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A bind rune ( is, bandrún) is a
ligature Ligature may refer to: * Ligature (medicine), a piece of suture used to shut off a blood vessel or other anatomical structure ** Ligature (orthodontic), used in dentistry * Ligature (music), an element of musical notation used especially in the med ...
of two or more
runes Runes are the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet), a written element of an alphabet * Letterform, a typographic term for alphabetical letter shapes * Rehearsal letter in an orchestral s ...
. They are extremely rare in
Viking Age The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) was the period during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation o ...
inscriptions, but are common in earlier (
Proto-Norse Proto-Norse (also called Ancient Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Ancient Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Proto-Scandinavian and Proto-North Germanic) was an Indo-European languages, Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is tho ...
) and later (medieval) inscriptions.Enoksen, Lars Magnar (1998). ''Runor: historia, tydning, tolkning'', p. 84. Historiska Media, Falun. On some runestones, bind runes may have been ornamental and used to highlight the name of the carver.


Description

There are two types of bind runes. Normal bind runes are formed of two (or rarely three) adjacent runes which are joined together to form a single conjoined
glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the art and technique of typesetting, arr ...
, usually sharing a common vertical stroke (see ''Hadda'' example below). Another type of bind rune called a same-stave rune, which is common in Scandinavian runic inscriptions but does not occur at all in Anglo-Saxon runic inscriptions, is formed by several runic letters written sequentially along a long common stemline (see ''þ=r=u=t=a=ʀ= =þ=i=a=k=n'' example shown above). In the latter cases the long bind rune stemline may be incorporated into an image on the rune stone, for example as a ship's mast on runestones Sö 158 at Ärsta and Sö 352 in Linga,
Södermanland Södermanland ( or ), locally Sörmland, sometimes referred to under its Latin form ''Sudermannia'' or ''Sudermania'', is a Provinces of Sweden, historical province or ''landskap'' on the south eastern coast of Sweden. It borders Östergötland, ...

Södermanland
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
, or as the waves under a ship on DR 220 in Sønder Kirkeby,
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
.


Examples


Elder futhark

Examples found in
Elder Futhark The Elder Futhark (or Fuþark), also known as the Older Futhark, Old Futhark, or Germanic Futhark is the oldest form of the runic alphabets Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic ...
inscriptions include: * Stacked
Tiwaz rune The ''t''-rune Runes are the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood ...

Tiwaz rune
s:
Kylver Stone The Kylver stone, listed in the Rundata catalog as runic inscription G 88, is a Swedish runestone which dates from about 400 AD. It is notable for its listing of each of the runes in the Elder Futhark. Description The Kylver stone was found during ...
,
Seeland-II-C Seeland-II-C (Sjælland bracteate 2) is a Scandinavian bracteate from Zealand (Denmark), Zealand, Denmark, that has been dated to the Migration period (around 500 AD). The bracteate bears an Elder Futhark inscription which reads as: :''hariuha hait ...

Seeland-II-C
* Gebô runes combined with vowels:
Kragehul I Image:Kragehul.jpg, The Kragehul lance shaft. Drawn by Stephens in 1884.Kragehul I (Rundata, DR 196 U) is a migration period javelin, lance-shaft found on Funen, Denmark. It is now in the collection of the National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Den ...
* The syllable ''ing'' written as a ligature of
Isaz *Isaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a compan ...

Isaz
and
Ingwaz Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavi ...
(the so-called "lantern rune").


Anglo-Saxon Futhorc

Bind runes are not common in Anglo-Saxon inscriptions, but double ligatures do sometimes occur, and triple ligatures may rarely occur. The following are examples of bind-runes that have been identified in Anglo-Saxon runic inscriptions: * The word ' is written with a ligatured double (''dd'') on the Thornhill III rune-stone * The name ' is written with a ligatured double (''dd'') on the Derbyshire bone plate * The word ' is written with a ligatured and (''er'') on some Northumbrian
stycaThe styca (; . ''stycas'') was a small coin minted in pre-Viking Northumbria, originally in base silver and subsequently in a copper alloy. Production began in the 790s and continued until the 850s, though the coin remained in circulation until the V ...
s * The Latin word ' is written as ' with a ligatured and (''mæ'') on the Whitby comb * The inscription ' ("ring I am called") is written with a ligatured and (''ha'') on the Wheatley Hill finger-ring * The names of the evangelists, ''Mat(t) eus)'' and ''Marcus'' are both written with a ligatured and (''ma'') on
St Cuthbert's coffin What is usually referred to as St Cuthbert's coffin is a fragmentary oak coffin in Durham Cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of ...
* The name ' may be written with a triple ligatured , and (''der'') on the Thornhill III rune-stone (this reading is not certain) * The word ' is written with a ligatured and (''fa'') on the right side of the
Franks Casket The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood ...

Franks Casket
* Double ligatured runes (''er''), (''ha'') and (''dæ'') occur in the cryptic runic inscription on a silver knife mount at the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
* The word ''gægogæ'' on the
Undley bracteate The Undley bracteate is a 5th-century bracteate A bracteate (from the Latin ''bractea'', a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold medal worn as jewelry that was produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration ...
is written with ligatured and (''gæ'') and and (''go'') * A ligatured and (''nt'') occurs in the word ''glæstæpontol'' on a cryptic inscription on a silver ring from Bramham Moor in West Yorkshire * A triple ligature , and (''dmo'') occurs on a broken amulet found near Stratford-upon-Avon in 2006. This is the only known certain Anglo-Saxon triple bind rune. There is possibly a faint , (''ed'') bind rune on the reverse of the amulet * The name Ecgbeorht engraved on an armband from the
Galloway Hoard The Galloway Hoard, now in the National Museum of Scotland, is a hoard of more than 100 gold and silver objects from the Viking Age discovered in the historical county of Kirkcudbrightshire in Dumfries and Galloway in Scotland in September 2014. F ...

Galloway Hoard
is written ''eggbrect'' with ligatured and (''ec''), and the final (''t'') added above the final letter * The otherwise unattested Anglo-Saxon name Eadruf is inscribed on a gold Latin cross pendant, with ligatured and (''dr'') and probable ligatured and (''ea'')


Modern use

* The
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
logo merges the runes analogous to the modern
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
letters ''h'' and ''b''; () and (
Berkanan Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a com ...

Berkanan
) together, forming a bind rune. The two letters form the initials 'H B', alluding to the
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
king and
viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

viking
raider
Harald Bluetooth Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson ( non, Haraldr Gormsson; da, Harald Blåtand Gormsen, died c. 985/86) was a king of Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, . See also: The unity of the Real ...
, for whom Bluetooth was named. * The former logo of
Thor Steinar Thor Steinar is a Germany, German clothing brand manufactured by Thor Steinar Mediatex GmbH, a subsidiary of International Brands General Trading, a Dubai-based company. In Germany, the brand is considered closely associated to neo-Nazism by the ...
featured a combination of a () and a *sowilo rune . This logo caused controversy as the runes were so combined that a part of the logo became very similar to the insignia of the .


Gallery

Image:Rathulf.jpg, The a and the þ runes in ligature on the
Rök runestone The Rök runestone ( sv, Rökstenen; Ög 136) is one of the most famous runestone A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic Runes are the letter (alphabet), letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, whic ...
Image:Skibari.jpg, The s and k runes in ligature in the Old Norse word ' ("sailor") on the Tuna Runestone in
Småland Småland () is a historical province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivi ...

Småland
Image:Sønder Kirkby bindrune.jpg, A bind rune for the word ' on the Sønder Kirkeby Runestone in Denmark File:Bluetooth.svg,
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
logo (20th/21st-century bind rune of () and ()


See also

*
Cipher runes Cipher runes, or cryptic runes, are the cryptographical replacement of the letters of the runic alphabet Runes are the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental ...


References


External links


Nordic bind runes
{{Runes Runology