionary processes
evolutionary processes
that produced the
diversity of life Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ...

diversity of life
on
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
, starting from a single common ancestor. These processes include
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
,
common descent Common descent is a concept in evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, c ...
, and
speciation Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species. The biologist Orator F. Cook coined the term in 1906 for cladogenesis, the splitting of lineages, as opposed to anagenesis, phyletic evolution within ...

speciation
. *
Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchan ...
is the study of psychological structures from a modern
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
ary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved
adaptation In , adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits s to their environment, enhancing their . Secondly, it is a state reached by the population during that process. Thirdly, it is a or adapti ...

adaptation
s – that is, the functional products of
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
or
sexual selection in human evolution Sexual selection in humans concerns the concept of sexual selection, introduced by Charles Darwin as an element of his theory of natural selection, as it affects humans. Sexual selection is a biological way one sex chooses a mate for the best re ...
. *
Forensic anthropology Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification o ...
is the application of the science of
physical anthropology Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homini ...
and human
osteology Osteology, derived from the , is the scientific study of bones, practised by osteologists. A subdiscipline of anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms ...
in a legal setting, most often in criminal cases where the victim's remains are in the advanced stages of
decomposition Decomposition is the process by which dead organic substance , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds co ...
. *
Human behavioral ecology Human behavioral ecology (HBE) or human evolutionary ecology applies the principles of evolutionary theory and Optimization (mathematics), optimization to the study of human behavioral and cultural diversity. HBE examines the adaptation, adaptive ...
is the study of behavioral adaptations (foraging, reproduction, ontogeny) from the evolutionary and ecologic perspectives (see
behavioral ecology Behavioral ecology, also spelled behavioural ecology, is the study of the evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from ...
). It focuses on human
adaptive Adaptation, in biology, is the process or trait by which organisms or population better match their environment Adaptation may also refer to: Arts * Adaptation (arts), a transfer of a work of art from one medium to another ** Film adaptation, a ...

adaptive
responses (physiological, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses. *
Human biology Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of academic study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies ...
is an interdisciplinary field of biology, biological anthropology,
nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism uses food to support its life. It includes ingestion, Absorption (biology), absorption, Assimilation (biology), assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. ...
and medicine, which concerns international, population-level perspectives on health,
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
,
anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It ...

anatomy
,
physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...
,
molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, P ...
,
neuroscience Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sens ...

neuroscience
, and
genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, ...

genetics
. *
Paleoanthropology Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of paleontology Paleontology (), also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene epoch ...
is the study of fossil evidence for
human evolution Human evolution is the evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual ...

human evolution
, mainly using remains from extinct hominin and other primate species to determine the morphological and behavioral changes in the human lineage, as well as the environment in which human evolution occurred. *
Paleopathology Paleopathology, also spelled palaeopathology, is the study of ancient diseases and injuries in organisms through the examination of fossils, Mummy, mummified tissue, skeletal remains, and analysis of coprolites. Specific sources in the study of an ...
is the study of disease in antiquity. This study focuses not only on pathogenic conditions observable in bones or mummified soft tissue, but also on nutritional disorders, variation in stature or
morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines *Morphology (archaeology) In archaeology, morphology is the study of the shape of Artifact (archaeology), artefacts and ecofacts. Morphology is a major consid ...
of bones over time, evidence of physical trauma, or evidence of occupationally derived biomechanic stress. *
Primatology Primatology is the scientific study of primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 mil ...
is the study of non-human primate behavior, morphology, and genetics. Primatologists use
phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...

phylogenetic
methods to infer which traits humans share with other primates and which are human-specific adaptations.


History


Origins

Biological Anthropology looks different today than it did even twenty years ago. The name is even relatively new, having been 'physical anthropology' for over a century, with some practitioners still applying that term. Biological anthropologists look back to the work of
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin (; ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that fu ...

Charles Darwin
as a major foundation for what they do today. However, if one traces the intellectual genealogy and the culture back to physical anthropology's beginnings—going further back than the existence of much of what we know now as the hominin fossil record—then history focuses in on the field's interest in human biological variation. Some editors, see below, have rooted the field even deeper than formal science. Attempts to study and classify human beings as living organisms date back to ancient Greece. The Greek philosopher
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
( 428– 347 BC) placed humans on the '' scala naturae'', which included all things, from inanimate objects at the bottom to deities at the top. This became the main system through which scholars thought about nature for the next roughly 2,000 years. Plato's student
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
( 384–322 BC) observed in his ''
History of Animals ''History of Animals'' ( grc-gre, Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, ''Ton peri ta zoia historion'', "Inquiries on Animals"; la, Historia Animalium, "History of Animals") is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Gr ...
'' that human beings are the only animals to walk upright and argued, in line with his
teleological Teleology (from and )Partridge, Eric. 1977''Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English'' London: Routledge, p. 4187. or finalityDubray, Charles. 2020 912 Year 912 ( CMXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will dis ...
view of nature, that humans have
buttocks The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the exterior anatomy of most mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European l ...

buttocks
and no tails in order to give them a cushy place to sit when they are tired of standing. He explained regional variations in human features as the result of different climates. He also wrote about
physiognomy Physiognomy (from the Greek Language, Greek , , meaning "nature", and , meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the practice of assessing a person's character or personality from their outer appearance—especially the face. The term can also refer ...

physiognomy
, an idea derived from writings in the
Hippocratic Corpus The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
.
Scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

Scientific
physical anthropology began in the 17th to 18th centuries with the study of
racial classification A race is a categorization of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct within a given society. The term was first used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote nation ...
(
Georgius Hornius Georgius Hornius (Georg Horn, 1620–1670) was a German historian and geographer, professor of history at Leiden University from 1653 until his death. Life He was born in Kemnath, Upper Palatinate (at the time part of the Electoral Palatinate ...
,
François Bernier François Bernier (25 September 162022 September 1688) was a French physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply do ...
,
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble social class, class. Currently only a few kingdoms still grant nob ...

Carl Linnaeus
,
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, Natural history, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist. He is considered to be a main founder of zoology and anthropology as comparative, scientific disc ...

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
). The first prominent physical anthropologist, the German physician
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, Natural history, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist. He is considered to be a main founder of zoology and anthropology as comparative, scientific disc ...

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
(1752–1840) of
Göttingen Göttingen (, , ; nds, Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consist ...
, amassed a large collection of human skulls (''Decas craniorum'', published during 1790–1828), from which he argued for the division of humankind into five major races (termed
Caucasian Caucasian may refer to: Anthropology *Anything from the Caucasus region **Peoples of the Caucasus, humans from the Caucasus region **Languages of the Caucasus, languages spoken in the Caucasus region ** ''Caucasian Exarchate'' (1917–1920), an ...
,
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...
, Aethiopian, Malayan and
American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or A ...
). In the 19th century, French physical anthropologists, led by
Paul Broca Pierre Paul Broca (, also , , ; 28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, ...

Paul Broca
(1824-1880), focused on
craniometry Craniometry is measurement of the cranium (the main part of the skull The skull is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific func ...
while the German tradition, led by
Rudolf Virchow Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (; or ; 13 October 18215 September 1902) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizen ...

Rudolf Virchow
(1821–1902), emphasized the influence of environment and disease upon the human body. In the 1830s and 1840s, physical anthropology was prominent in the debate about
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
, with the scientific, monogenist works of the British abolitionist
James Cowles Prichard James Cowles Prichard, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family ...

James Cowles Prichard
(1786–1848) opposing those of the American
polygenist Polygenism is a theory of human origins which posits the view that the human race (classification of humans), races are of different origins (''polygenesis''). This view is opposite to the idea of monogenism, which posits a single origin of human ...
Samuel George Morton Samuel George Morton (January 26, 1799 – May 15, 1851) was an American physician, natural scientist Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise tha ...
(1799–1851). In the late 19th century, German-American anthropologist
Franz Boas Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942) was a German-born American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and wide ...
(1858-1942) strongly impacted biological anthropology by emphasizing the influence of culture and experience on the human form. His research showed that head shape was malleable to environmental and nutritional factors rather than a stable "racial" trait. However, scientific racism still persisted in biological anthropology, with prominent figures such as
Earnest Hooton Earnest Albert Hooton (November 20, 1887 – May 3, 1954) was an American physical anthropology, physical anthropologist known for his work on racial classification and his popular writings such as the book ''Up From The Ape''. Hooton sat on the Co ...
and Aleš Hrdlička promoting theories of racial superiority and a European origin of modern humans.


"New Physical Anthropology"

In 1951
Sherwood Washburn Sherwood Larned Washburn ( – ), nicknamed "Sherry", was an American biological anthropology, physical anthropologist, and "a legend in the field." He was pioneer in the field of primatology, opening it to the study of primates in their natural ...
, a former student of Hooton, introduced a "new physical anthropology." He changed the focus from racial typology to concentrate upon the study of human evolution, moving away from classification towards evolutionary process. Anthropology expanded to include
paleoanthropology Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of paleontology Paleontology (), also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene epoch ...
and
primatology Primatology is the scientific study of primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 mil ...
. Haraway, D. (1988) “Remodelling the Human Way of Life: Sherwood Washburn and the New Physical Anthropology, 1950–1980”, in ''Bones, Bodies, Behavior: Essays on Biological Anthropology'', of the ''History of Anthropology'', v.5, G. Stocking, ed., Madison, Wisc., University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 205–259. The 20th century also saw the
modern synthesis Modern synthesis or modern evolutionary synthesis refers to several perspectives on evolutionary biology, namely: * Modern synthesis (20th century), the term coined by Julian Huxley in 1942 to denote the synthesis between Mendelian genetics and s ...
in biology: the reconciling of
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin (; ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that fu ...

Charles Darwin
’s theory of
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
and
Gregor Mendel Gregor Johann Mendel (; cs, Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a meteorologist, mathematician, biologist, AugustinianAugustinian may refer to: *Augustinians Augustinians are members of Christian religious orders th ...

Gregor Mendel
’s research on heredity. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of DNA and the development of
chronological dating Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology. This usually requires what is commonly known as a "da ...
methods opened doors to understanding human variation, both past and present, more accurately and in much greater detail.


Notable biological anthropologists

*
Zeresenay Alemseged Zeresenay "Zeray" Alemseged (born 4 June 1969) is an Ethiopian Ethiopians are the native inhabitants of Ethiopia, as well as the global diaspora of Ethiopia. Ethiopians constitute Ethiopians#Component Ethnicities, several component ethnic g ...
*
John Lawrence Angel John Lawrence Angel (1915–1986) was a British-American biological anthropologist Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, th ...
*
George J. Armelagos George J. Armelagos (May 22, 1936 – May 15, 2014) aker, BJ. and Armelagos, GJ. 1988. The Origin and Antiquity of Syphilis/ref> was an American anthropologist, and Goodrich C. White Professor of Anthropology at Emory University in Atlanta, Atlanta ...
*
William M. Bass William Marvin Bass III (born August 30, 1928) is an American forensic anthropologist, best known for his research on human osteology 125px, A human skeleton (endoskeleton) Osteology, derived from the , is the science, scientific study of bones ...
* Caroline Bond Day *
Jane E. Buikstra Jane Ellen Buikstra (born 1945) is an American anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, c ...
*
William Montague Cobb William Montague Cobb (1904–1990) was a board-certified physician and a physical anthropologist. As the first African-American Ph.D in anthropology, and the only one until after the Korean War,Harrison and Harrison, 1999. African-American Pio ...
* Carleton S. Coon * Robert Corruccini *
Raymond Dart Raymond Arthur Dart (4 February 1893 – 22 November 1988) was an Australian anatomist Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, incl ...
*
Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt (April 10, 1892 – December 20, 1965) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens ...
* Linda Fedigan * A. Roberto Frisancho *
Jane Goodall Dame Jane Morris Goodall (; born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall on 3 April 1934), formerly Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is an English primatologist and anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Ant ...

Jane Goodall
*
Earnest Hooton Earnest Albert Hooton (November 20, 1887 – May 3, 1954) was an American physical anthropology, physical anthropologist known for his work on racial classification and his popular writings such as the book ''Up From The Ape''. Hooton sat on the Co ...
* Aleš Hrdlička *
Sarah Blaffer Hrdy Sarah Hrdy (née __NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name 300px, Firs ...
* Anténor Firmin *
Dian Fossey Dian Fossey (, January 16, 1932 – ) was an American primatologist and conservationist known for undertaking an extensive study of mountain gorilla The mountain gorilla (''Gorilla beringei beringei'') is one of the two subspecies I ...
* * Richard Lynch Garner *
Colin Groves Colin Peter Groves (24 June 1942 – 30 November 2017) was a British-Australian biologist and anthropologist. Groves was Professor of Biological Anthropology Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipl ...
*
Yohannes Haile-Selassie Yohannes Haile-Selassie Ambaye (born 23 February 1961) is an Ethiopian Paleoanthropology, paleoanthropologist. An authority on pre-''Homo sapiens'' hominids, he particularly focuses his attention on the East African Rift and Middle Awash valleys ...

Yohannes Haile-Selassie
* Ralph Holloway * William W. Howells *
Donald Johanson Donald Carl Johanson (born June 28, 1943) is an American paleoanthropologist. He is known for discovering, with Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb, the fossil of a female hominin australopithecine known as "Lucy (Australopithecus), Lucy" in the Afar ...
* Robert Jurmain *
Melvin Konner __NOTOC__ Melvin Joel Konner (born 1946) is an American anthropologist who is the Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Anthropology and of Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology at Emory University. He studied at Brooklyn College, CUNY (1966), where he ...
*
Louis Leakey Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (7 August 1903 – 1 October 1972) was a Kenyan-British paleoanthropologist Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of paleontology Paleontology, also spelled palaeontology or palæontology (), is the ...
*
Mary Leakey Mary Douglas Leakey, FBAFBA may refer to: * Federation of British Artists * Federal Bar Association * Fellow of the British Academy * Filsports Basketball Association * First Baptist Academy (Houston, Texas), United States * First Baptist Acade ...

Mary Leakey
*
Richard Leakey Richard Erskine Frere Leakey (19 December 1944 – 2 January 2022) was a Kenyan paleoanthropologist Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of paleontology Paleontology, also spelled palaeontology or palæontology (), is the s ...

Richard Leakey
* Frank B. Livingstone *
Owen Lovejoy Owen Lovejoy (January 6, 1811 – March 25, 1864) was an American lawyer, Congregational Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originat ...
* Jonathan M. Marks * *
Russell Mittermeier Russell Alan Mittermeier (born November 8, 1949) is a primate, primatologist and herpetology, herpetologist. He has written several books for both popular and scientist audiences, and has authored more than 300 scientific papers. Biography Russe ...

Russell Mittermeier
*
Desmond Morris Desmond John Morris FLS ''hon. caus.'' (born 24 January 1928) is an English zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Anim ...
* Douglas W. Owsley *
David Pilbeam David Pilbeam (born 21 November 1940 in Brighton Brighton () is a constituent part of the city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ...
*
Kathy Reichs Dr. Kathleen Joan Toelle Reichs (born July 7, 1948) is an American crime writer True crime is a nonfiction literary, podcast, and film genre in which the author examines an actual crime and details the actions of real people. The crimes most ...
*
Alice Roberts Alice May Roberts (born 19 May 1973)Twitter feed by Roberts
...
*
Pardis Sabeti Pardis Christine Sabeti ( fa, پردیس ثابتی) (born December 25, 1975 in Tehran, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian-American computational biologist, medical genetics, medical geneticist and Extended evolutionary synthesis, evolutionary geneticist ...
*
Robert Sapolsky Robert Morris Sapolsky (born April 6, 1957) is an American neuroendocrinology Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, ...

Robert Sapolsky
* Eugenie C. Scott *
Meredith Small Meredith Francesca Small (born 20 November 1950) is a Professor Emerita of Anthropology at Cornell University and popular science author. She was born in St. Louis, Missouri. She has been widely published in academic journals, and her research is ...
* Phillip V. Tobias *
Douglas H. Ubelaker Douglas H. Ubelaker (born 1946) is an American forensic anthropologist. He works as a curator for the Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers ...
*
Sherwood Washburn Sherwood Larned Washburn ( – ), nicknamed "Sherry", was an American biological anthropology, physical anthropologist, and "a legend in the field." He was pioneer in the field of primatology, opening it to the study of primates in their natural ...
* David Watts * Tim White (anthropologist), Tim White * Milford H. Wolpoff * Richard Wrangham * Teuku Jacob


See also

* Anthropometry, the measurement of the human individual * Biocultural anthropology * Ethology * Evolutionary anthropology *
Evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interacti ...
*
Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchan ...
* Human evolution * Paleontology *
Primatology Primatology is the scientific study of primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 mil ...
* Sociobiology


References


Further reading

* Michael A. Little and Kenneth A.R. Kennedy, eds. ''Histories of American Physical Anthropology in the Twentieth Century'', (Lexington Books; 2010); 259 pages; essays on the field from the late 19th to the late 20th century; topics include Sherwood L. Washburn (1911–2000) and the "new
physical anthropology Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homini ...
" * Brown, Ryan A and Armelagos, George
"Apportionment of Racial Diversity: A Review"
''Evolutionary Anthropology (journal), Evolutionary Anthropology'' 10:34–40 2001
Modern Human Variation: Models of Classification
* Redman, Samuel J. Bone Rooms: From Scientific Racism to Human Prehistory in Museums. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2016.


External links

* American Association of Physical Anthropologists]


British Association of Biological Anthropologists and Osteoarchaeologists

Human Biology Association

Canadian Association for Physical Anthropology


– Electronic articles published by the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History.


Journal of Anthropological Sciences
– free full text review articles available
Mapping Transdisciplinarity in Anthropology
pdf
Fundamental Theory of Human Sciences
ppt
American Journal of Human Biology

Human Biology, The International Journal of Population Genetics and Anthropology

Economics and Human Biology

Laboratory for Human Biology Research at Northwestern University

The Program in Human Biology at Stanford

Academic Genealogical Tree of Physical Anthropologists
{{DEFAULTSORT:Biological Anthropology Biological anthropology,