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Beef is the
culinary nameCulinary names, menu names, or kitchen names are names of foods used in the preparation or selling of food, as opposed to their names in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture ...
for
meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiratio ...

meat
from
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...

cattle
, particularly
skeletal muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are Organ (biology), organs of the vertebrate muscular system that are mostly attached by tendons to bones of the skeleton. The muscle cells of skeletal muscles are much longer than in the other ...

skeletal muscle
. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef is a source of
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
and
nutrients A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ta ...
. Most beef can be used as is by merely cutting into certain parts, such as roasts,
short ribs Short ribs are a cut of beef Beef is the culinary name for meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the domestication o ...
or
steak A steak is a meat generally sliced across the muscle fibers, potentially including a bone. It is normally grilling, grilled, though can also be Pan frying, pan-fried. Steak can also be cooked in sauce, such as in steak and kidney pie, or mi ...

steak
(
filet mignon Filet mignon (; ; ) is a cut of meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, shee ...
,
sirloin steak The sirloin steak is cut from the sirloin, the subprimal posterior to the short loin Short loin is the American name for a cut of beef that comes from the back of the cattle Cattle, or cows (female) and bulls (male), are the most common ...

sirloin steak
,
rump steak Rump steak is a of . The rump is the division between the leg and the chine cut right through the aitch bone. It may refer to: * A steak from the top half of an American-cut primal * A British- or Australian-cut from the rump , largely equiva ...

rump steak
,
rib steak A rib steak (known as côte de boeuf or tomahawk steak in the UK) is a beefsteak A beefsteak, often called just steak, is a flat cut of beef During butchering, beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat initially separated fr ...
,
rib eye steak The rib eye or ribeye (known as Scotch fillet in Australia and New Zealand) is a boneless rib steak from the Beef ribs, rib section. Description Ribeye steaks are mostly composed of the longissimus dorsi muscle but also contain the complexus ...
,
hanger steak Hanger or hangers may refer to: Hardware * Clothes hanger (top) and wooden (bottom) clothes hangers Image:Grucce.jpg, Various clothes hangers A clothes hanger, coat hanger, or coathanger, is a hanging device in the shape/contour of: * Human ...
, etc.), while other cuts are processed (
corned beef Corned beef, or salt beef in the British Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A terr ...

corned beef
or
beef jerky Jerky is lean trimmed meat that has been cut into strips and dried (dehydrated) to prevent Food spoilage, spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt to prevent bacteria growth before the meat has finished the dehydrating proc ...

beef jerky
). Trimmings, on the other hand, which are usually mixed with meat from older, leaner (therefore tougher) cattle, are
ground Ground may refer to: * Soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body ...

ground
,
minced Mincing is a food preparation technique in which food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such ...
or used in
sausage A sausage is a type of meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consum ...

sausage
s. The blood is used in some varieties called
blood sausage A blood sausage is a sausage A sausage is a type of meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few excep ...
. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and
offal Offal (), also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, is the Organ (anatomy), organs of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but usually excludes muscle. Offa ...

offal
, such as the
oxtail Oxtail (occasionally spelled ox tail or ox-tail) is the culinary nameCulinary names, menu names, or kitchen names are names of foods used in the preparation or selling of food, as opposed to their names in agriculture Agriculture is the ...

oxtail
,
liver The liver is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's t ...
,
tongue The tongue is a muscular organ (anatomy), organ in the mouth of a typical tetrapod. It manipulates food for mastication and swallowing as part of the digestive system, digestive process, and is the primary organ of taste. The tongue's upper surfa ...
,
tripe Tripe is a type of edible lining from the stomach The stomach is a muscular, in the of humans and many other animals, including several s. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital organ. In the digestive system the ...

tripe
from the
reticulum Reticulum is a small, faint constellation in the southern sky. Its name is Latin for a small net (device), net, or reticle—a net of crosshairs at the focus of a telescope eyepiece that is used to measure star positions. The constellation is be ...
or
rumen The rumen, also known as a paunch, is the largest stomach compartment in ruminants and the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals. The rumen's microbial favoring environment allows ...
,
gland In animals, a gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλά ...

gland
s (particularly the
pancreas The pancreas is an Organ (anatomy), organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity, abdomen behind the stomach and functions as a gland. The pancreas is a mixed or heterocrine ...

pancreas
and
thymus The thymus is a specialized primary Lymphatic system#Structure, lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, T cell, thymus cell lymphocytes or ''T cells'' mature. T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body ad ...

thymus
, referred to as
sweetbread Sweetbread is a culinary name for the thymus (also called throat, gullet, or neck sweetbread) or pancreas (also called stomach, belly or gut sweetbread), typically from calf (''ris de veau'') and lamb and mutton, lamb (''ris d'agneau''). The "hea ...
), the
heart The heart is a muscular MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use ...

heart
, the
brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tis ...

brain
(although forbidden where there is a danger of
bovine spongiform encephalopathy Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a neurodegenerative disease A neurodegenerative disease is caused by the progressive loss of structure or function of neuron A neuron or nerve cell is an membr ...
, BSE, commonly referred to as mad cow disease), the
kidney The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized ...

kidney
s, and the tender
testicle Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male or ...

testicle
s of the bull (known in the United States as ''calf fries'', ''prairie oysters'', or ''
Rocky Mountain oysters
Rocky Mountain oysters
''). Some
intestine The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, d ...

intestine
s are cooked and eaten as is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Meat from younger cows (calves) is called
veal Veal is the meat of calves Calves is a hamlet in Póvoa de Varzim Póvoa de Varzim (, ) is a Portugal, Portuguese city in Norte Region, Portugal, Northern Portugal and sub-region of Greater Porto, 30 km from its city centre. It sits ...

veal
. Beef from
steers
steers
and heifers is similar. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for
breeding Breeding is sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ...
varies. The meat from older bulls, because it is usually tougher, is frequently used for
minceMINCE is a text editor for microcomputers that run the CP/M operating system. Developed in BDS C by Mark of the Unicorn, it was bundled with computers from Kaypro and Morrow Designs, and the Epson QX-10. It was a subset of Emacs (MINCE stands for "MI ...
(known as
ground beef Ground beef, minced beef or beef mince is beef Beef is the culinary nameCulinary names, menu names, or kitchen names are names of foods used in the preparation or selling of food, as opposed to their names in agriculture Agriculture ...

ground beef
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on
grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, extent, or any other specific or geographic ...

grassland
s, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a
feedlot A feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in intensive animal farming In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which ...

feedlot
(or
concentrated animal feeding operation#REDIRECT Concentrated animal feeding operation In animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, animal fiber, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, ...
), where they are usually fed a ration of
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double albu ...

grain
, protein,
roughage Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzyme Digestive may refer to: Biology *Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insolub ...
and a vitamin/mineral preblend. Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after
pork Pork is the for the of the (''Sus scrofa domesticus''). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved; extends the of pork products. , , , ...

pork
and
poultry Poultry () are domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable ...

poultry
at 38% and 30% respectively.Raloff, Janet (31 May 2003)
Food for Thought: Global Food Trends
''Science News''.
In absolute numbers, the United States,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, and the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
are the world's three largest consumers of beef; Uruguay, however, has the highest beef and veal consumption per capita, followed by Argentina and Brazil. According to the data from
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
, the average Uruguayan ate over of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique, Ghana, and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita. In 2018, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
produced the most beef with 12.22 million tons, 9.9 million tons, and 6.46 million tons respectively. The top 3 beef exporting countries in 2019 were
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
(14.8% of total exports), the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
(13.4% of total exports), and
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
(12.6% of total exports). Beef production is also important to the
economies An economy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...
of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
,
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
,
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niam ...

Belarus
and
Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (), is the largest Sovereign state, country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and th ...

Nicaragua
. Beef production has a high
environmental impact Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment. Environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals, organizations and governments. Its ...
per gram of protein.


Etymology

The word ''beef'' is from the Latin ''bōs'', in contrast to ''cow'' which is from Middle English ''cou'' (both words have the same
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...

Indo-European
root '). After the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of thousands of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French ...
, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as '' nēat'', or '' cu'' for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called '' boef'' (ox) (Modern French '' bœuf'') by the French nobles — who did not often deal with the live animal — when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
origins) and their meat (with
Romanic
Romanic
origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry (also the less common goat/chevon). ''Beef'' is
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
with ''bovine'' through the
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
''bovīnus''. The rarely used plural form of beef is ''beeves''.


History

People have eaten the flesh of
bovine The biological subfamily In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared charact ...

bovine
s from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known
cave painting Cave paintings are a type of parietal art In archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthrop ...

cave painting
s, such as those of
Lascaux Lascaux ( , ; french: Grotte de Lascaux , "Lascaux Cave") is a network of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific respo ...

Lascaux
, show
aurochs The aurochs (''Bos primigenius'') ( or ), also known as urus or ure, is an extinct cattle species that was first described in 1827. With a shoulder height of up to in bulls and in cows, it was one of the largest herbivores in Holocene Europe ...

aurochs
in hunting scenes. People
domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that sec ...
cattle to provide ready access to beef,
milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, any ...

milk
, and
leather Leather is a strong, flexible and durable material obtained from the tanning Tanning may refer to: *Tanning (leather), treating animal skins to produce leather *Sun tanning, using the sun to darken pale skin **Indoor tanning, the use of arti ...

leather
. Cattle have been domesticated at least twice over the course of evolutionary history. The first domestication event occurred around 10,500 years ago with the evolution of ''Bos taurus''. The second was more recent, around 7,000 years ago, with the evolution of ''Bos indicus'' in the
Indus Valley The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including tw ...

Indus Valley
. There is a possible third domestication even 8,500 years ago, with a potential third species ''Bos africanus'' arising in
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
. Most
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...
originated in the
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% o ...
, with the exception of
bison hybrids
bison hybrids
, which originated in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
. Examples include the
Wagyū Wagyu (, ''Wa gyū'', "Japanese cattle") is any of the four List of Japanese cattle breeds, Japanese breeds of beef cattle. In several areas of Japan, Wagyu beef is shipped carrying area names. Some examples are Matsusaka beef, Kobe beef, Yone ...
from
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
Ankole-Watusi Bulls at the Living Desert Museum in California The Ankole-Watusi is a modern American list of cattle breeds, breed of domestic cattle. It derives from the Ankole (cattle), Ankole group of Sanga cattle breeds of central Africa. It is characteriz ...
from
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
, and longhorn
Zebu The zebu (; ''Bos indicus'' or ''Bos taurus indicus''), sometimes known in the plural as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic ra ...

Zebu
from the Indian subcontinent. It is unknown exactly when people started
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

cooking
beef. Cattle were widely used across the
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% o ...
as
draft animal A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to se ...
s (
oxen An ox () (plural oxen, ), also known as a bullock (in BrE British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial ...

oxen
), for milk, or specifically for human consumption. With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, resulting in
Chianina The Chianina () is an Italian breed A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having homogeneous appearance (phenotype), homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species. I ...

Chianina
and
Charolais cattle The Charolais () or Charolaise () is a French List of cattle breeds, breed of taurine cattle, taurine beef cattle. It originates in, and is named for, the Charolais (county), Charolais area surrounding Charolles, in the département of Saôn ...
, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey, Angus cattle, Angus, and Wagyū. Some breeds have been selected for both meat and milk production, such as the Brown Swiss (Braunvieh). In the United States, the growth of the beef business was largely due to expansion in the Southwest. Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, and later the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwestern United States, Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting primarily with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets.


World producers

Top 5 cattle and beef exporting countries (2016) Beef exports, including buffalo meat, in metric tons (2016) Top 10 cattle and beef producing countries (2009, 2010) Beef production (1000 Metric Tons CWE) (2009) National cattle herds (Per 1000 Head)


Farming of beef cattle

Beef cattle are raised and Cattle feeding, fed using a variety of methods, including
feedlot A feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in intensive animal farming In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which ...

feedlot
s, free range, ranching, backgrounding and intensive animal farming. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), commonly referred to as factory farms, are commonly used to meet the demand of beef production. CAFOs supply 70.4% of cows in the US market and 99% of all meat in the United States supply. Cattle CAFOs can also the source of E. coli contamination in the food supply. due to the prevalence of manure in CAFOs. These E. coli contaminations include one strain, E. coli O157:H7, which can be toxic to humans, because cattle typically hold this strain in their digestive system.


Cuts

Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat initially butchering. These are basic sections from which
steak A steak is a meat generally sliced across the muscle fibers, potentially including a bone. It is normally grilling, grilled, though can also be Pan frying, pan-fried. Steak can also be cooked in sauce, such as in steak and kidney pie, or mi ...

steak
s and other subdivisions are cut. The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from ''hoof and horn'' increases. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, and sometimes use the same name for a different cut; for example, the cut described as "brisket" in the United States is from a significantly different part of the carcass than British brisket.


Special beef designations


Breed- and origin-based designations

* Certified Angus Beef (CAB) in Canada and the United States is a specification-based, branded-beef program which was founded in 1978 by Angus cattle producers to increase demand for their breed of cattle, by promoting the impression that Angus cattle have consistent, high-quality beef with superior taste. The brand is owned by the American Angus Association and its 35,000 rancher members. The terms ''Angus Beef'' or ''Black Angus Beef'' are loosely and commonly misused or confused with CAB; this is especially common in the food service industry. The brand or name Certified Angus Beef cannot be legally used by an establishment that is not licensed to do so. In the UK the equivalent is Aberdeen Angus, marketed as higher quality and associated with stricter animal welfare rules. Notable for the herd being free of BSE during the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, BSE epidemic in the UK. Similar schemes are used elsewhere as in Certified Angus Beef in Ireland. * Certified Hereford Beef is beef certified to have come from Hereford cattle. * Kobe beef is pure Tajima-gyu breed bull that was born, raised, and slaughtered solely within the Hyogo prefecture. Very limited amounts of Kobe are exported. * The EU recognizes the following Protected Designation of Origin beef brands: ::Spain – Carne de Ávila, Carne de Cantabria, Carne de la Sierra de Guadarrama, Carne de Morucha de Salamanca, Carne de Vacuno del País o Euskal Okela, Ternera Galega :: France – Taureau de Camargue, Bœuf charolais du Bourbonnais, Bœuf de Chalosse, Bœuf du Maine (province), Maine ::Portugal – Carne Alentejana, Carne Arouquesa, Carne Barrosã, Cachena Cattle, Carne Cachena da Peneda, Carne da Charneca, Carne de Bovino Cruzado dos Lameiros do Barroso, Carne dos Azores, Açores, Carne Marinhoa, Carne Maronesa, Carne Mertolenga, Carne Mirandesa ::United Kingdom – Orkney Beef, Scotland, Scotch Beef, Wales, Welsh Beef ::Belgium – Belgian Blue


Process-based designations

Some certifications are based upon the way the cattle are treated, fed and/or slaughtered. * Grass-fed beef cattle have been raised exclusively on forage. Grain-fed beef cattle are raised primarily on forage, but are "finished" in a
feedlot A feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in intensive animal farming In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which ...

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. * Halal beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Islam, Muslim dietary laws. * Kashrut, Kosher beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Judaism, Jewish dietary laws. * Organic beef is produced without added hormones, pesticides, or other chemicals, though requirements for labeling it ''organic'' vary widely.


Output-based standards

Some standards are based upon the inspected quality of the meat after slaughter.


Beef grading

Countries regulate the marketing and sale of beef by observing criteria post-slaughter and classifying the observed quality of the meat. This classification, sometimes optional, can suggest a market demand for a particular animal's attributes and therefore the price owed to the producer.


Aging and tenderization

To improve meat tenderness, tenderness of beef, it is often aged (i.e., stored refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss. Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses. Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. After two to three days there are significant effects. The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness. Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins. Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelin or ficin) can be injected to augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor.


Cooking and preparation

These methods are applicable to all types of meat and some other foodstuffs.


Dry heat


Internal temperature

Beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a meat thermometer. Beef can be cooked using the sous-vide method, which cooks the entire steak to the same temperature, but when cooked using a method such as broiling or roasting it is typically cooked such that it has a "bulls eye" of doneness, with the least done (coolest) at the center and the most done (warmest) at the outside.


Frying

Meat can be cooked in boiling oil, typically by shallow frying, although deep frying may be used, often for meat enrobed with breadcrumbs as in milanesas or finger steaks. Larger pieces such as steaks may be cooked this way, or meat may be cut smaller as in stir frying, typically an Asian way of cooking: cooking oil with flavorings such as garlic, ginger and onions is put in a very hot wok. Then small pieces of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook more quickly, such as mixed vegetables. The dish is ready when the ingredients are 'just cooked'.


Moist heat

Moist heat cooking methods include braising, pot roasting, stewing and sous-vide. These techniques are often used for cuts of beef that are tougher, as these longer, lower-temperature cooking methods have time to dissolve connecting tissue which otherwise makes meat remain tough after cooking. * Stewing or simmering :simmering meat, whole or cut into bite-size pieces, in a water-based liquid with flavorings. This technique may be used as part of pressure cooking. * Braising :cooking meats, in a covered container, with small amounts of liquids (usually seasoned or flavored). Unlike stewing, braised meat is not fully immersed in liquid, and usually is browned before the oven step. * Sous-vide :Sous-vide, French for "under vacuum", is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unknown—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for other types of cooking. The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients and achieve very precise control of cooking. Although water is used in the method, only moisture in or added to the food bags is in contact with the food. Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just simmering, such as in stewing; higher temperatures make meat tougher by causing the proteins to contract. Since thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, (sous-vide) to (slow cooking), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to convert the tough collagen in connective tissue into gelatin through hydrolysis, with minimal toughening. With the adequate combination of temperature and cooking time, pathogens, such as bacteria will be killed, and pasteurization can be achieved. Because browning (Maillard reactions) can only occur at higher temperatures (above the boiling point of water), these moist techniques do not develop the flavors associated with browning. Meat will often undergo searing in a very hot pan, grilling or browning with a torch before moist cooking (though sometimes after). Thermostatically controlled methods, such as sous-vide, can also prevent overcooking by bringing the meat to the exact degree of doneness desired, and holding it at that temperature indefinitely. The combination of precise temperature control and long cooking duration makes it possible to be assured that pasteurization has been achieved, both on the surface and the interior of even very thick cuts of meat, which can not be assured with most other cooking techniques. (Although extremely long-duration cooking can break down the texture of the meat to an undesirable degree.) Beef can be cooked quickly at the table through several techniques. In hot pot cooking, such as shabu-shabu, very thinly sliced meat is cooked by the diners at the table by immersing it in a heated pot of water or stock with vegetables. In fondue bourguignonne, diners dip small pieces of beef into a pot of hot oil at the table. Both techniques typically feature accompanying flavorful sauces to complement the meat.


Raw beef

Steak tartare is a French cuisine, French dish made from finely chopped or ground (minced) raw meat (often beef). More accurately, it is scraped so as not to let even the slightest of the sinew fat get into the scraped meat. It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings such as fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg yolk. The Belgian cuisine, Belgian or Dutch dish ''Steak tartare, filet américain'' is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich. ''Kibbeh nayyeh'' is a similar Lebanese cuisine, Lebanese and Syrian cuisine, Syrian dish. And in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called ''tire siga'' or ''kitfo'' is eaten (upon availability). ''Carpaccio'' of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often, the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut. ''Yukhoe'' is a variety of ''hoe (dish), hoe'', raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces. The beef part used for ''yukhoe'' is tender
rump steak Rump steak is a of . The rump is the division between the leg and the chine cut right through the aitch bone. It may refer to: * A steak from the top half of an American-cut primal * A British- or Australian-cut from the rump , largely equiva ...

rump steak
. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of ''bae'' (Korean pear) are used. The beef is mostly topped with the yolk of a raw egg.


Cured, smoked, and dried beef

''Bresaola'' is an Drying (food), air-dried, salted beef that has been aged about two to three months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple, colour. It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region. Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring Switzerland. Chipped beef is an American industrially produced air-dried beef product, described by one of its manufacturers as being "similar to bresaola, but not as tasty." Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States. Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa. Pastrami is often made from beef; raw beef is Salt-cured meat, salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices, and Smoked meat, smoked. Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The corn in ''corned beef'' refers to the grains of coarse salts (known as corns) used to cure it. The term ''corned beef'' can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region. Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare. Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at Christmas in Ireland. It is a form of salt beef, cured with spices and Potassium nitrate, saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in Guinness or a similar stout (beer), stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after.Recipe for traditional dry spiced beef
– An Bord Bia
There are various other recipes for pickled beef. Sauerbraten is a German variant.


Religious and cultural prohibitions

Most Indic religions do not appreciate killing cows and eating Cow meat from the medieval period. In English usage, beef refers to both Cow and Buffalo meat but Hindutva prohibits Cow Beef known as ''Go-Maans'' in Sanskrit. In Hinduism, many of the gods like beef for consumption, especially that of a barren cow and ox. It was a tradition to kill cow for sacrifices, for guests as a respect known as "madhuparka" and consumption of the meat was considered good for having healthy babies (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad VI.4.18). Bovines have a sacred status in culture of India, India especially the cow, from the idealization due to their provision of sustenance for families. Bovines are generally considered to be integral to the landscape. However, they do not consider the cow to be a god. In Hinduism, the entire cosmic creation is considered to be sacred and are venerated like celestial bodies such as Sun, Moon to fig trees and rivers like Ganga river, Ganga, Saraswati river, Saraswati, etc. India as a developing country, many of its rural area economies depend upon cattle farming, hence they have been revered in the society. From vedic periods role of cattle, especially cows, as a source of milk, and dairy products, and their relative importance in transport services and farming like ploughing, row planting, ridging, and weeding made people to revere the importance of cow in their daily lives, and this rose with the advent of Jainism and Gupta Empire, Gupta period. In medieval India, Ranjit Singh, Maharaja Ranjit Singh issued proclamation on stopping cow slaughter as it is a sentimental issue. Lack of secular tolerance and caste politics has also given birth to Hindu extremist vigilante cow protection groups. Conflicts over cow slaughter often have sparked religious riots that have led to loss of human life and in an 1893 riot alone, more than 100 people were killed for the cause. A. N. Bose in ''Social and Rural Economy of Northern India'' says any taboo or the cow worship itself is a relatively recent development in India. The sacred white Cow is considered as the abode of crores of 33 type Hindu Deities. Products of Cow's milk like curd, butter, cheese, milk sweets are sold commercially and used in religious rituals. For religious reasons the ancient Egyptian priests also refrained from consuming beef. Buddhists and Sikhs are also against wrongful slaughtering of animals but they don't have a wrongful eating doctrine. In the Native Americans in the United States, Indigenous American tradition a white buffalo calf is considered sacred, they call it Pte Ska Win (White Buffalo Calf Woman). In ancient China, the killing of cattle and consumption of beef was prohibited, as they were valued for their role in agriculture. This custom is still followed by a small number of Chinese families across the world. During the season of Lent, Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox Christians and Catholic Church, Catholics periodically give up meat and poultry (and sometimes dairy products and eggs) as a religious act. Observant Jews and Islam, Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been Ritual slaughter#Jewish and Islamic ritual slaughter, slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws.


Legal prohibition


India

India is one of the biggest exporters of buffalo meat. Some states of India prohibit beef for religious and political reasons although Hindu religious scripts do not condemn the consumption of beef. However certain Hindu castes and sects continue to avoid beef from their Diet (nutrition), diets. Article 48 of the Constitution of India mandates the state may take steps for preserving and improving the bovine breeds, and prohibit the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle. Article 47 of the Constitution of India provides states must raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health as among its primary duties, based on this a reasonableness in slaughter of common cattle was instituted, if the animals ceased to be capable of breeding, providing milk, or serving as draught animals. The overall mismanagement of India's common cattle is dubbed in academic fields as "India's bovine burden." In 2017, a rule against the slaughter of
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...

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and the eating of beef was signed into law by presidential assent as a modified version of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. The original act, however, did permit the humane slaughter of animals for use as food. Existing meat export policy in India prohibits the export of beef (meat of cow, oxen and calf). Bone-in meat, a carcass, or half carcass of buffalo is also prohibited from export. Only the boneless meat of buffalo, meat of goat and sheep and birds is permitted for export. In 2017, India sought a total "beef ban" and Australian market analysts predicted that this would create market opportunities for leather traders and meat producers there and elsewhere. Their prediction estimated a twenty percent shortage of beef and a thirteen percent shortage of leather in the world market.


Nepal

The cow is the national animal of Nepal, and slaughter of cattle is prohibited by law.


Cuba

In 2003, Cuba banned cow slaughter due to severe shortage of milk and milk products.


Nutrition and health

Beef is a source of complete protein and it is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of Niacin, Vitamin B12, iron and zinc. Red meat is the most significant dietary source of carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb etc.), is a source of creatine. Creatine is converted to creatinine during cooking.


Health concerns

;Cancer Excessive consumption of red processed meat is known to increase the risk of bowel cancer and some other cancers. ;Cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease The Harvard School of Public Health recommends consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of saturated fat. Another study, however, from The Harvard School of Public Health appearing in Circulation (journal) found "consumption of processed meats, but not red meats, is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus." This finding tended to confirm an earlier meta-analysis of the nutritional effects of saturated fat in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which found "[P]rospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease. More data are needed to elucidate whether cardiovascular disease risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat." ;Dioxins Some cattle raised in the
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United States
feed on pastures fertilized with sewage sludge. Elevated Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, dioxins may be present in meat from these cattle.


Recalls

Ground beef has been subject to recalls in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, due to ''Escherichia coli'' (''E. coli'') contamination: * January 2011, One Great Burger expands recall. * February 2011, American Food Service, a Pico Rivera, Calif. establishment, is recalling approximately of fresh ground beef patties and other bulk packages of ground beef products that may be contaminated with ''E. coli'' O157:H7. * March 2011, beef recalled by Creekstone Farms Premium Beef due to ''E. coli'' concerns. * April 2011, National Beef Packaging recalled more than of ground beef due to ''E. coli'' contamination. * May 2011, Irish Hills Meat Company of Michigan, a Tipton, Mich., establishment is recalling approximately of ground beef products that may be contaminated with ''E. coli'' O157:H7. * September 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled of ground beef due to ''E. coli'' contamination. * December 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled of ground beef due to ''E. coli'' contamination. * January 2012, Hannaford Supermarkets recalled all ground beef with sell by dates 17 December 2011 or earlier. * September 2012, XL Foods recalled more than 1800 products believed to be contaminated with ''E. coli'' 0157:H7. The recalled products were produced at the company's plant in Brooks, Alberta, Canada; this was the largest recall of its kind in Canadian History.


Mad cow disease

In 1984, the use of meat and bone meal in cattle feed resulted in the world's first outbreak of
bovine spongiform encephalopathy Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a neurodegenerative disease A neurodegenerative disease is caused by the progressive loss of structure or function of neuron A neuron or nerve cell is an membr ...
(BSE or, colloquially, mad cow disease) in the United Kingdom. Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE: * In May 2003, after a cow with BSE was discovered in Alberta,
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Canada
, the American border was closed to live Canadian cattle, but was reopened in early 2005. * In June 2005, Dr. John Clifford, chief veterinary officer for the United States Department of Agriculture animal health inspection service, confirmed a fully domestic case of BSE in Texas. Clifford would not identify the ranch, calling that "privileged information." The 12-year-old animal was alive at the time when Oprah Winfrey raised concerns about cannibalistic feeding practices on her show which aired 16 April 1996. In 2010, the EU, through the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), proposed a roadmap to gradually lift the restrictions on the feed ban. EU Regulation No 999/2001 had outlined a complete ban on feeding mammal-based products to cattle. A regulation that modified Annex IV of 999/2001, was published in 2013 that allowed for certain milk, fish, eggs, and plant-fed farm animal products to be used.


Environmental impact

The consumption of beef poses numerous threats to the natural environment. Of all agricultural products, beef requires some of the most land and water, and its production results in the greatest amount of greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water pollution. Cattle populations occupy around 24% of all land on Earth, not including the large Field (agriculture), agricultural fields that are used to grow cattle feed. According to FAO, "Ranching-induced deforestation is one of the main causes of loss of some unique plant and animal species in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America as well as carbon release in the atmosphere." Beef is also the primary driver of deforestation in Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest, the Amazon, with around 80% of all converted land being used to rear cattle. 91% of Amazon land deforested since 1970 has been converted to cattle ranching. 41% of global deforestation from 2005 to 2013 has been attributed to the expansion of beef production. This is due to the higher ratio of net energy of gain to net energy of maintenance where metabolizable energy intake is higher.National Research Council. 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. National Academy Press. It takes seven pounds of feed to produce a pound of beef (live weight), compared to more than three pounds for a pound of pork and less than two pounds for a pound of chicken. Between 70 and 80% of all
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double albu ...

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produced in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
is used as cattle feed. However, assumptions about feed quality are implicit in such generalizations. For example, production of a pound of beef cattle live weight may require between 4 and 5 pounds of feed high in protein and metabolizable energy content, or more than 20 pounds of feed of much lower quality. A simple exchange of beef to soy beans (a common feed source for cattle) in Americans' diets would, according to one estimate, result in meeting between 46 and 74 percent of the reductions needed to meet the 2020 greenhouse gas emission goals of the United States as pledged in 2009. Australian scientists discovered that adding the seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis to a cow's diet can reduce methane by up to 99%, and reported a 3% seaweed diet resulted in an 80% reduction in methane. Some scientists claim that the demand for beef is contributing to Holocene extinction, significant biodiversity loss as it is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction; species-rich habitats, such as significant portions of the Amazon region, are being converted to agriculture for meat production. The 2019 IPBES ''Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services'' also concurs that the beef industry plays a significant role in biodiversity loss. Around 25% to nearly 40% of global land surface is being used for livestock farming, which is mostly cattle.


See also

* Argentine beef * Beef Australia * Beef hormone controversy * Bovine Meat and Milk Factors * Buffalo meat * Carnism * Entrecôte * Environmental impact of meat production * List of beef dishes * List of meat animals * Pink slime * Veal


References


External links

*
USDA beef grading standards
(PDF)
Beef State
Documentary produced by Nebraska Educational Telecommunications {{Authority control Beef, Cattle products Meat by animal